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THE 


JOURNAL 


OF  THB 


ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 

OF  LONDON. 


SDITEI)  BY 

FBOFESSOB  HUXLEY,  LL.D.,  F.ILS.,  PBisiDiirT  op  tbb  Socibtt. 
GEOROB  BUSK,  Esq.,  P.ILS.  i     COL.  A.  LANE  POX,  Hon.  Sic. 

SIB  J.  LUBBOCK,  Bt.,  M.P.,  F.B.S.  I     HYDE  CLARKE,  Esq.,  Fob.  Sbo. 


Sub-Editor,  P.  W.  BUBLEB,  Esq.,  F.a.S. 


NEW  SERIES. 

Vol.  II. 

SESSION  1860-70. 


LONDON: 
TEtJBNEB  &  CO.,  60  PATEBNOSTER  BOW. 


1870. 


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Printed  bj  Tatlob  and  Fraxcib,  B«d  Lion  Gonrt,  Fleet  Street 

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CONTENTS. 


Pige 

Proceedings  at  the  Annual  Meeting  ix 

President's  Anniyersaiy  Address    xvi 

last  of  Fellows zzr 


L  On  the  proposed  Exploration  of  Stonehenge  bj  a  Committee  of  the 
British  Association.    By  CoL  A.  Lane  Fox,  F.S. A.,  Hon.  Sec 1 

IL  On  the  Chinese  Race :  their  Language,  Gk>Temmenty  Social  Institu- 
aonB,  and  Religion.  Bj  C.  T.  Gasdnsb,  Esq.,  F.R.O.S.  (With 
Appendices.) 5 

m.  On  the  Races  and  Languages  of  Dardistan.  By  Dr.  G.  W.  Lext- 
MBB,  M.A.    (Abstract)    81 

IV.  On  Quartzite  Implements  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  By  Sir 
Gbobob  Gbby,  KCB.    (With  Plate  L) 89 

V.  Note  on  a  supposed  Stone  Implement  from  Co.  Widdow,  Ireland. 

By  F.  ACHBSON,  Esq.    (With  a  Woodcut.) 48 

VL  Note  on  the  Stature  of  American  Indians  of  the  Ohipewyan  Tribe. 

By  Major-General  LbfboY;  R.A.  44 

VII.  Report  on  the  present  State  and  Condition  of  Prehistoric  Remains 
in  the  Channel  Islands.  By  lieut  S.  P.  Olivbb,  R.A.,  F.R.G.S. 
(With  Plates  H  to  X.,  Woodcut,  two  Synoptical  Tables,  and  Ap- 
pendix.)     46 

VUL  Description  of  and  Remarks  upon  an  ancient  Calyaria  from  Chinai 
which  has  been  supposed  to  be  that  of  Confucius.  By  Gbobgb 
BuBB,  Esq.,  F.R.S.    (With  Plate  XI.) 78 

IX.  On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades,  from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nine- 
teenth Century. — Part  IH.  The  Comans  and  Petchenegs.      By 

H.  H.  HowoBTH,  Esq 88 

X.  On  the  Eitai  and  Kara-Eitai.    By  Dr.  QtmtkV  Ofpbbt d7 

XL  Note  on  the  Use  of  the  New-Zealand  Mere.    By  Col.  A.  Lane 

Fox,F.S.A.,  Hon.  Sec.    (With  Woodcuts.) 106 

Xn.  On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains  discovered  in  New  Zealand,  and 
on  the  Nature  of  the  Deposits  in  which  they  occurred.  By  Dr. 
Julius  Haast,  F.RS.    (With  Plates  XH.  and  Xm.) 110 

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IV  CONTENTS. 

Page 

XIII.  On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians  geologically  considered.  By 
James  Bonwick,  Esq.,  F.RG.S 121 

XIV.  On  a  Frontier-line  of  Ethnology  and  Geology.  By  H.  H.  Ho- 
woBTH,  Esq 131 

XV.  Notes  on  the  Nicobar  Islanders.  By  G.  M.  Atkinson,  Esq.  (With 
Plate  XIV.)   187 

XVI.  On  the  Discoyery  of  Flint  and  Chert  under  a  submerged  Forest  in 
West  Somerset  By  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 
F.G.S Ul 

XVII.  Report  on  Prehistoric  Remiuns  in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the 
Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.    By  the  Rev.  R.  J.  Maplston 146 

X  Vni.  Supplementary  Remarks  to  a  Note  on  an  Ancient  Chinese  Calva. 
By  Geobqb  Busk,  Esq.,  F.R.S 156 

XIX.  On  Discoveries  in  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire.  By  C.  Monk- 
man,  Esq.    (With  Plates  XV.  and  XVI.) 167 

XX.  On  the  Natives  of  Naga,  in  Luzon,  Philippine  Islands.  By  Dr. 
Jaoob 170 

XXI.  On  the  Koords.  By  Major  F.  Millinoen,  F.R.G.S.  (With  a 
Woodcut) 176 

XXn.  On  the  Westerly  Driftdng  of  Nomades,  from  the  Fifth  to  the 
Nineteenth  Century. — Part  IV.  The  Circassians  and  White  Eha- 
zars.    By  H.  H.  Howobth,  Esq 182 

XXTTT.  On  the  Aymaia  Indians  of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  By  David 
Fobbbs,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  &c.  (With  Plates  XVH.  to  XXITI. 
and  Appendices.) 193 

XXrV.  On  the  opening  of  two  Cairns  near  Bangor,  North  Wales. 
By  CoL  A.  Lanb  Fox,  F.S.A.,  Hon.  Sec.   (With  Plate  XXIV.) . .  806 

XXV.  On  the  Earliest  Phases  of  Civilization.  By  Hoddbb  M.  Wxst- 
Bopp,  Esq.    (Abstract.) 824 

XXVI.  On  Current  British  Mythology  and  Oral  Tradition.  By  J.  F. 
Caicfbbll,  Esq.,  of  Islay 825 

XXVn.  Note  on  a  Cist  with  Engrayed  Stones  on  the  Poltalloch  Estate, 
Argyllshire.    By  the  Rey.  R.  J.  Maplxton.    (With  Woodcuts.)    840 

XXVm.  On  the  Tribal  System  and  Land-Tenure  in  Ireland  under  the 
Brehon  Laws.    By  Hobdbb  M.  Wbstbopp,  Esq 842 

XXIX.  On  the  Danish  Element  in  the  Population  of  Cleveland,  York- 
shire.   By  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Atkinson 861 

XXX.  On  the  Brain  in  the  Study  of  Ethnology.  By  Dr.  C.  Donovan. 
(Abstract) 809 

XXXI.  The  Philosophy  of  Religion  among  the  Lower  Races  of  Alan- 
kind.    By  Edwabd  Bubnbtt  Ttlob,  Esq.,  Vice-President 869 

XXXIL  On  the  Ethnology  of  Britain.  By  Professor  T.  H.  Hitzlbt, 
LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President 882 


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CONTENTS.  V 

Page 
XXXTTT.  The  Influence  of  the  Nonnan  Conquest  on  the  Ethnology  of 
Britain.    By  Dr.  T.  Nicholas,  M-A.,  F.G.S.,  &c 884 

XXXIV.  Note  on  a  suppoeed  Ogham  Inscription,  from  Bus-Glass,  Co. 
Cork.    By  R  Caulfibld,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  F.S. A.  (With  Plate  XXV.)  400 

XXXV.  Notes  on  the  Discoveiy  of  Copper  Celts  at  ButtiTant,  Co.  Cork. 

By  J.  P.  Phaib,  Esq 402 

XXXVI.  On  the  Geographical  Distribution  of  the  Chief  Modifications 
of  Mankind.  By  Professor  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.RS.,  Presi- 
dent   (With  Chromo-lithographed  Map.) 404 

XXX VIL  On  the  threatened  Destruction  of  the  British  Earthworks 
near  Dorchester,  Oxfordshire.  By  Col.  A.  Lane  Fox,  Hon.  Sec. 
(With  Pkte  XXVI.)   412 

XXXVnL  Description  of  the  Park-Cwm  Tumulus.  By  Sir  John 
Lubbock,  Bart,  M.P.,  F.RS.,  &c.,  Vice-President  (With  Plate 
XXVn.) 416 

XXXIX.  On  the  Opening  of  Grime's  Grayes  in  Norfolk.  By  the  Rev. 
W.  Gebenwbll,  M.A.,  F.S.A.    (With  Plates  XXVni.  to  XXX.)  419 

XL.  On  the  discoveiy  of  Platycnemic  Men  in  Denbighshire.  By  W. 
Boyd  Dawkins,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.RS.,  and  Profc  Busk,  r.R.S.,  &c. 
(With  Plate  XXXL  and  Woodcuts.) 440 

yiX  On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades,  from  the  Fifth  to  the 
Nineteenth  Century.— Part  V.  The  Hungarians.  By  H.  H.  Ho- 
woBTH,  Esq. 469 

Rbvibw: — 

Mr.  BoirwiCK  on  the  Tasmanians 95 

Notes  and  Qubbibs  : — 

The  Veddas  of  Ceylon 96 

Georgian  and  Sontal 96 

"Water"  in  Georgian  and  Turkish    96 

The  Meneam  of  Livingstone 192 

Turkish'*  Know  "and*' Sow"   192 

Amazons :  the  Woman  Question 366 

Fugitives  from  Troy 367 

Alleged  connexion  of  Madagascar  and  Caffre  Languages    867 

Perpetuation  of  names  of  Natural  Objects  by  Translators 367 

"Khan"  and  "Bey"    368 

The  Phoenix 476 

Dorchester  Dykes 477, 479 

IlTOKX 483 


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Tl 


LIST  OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  &c. 


/Vofi<»mMM--<!nu^  Map  of  the  Worlds  showing  the  Dis- 
trioution  of  the  Chief  Mooifications  of  Mankind^  to  illustrate  IVo- 
fesBor  Hvzlbt's  Paper    404 

•pi  .   J  J  QnarUite  Implements  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  to  illus- 
^^^  ^  1        trate  Sir  QBOBaB  Gbby's  Paper    89 

^  I  "^ews  and  Plans  of  PrehistoTic  Monmnents  in  the  Channel 
^  f         Islands,  to  illustrate  Lieut  Gliveb'b  Report   45 

-^j  J  Ancient  Calyaria  from  China,  to  Ulnstrate  Professor  Busk's 
-^  ]        Paper 78 

ypf  ( Stone  Imnlements  from  New  Zealan^  with  Geological  Map 
1^^'  <        and  Section  of  Locality  in  which  they  were  found,  to 


^™-  I        illustrate  Dr.  HxAST'staper ' '. . .  110 

-v-rvT  )  Ohjects  from  the  Nicobar  Islands,  to  illustrate  Mr.  Atkin- 
^'^^'\        soN'sNotes    187 

XV.  I  Stone  Implements  from  Yorkshire,  and  Geological  Sections, 
XVI. )         to  illustrate  Mr.  Monkman's  Paper 167 


^^'  I  Aymaza  Indians,  and  Ohjecto  of  Ethnological 
2^2*y  r         trating  Mr.  David  f  obbbs's  Paper   . . . . 


Interest,  iUus- 


y  y  III     I  WObUlK  JUX.   A/AViXr  f  VIJU>  AO  O  JETapOX'       108 

TTTV  J  ^™  ^^  Stone  Lnplements  from  Moel  Faben,  North  Wales, 
^^^^'  ]        to  iDustiate  CoL  A.  Lane  Fox's  Paper 806 

XXV.    Scratched  Stones,  illustrating  Dr.  Cattlfibld's  Note 400 

vvvi   J  I^l^n  and  Sections  of  the  Dorchester  Dykes,  to  illustrate  CoL 
^^^^'\        Lamb  Fox's  Paper    412 

vvvir  JI^IbQ  of  the  Park-Cwm  Tumulus,  to  illustrate  Sir  John 
-"^^^  ]        Lubbock's  Paper 416 

XXVnL    Plan  of  Grime's  Graves,  and  Figures  of  Ohjects  found  therein 
to                 and  in  the  neighhourhooc^  to  illustrate  Canon  Gbbbn- 
XXX.     (        wbll's  Paper    419 

yy^i    I  Skulls  from  Denbighshire,  to  illustrate  Prol  Busk's  portion 

I        of  the  Paper  on  Platycnemie  Men  in  Denbighshire  ....  440 


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vu 


WOODCUTS. 


Page 

1.  Stone  Implement  found  below  the  Bed  of  a  Riyer  in  Go. Wieklow . .     48 

2.  Stone  from  Le  Oouperon  Cromlech,  Jexaej,  originally  a  Side-pxopi 
now  the  Fifth  Oap-etone 61 

8.  Mere  with  straight  cutting-edge  resembling  that  of  a  Celt     107 

4.  Mere  resembling  Celt 107 

6.  Mere  of  Typical  Form    107 

6.  Stone  Club  from  Ireland  resembling  a  Mere 107 

7.  Figure  showing  Method  of  using  the  South- Australian  Celt 109 

8.  Mere,  attributed  to  Ancient  Peru    109 

9.  Bone  Club  from  Nootka  Sound    109 

10.  figure-group,  showing  costume  of  the  Eooids 179 

11.  Supposed  Ogham  Stone  from  a  Cist  in  Argyllshire 841 

12.  Axe-shaped  markings  on  Stone,  from  a  Cist  in  Argyllshire    841 

13.  Section  of  Perthi-Chwareu  Cave,  Denbighshire    441 

14  Phm  of  Perthi-Chwareu  Cave 442 

15.  Pkn  of  chambered  tomb  at  Cefri 447 

16.  Transverse  section  of  femur  from  Perthi-Chwareu   454 

17.  Transverse  section  of  a  normal  tibia   458 

18.  Transverse  section  of  extremely  platycnemie  tibia  from  Cro-magnon  458 

19, 20,  21.  Transverse  sections  of  platycnemie  tibiee  from  Gibraltar 458 

22,  23, 24.  Transverse  sections  of  ditto  fitmi  Perthi-Chwareu  459 

25, 26.  Transvene  sections  of  two  femom  from  the  Oefii  tumulus    ....  463 

27.  Transverse  section  of  femur  from  Gibraltar    464 

28.  Transverse  section  of  femur  from  Cefii  tumulus    464 


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YUl 


OOBBiaElfDA  ET  ADDEITDA. 

Pig*  196.  footnote,  <|^a«««nb  '« It  is  beliered."  inttrt  »hj  M.  lyOrbignj." 
w    1Mb  footaoteb  and  p.  806,  th«  word  Bfojo  Is  ao  spelt  aooording  to  the  oldeet  sothorilj,  (5«mi 

de  Leon;  the  oorreot  Qnecho*  spelling  ii»  howeyer,  Baja,  as  given  by  OsralMsa 
M    aaa,  fi)otnote,/>r  "  east  of  Aymaras"  reotf  •*  east  of  the  Aymuas." 
M     M    footnote,/>r  Pisaqoa  riotf  Fisagoa. 
«   M6,  line  8,ybr  good  reotf  great 
»    371,  line  8,/br  Tamargoal  rsoif  TamaragaL 
,*    276,  line  16,y&r  Toms  de  Babio  r^ad  Torres  Babio« 
m   966,  line  8  from  bottom,  fa  y^^Boors  read  py'iasro. 

•  «t     f»    9   »  H       ft   AwoiM  read  Ihtoigiii. 
„   887,linell,ybrdahlfwulahl 

„  S90,EisimlrashoaldbetraDsUted«'afarys«ai!p.'' 

m  888»Moll«moUeahoald  be  translated  "viMevmm/.*' 

»  9M,ybr  Oooooao  riotf  Oooooo. 

,»  90K  line  8  from  bottom,  fa  **»imaiiaee  read  kmanaeu. 

m  806,  line  16,ybrAlo6baaari£UIAlooba^. 

m     m     H   17,/br  Torres  del  Bnbio  ffwoi  Torres  Bnbio. 

m  888,  M    16  from  bottom,ybr  Btnqmrold  riotf  Btcaparola. 

M  889,  «    18   «    tqpb  4Ws  remote. 

„  881,  M     6   M    bottom,ybr  bard  reotf  herd. 

«  889;  M    19   w    bottom»ybr  Dewan  ritti  Dewar. 

•  889;  „    11   »    bottom,ybrMr8.r«»IHr. 

m  982,  »  10  »  bottom,ybr  Glendavad  rscMf  CHendameL 

M  888,  »  19  »  top,/>r  Camden  riotf  Oawdor. 

M  888;  M  9  »  bottom,ybr  Corral  riotf  CowaL 

M  88<  w  9  ^  top,ybr  Corral  riotf  CowaL 

w  886,  •  13  M  top,/^  Osmden  retuf  Cawdor. 

w  88^  M  14  »  topb/or  brawn  rioil  broom. 

M  8S6b  »  9  M  top,/>r  Davan  rMuf  Dewar. 

M  886^  »  16  „  top,/>r  deolaraiion  rscMf  deooration. 

m  887,  w  16  M  top,/or  IkTioohe  florm  ritti  fluioohe  flonn. 

»  887*  M  17  »  top,/or  ThabhsTit  riotf  Thabhairt. 

„  887,  M  81  M  top,ybr  Straparold  riotf  Btraparola. 

•  889;  ,»  11  »  top,ybr  aa  AiMoan  laogoage  rscMf  Afrisan  langosges. 


TOBBfTDEB. 

Chromo-lithographed  Map  of  the  World  to  fam  Ftontispieoe. 

Plate  n.  to  ISue  p.  69. 

Plate  Zm.  to  fSMe  p.  118. 

ThiB  other  Plates  may  be  bound  as  plaoed  in  the  Knmbers. 

The  dip  of  Errata  opposite  p.  886  to  be  eaneelled. 


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PROCEEDINGS 


AT  THS 


ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING 


OF  THB 


ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

Preceded  by  a  Special  Oeneral  Meeting, 

May  24th,  1870. 

Professor  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.B.S.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

The  Honorary  General  Secretary  read  Articles  18, 19,  and  20 
of  the  Laws  of  the  Society,  in  accordance  with  which  the  Special 
Greneral  Meeting  had  been  convened. 

It  was  then  proposed  by  Mr.  H.  G.  Bohn,  seconded  by  Mr. 
F.  Hindmarsh,  and  carried  unanimously : — 

That  the  last  clauBe  of  Article  10  of  the  Laws  of  the  Society, 
whereby  **  Fellows  residing  permanently  at  a  distance  of  not  less 
than  twenty  miles  from  London  are  entitled  to  the  privilege  of  pay- 
ing a  subscription  of  only  £1  Is,  annually,"  be  repealed,  and  that 
all  Members  elected  after  the  date  of  the  present  Meeting  shall  pay 
an  annual  subscription  of  Two  Guineas  each. 

The  following  Report  of  the  Council  was  read  by  the  Honorary 
General  Secretary : — 

ANNUAL  REPORT,  1870. 

The  Council  is  enabled  to  make  a  satisfactory  report  of  the  pro- 
gress of  the  Society  during  the  past  year.     The  number  of  new 

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Members  shows  an  increase  upon  previous  years.  The  follow- 
ing names  have  been  added  to  our  list  since  the  Anniversary 
Meeting  of  1869  :— 


Sir  Walter  Elliot,  K.G.8.I. 
C.  T.  Gardner,  Esq.,  F.E.G.8. 
Joseph  Prestwich,  Esq.,  F.E.S. 
James  Bonwick,  Esq.,  F.B.O.S. 
J.  Smith,  Esq. 
Sir  William  Vernon  Guise,  Bart., 

F.L.S.,  F.G.S. 
The  Eev.  W.  A.  Jones,  F.G.S. 
The  Bev.  Bichard  Eirwan,  M.A. 
The  Bev.  Henry  H.  Winwood, 

M.A.,  F.G.S. 
Bobert  D.  Darbishire,  Esq.,  B.A. 
J.  W.  Jeffcott,  Esq.,  M.H.K. 
William  Long,  Esq.,  M.A. 
M.  Moggridge,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
Dr.  Gustav  Oppert. 
John  Platts,  Esq. 
Major-G«n.  Alex.  Cunningham. 
Jonas  Hewitt,  Es^. 
The  Bev.  James  Simpson. 
Gteorge  Campbell,  Esq.,  D.C.L. 
Dr.  Nicholas,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 


The  Earl  of  Dunraven  and 
Mountearl,  K.P.,  F.B.S. 

David  Duncan,  Esq.,  M.A. 

J.  F.  M'Lennan,  ^sq. 

Henry  Baylis,  Esq. 

John  Edwards,  Esq. 

Lord  Bosehill. 

Walter  Morrison,  Esq.,  M.P. 

J.  W.  Barnes,  Esq. 

B.  L.  Nash,  Esq. 

Sir  Charles  Wentworth  Dilke, 
Bart.,  M.P. 

the  Bev.  A.  S.  Farrar,  D.D. 

Morton  Coates  Fisher,  Esq. 

Francis  Kerridge  Munton,  Esq. 

F.  Beresford  W  right,  Esq. 

Edward  Backhouse,  Esq. 

Capt.  Walter  Campbell,  B.E. 

B  S.  Newall,  Esq. 

E.  Bonavia,  Esq.,  M.D. 

P.   O'Callaghan,    Esq.,    LL.D., 
D.C.L.,  F.S.A. 


The  Council  regret  to  have  to  announce  the  deaths  of  Mr.  J. 
H.  Backhouse  and  Mr.  Thrupp^  Members  of  the  Society.  Four 
resignations  have  also  been  received  during  the  past  year.  De- 
ducting deaths  and  resignations^  this  makes  an  increase  of  83 
Members  during  the  past  year.  Dr.  Carl  Semper^  of  Wiiraburg, 
has  been  elected  an  Honorary  Member ;  and  Lieut.  Oliver,  B.  A., 
a  Corresponding  Member. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  papers  &c.  which  have  been 
communicated  to  the  Society  during  the  past  year : — 


1869. 


JWM  8. 


June2Si 
Nov.  9. 


By 


On  the  Permanence  of  Type  in  the  Human  Family. 
Major-G^n.  Sir  William  Denison,  E.C.B. 

On  CJromlechs  in  Nagpore.    By  Major  Pearce,  B.A. 

On  the  Cranium  and  its  Deformities  in  Belation  to  In- 
tellect and  Beauty.    By  Dr.  B.  King,  F.B.C.S. 

On  the  Proposed  Exploration  of  Stonehenge  by  a  Com- 
mittee of  the  British  Association.  By  Col.  liane  Fox, 
Hon.  Sec. 

On  the  Chinese  Bace,  their  Language,  Government, 
Social  Listitutions,  and  Beligion.  By  C.  T.  Cbrdner, 
Esq.,  F.B.G.S. 


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JVb0.  28.  On  Quartzite  ImplementB  from  the  Gape  of  Gbod  Hope. 

By  Sir  Gwrge  Qrey,  K.C.B. 
On  the  Bacea  and  Languages  of  Dardiatan.    By  Dr. 

Leitner,  M.A. 
Dee.  7.     On  a  Stone  Implement  found  beneath  the  Bed  of  a 

Biver  in  the  Co.  Wicklow.    By  F.  Adieson,  Esq. 
On  the  Stature  of  the  North-American  Indians  of  the 

Chipewyan  Tribe.    By  Major-G-eneral  Lefroy,  B.A. 
Beport  on  the  Prehistoric  Bemains  of  the  Channel  Is- 
lands.   By  Lieut.  Oliver,  BA. 
Dee.  21.  On  the  Meneam  of  Dr.  Livingstone.    By  Hyde  Clarke, 

Esq. 
On  an  Ancient  Galvaria  from  China.    By  Prof.  Busk, 

P.B.S. 
On  the  Eoords  and  Armenians.    By  Major  Millingen, 

F.B.G.S. 

1870. 

Jan,  11.  On  the  Use  of  the  Mere  or  Pattoo-pattoo  of  New  Zea- 
land.   By  Col.  Lane  Pox,  Hon.  Sec. 

On  the  Eitai  and  Kara-Eitai.    By  Dr.  Ghistav  Oopert. 

On  some  Prehistoric  Bemains  £com  New  Zeahmd.     By 
Dr.  JuHuB  Haast,  P.B.S. 
Jan.  26.   On  a  Collection  of  Clay  Models  of  Figures  by  a  Native 
Zulu.    By  Dr.  Hooker,  C.B.,  F.B.S. 

On  some  Stone  Mullers  of  similar  form  from  various 
Localities.    By  CoL  Lane  Fox,  Hon.  Sec. 

On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians  geologically  considered. 
By  James  Bonwick,  Esq.,  F.B.&.S. 

On  a  Frontier  Line  of  Ethnology  and  ecology.  By  H. 
H.  Howorth,  Esa. 

On  the  Nicobar  Islanders.     By  Q-.  W.  Atkinson,  Esq. 
Feb.  8.     On  the  Discovery  of  Flint  and  Chert-flakes  under  a  sub- 
merged Forest  in  West  Somerset.    By  W.  Boyd  Daw- 
kins,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.B.S. 

On  a  Stone  Hammer  from  the  Ancient  Copper^Mines  of 
Buy  Gomes  in  Portugal.  By  P.  "W.  JBudler,  Esq., 
F.Q-.S.,  Assist.  Sec. 

On  Prehistoric  Bemains  in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the 
Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.     By  the  Bev.  B.  J.  Maple- 
ton.     With  Introductorv  Note.    By  Dr.  A.  Campbell. 
Fdf.  22.   On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  m)m  China.    By  Prof.  Busk, 
F.B.S. 

On  some  Prehistoric  Bemains  from  recent  deposits  in 
Yorkshire.    By  C.  Monkman,  Esq. 

On  the  Natives  of  Naga,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippine 
Islands.    By  Dr.  Jagor. 
Mar.  7.    On  the  Opening  of  Two  Cairns,  near  Bangor,  N.  Wales. 
By  Col.  Lane  Fox,  Hon.  Sec. 


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On  the  Earliest  Phases  of  Civilization.      Bj  Hodder 
Westropp,  Esij. 
Mar.  22.  On  Current  British  Mythology  and  Oral  Tradition.     By 
J.  F.  Campbell,  Esq.,  of  Islay. 

On  a  Cist  with  Inscribed  Stones  from  the  Neighbourhood 
of  the  Crinan  Canal.     By  the  Bev.  £.  J.  mpleton. 

Exhibition  of  StoneLnplements  from  England  and  lYance. 
By  W.  Topley,  Esq.,  P.Q.S. 
AfrU  12.  On  the  Ancient  Tribal  System  and  Land-Tenure  in  Ire- 
land.   By  Hodder  Westropp,  Esq. 

On  the  Danish  Element  in  tbe  population  of  Cleveland 
in  Yorkshire.    By  the  Eev.  J.  G.  Atkinson. 
April  26.  On  the  Philosophy  of  BeHgion  among  the  Lower  Baces 
of  Mankind.    By  E.  B.  Tvlor,  Esq. 

On  the  Brain  in  the  Study  of  Ethnology.     By  Dr. 
Donovan. 
M(w  10.  Address  on  the  Ethnology  of  Britain.    By  Prof.  Huxley, 
LL.D.,  P.E.S.,  President. 

On  the  Influence  of  the  Norman  Conquest  on  the  Eth- 
nology of  Britain.    By  Dr.  T.  Nicholas,  MiA. 

By  a  division  of  the  subjects  into  sections  as  arranged  in  the 
report  of  last  year^  the  follovnng  shows  the  number  appertaining 
to  each  section,  viz. : — 

General  Ethnology 7 

Biology 4 

Comparative  Psychology    1 

Sociology  12 

Archaeology  18 

Philology  1 

Reports  on  the  megalithic  monuments  of  the  Channel  Islands 
and  of  Argyllshire  have  been  received ;  others  are  in  course  of 
preparation^  and  will  be  communicated  to  the  Society  during 
the  present  year. 

In  conformity  with  the  arrangements  made  at  the  last  Anni- 
versary Meeting,  extra  sectional  meetings  have  been  appointed 
for  the  reading  of  papers  relating  to  Prehistoric  Archaeology,  on 
which  subject  a  large  number  of  valuable  papers  have  been  com- 
municated to  the  Society  during  the  past  year. 

Considerable  success  has  attended  the  publication  of  the 
Quarterly  Journal.  All  the  copies  of  the  torsi  number  which 
were  printed  (with  the  exception  of  a  few  copies  which  have 
been  reserved  for  Members)  have  now  been  sold,  as  also  the 
whole  of  the  copies  of  the  first  volume  of  the  new  series  in 
which  this  number  was  included.  The  Council  propose,  when 
the  funds  enable  them  to  do  so,  to  reprint  the  first  number,  and 
thus  to  continue  the  circulation  of  tbe  volume.     Meanwhile  a 


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XIU 

few  copies  of  the  first  number  have  been  retained  for  future 
Members^  who  will  thus  be  enabled  to  complete  their  series.  Lit- 
tle or  nothing  has  been  done  as  yet  in  the  way  of  advertise- 
ments ;  butj  judging  from  the  sale  already  effected,  there  appears 
to  be  no  reason  for  doubt  that  it  will  obtain  a  wide  circulation 
when  the  character  of  the  work  becomes  better  known. 

Following  the  precedent  of  last  year^  special  meetings  have 
been  appointed  for  discussion  of  subjects  calculated  to  interest 
the  public.  One  of  these,  held  in  the  Theatre  of  the  Museum 
of  Practical  Geology,  by  permission  of  Sir  R.  I.  Murchison, 
Bart.,  the  Director-General,  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,  has  been  largely  attended ;  one  other  is  to 
be  held  in  the  same  place,  and  two  in  the  Theatre  of  the  Royal 
United  Service  Institution,  by  permission  of  the  Council  of  the 
Institution.  Cards  of  invitation  to  these  meetings  have  been 
printed  for  the  use  of  Members. 

The  accounts  of  the  Society  are  presented  as  usual,  and  show 
a  balance  of  j£120  5^.  4rf.  in  the  hands  of  the  bankers  on  the 
16th  inst. 

The  attention  of  the  Members  is  earnestly  directed  to  the 
advisability  of  increasing  the  number  of  new  Members.  The 
Council  have  already  been  enabled  to  make  considerable  addition 
to  the  number  of  maps,  lithographs,  and  woodcuts  in  the  new 
series  of  the  Journal ;  but  the  majority  of  the  papers  offered  to 
the  Society  are  upon  subjects  requiring  illustration,  and  they 
hope  by  enlarged  funds  to  be  able  to  meet  this  requirement  on 
an  extended  scale  in  the  future  numbers  of  the  Journal. 

After  this  Report  was  read,  the  Honorary  Treasurer  submitted 
his  account  (p.  xv). 

It  was  then  proposed  by  Mr.  Hyde  Clarke,  seconded  by  Mr. 
J.  W.  Flower,  and  carried  unanimously  : — 

That  the  Report  of  the  Council  and  the  Treasurer's  Account  be 
adopted. 

The  President  observed  that,  in  conformity  with  the  Laws  of 
the  Ethnological  Society,  the  property  of  the  Society  should  be 
vested  in  three  Trustees,  of  whom  the  Treasurer  is  one ;  but  it 
appeared  that  on  the  decease  of  the  original  Trustees  no  suc- 
cessors had  been  appointed. 

It  was  then  proposed  by  Col.  A.  Lane  Fox,  seconded  by  Mr. 
J.  Heywood,  and  carried  unanimously : — 

That  Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  and  Mr.  W.  Spottiswoode,  be  elected 
Trustees  of  the  Ethnological  Society  of  London,  to  act  with  the 
Honorary  Treasurer. 

After  the  President  had  delivered  the  Anniversary  Address, 

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XIV 

(see  p.  xvi),  it  was  resolved^  on  the  motion  of  Dr.  B.  King, 
seconded  by  Col.  A.  Lane  Fox,  that  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be 
accorded  to  the  President  for  Ms  Address,  and  that  it  be  printed. 

The  following  resolution  was  then  proposed  by  Mr.  J.  Hey- 
wood|  seconded  by  Mr.  H.  O.  Bohn,  and  carried  unanimously — 

That  the  Pellows  present  hereby  express  their  conciirrence  in  the 
sentiments  of  the  President's  Address,  and  their  continued  desire  to 
promote  an  amalgamation  between  the  Ethnological  and  Anthropo- 
logical Societies. 

Mr.  J.  Heywood  and  Mr.  T.  M^K.  Hughes  were  appointed 
scrutineers  of  the  ballot  for  Officers  and  Council  for  the  following 
Session,  and  a  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  the  six  retiring 
Councillors. 

The  ballot  having  been  open  one  hour,  the  report  of  the 
scrutineers  was  read,  and  the  following  gentlemen  were  declared 
duly  elected  as  Officers  and  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society 
of  London  for  the  Session  1870-71 : — 

Officers. 

Fresident—VTofe&BOT  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  P.B.S. 

Fice-Presidenfs—Archihdld  Campbell,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.L.S. ;  Sir  John 
Lubbock,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.E.8. ;  Edward  Burnett  Tylor,  Esq. ;  Thos. 
Wright,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Honorary  Treasurer.— H.  Gt.  Bohn,  Esq.,  P.E.G.S.,  F.R.8.L. 

Honorary  General  Secretary, — Col.  A.  Lane  Fox,  F.Q-.S.,  F.S.A. 

Honorary  Foreign  Secretary.'^'Rjde  Clarke,  Esq.,  Ac 

Council. 

William  Blackmore,  Esq. ;  Professor  Q-.  Busk,  Esq.,  F.E.8. ;  Gteorge 
Campbell,  Esq.,  D.C.L. ;  J.  Barnard  Davis,  Esq.,  M.D.,  M.RC.8., 
F.E.S. ;  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S. ;  John  Dick- 
inson, Esq. ;  Eobert  Dunn,  Esq.,  F.E.C.S. ;  J.  W.  Flower,  Esq.,  F.G.S, 
David  Forbes,  Esq.,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.C.S.;  A.  W.  Franks,  Esq. 
M.A.,  D.S.A. ;  Eev.  Canon  Greenwell,  M. A.,  F.S.A. ;  A.  Hamilton 
Esq. ;  F.  Hindmarsh,  Esq.,  F.E.G.S.,  F.G.S. ;  T.  M*K.  Hugbes,  Esq.! 
M.A.,  F.G.S.,  F.S.A. ;  Eichard  King,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.E.C.S. ;  J.  F, 
M'Lennan,  Esq. ;  Sir  Eoderick  Impey  Murchison,  Bart.,  K.C.B. 
F.E.S.;  Eev.  Dr.  Nicholas,  M.A.,  F.G.S.;  S.  E.  B.  Pusey,  Esq 
F.E.G.S. 


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XVI 

ANNIVERSARY  ADDRESS. 
By  Professor  T.  H.  Huxlby,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President. 

When,  on  the  lamented  death  of  the  late  Mr.  Crawford  in  the 
spring  of  1868,  the  Chair  of  this  Society  became  vacant,  I 
attended  the  Meeting  of  the  Coimcil  upon  which  it  devolved  to 
elect  Mr.  Crawford's  successor,  for  the  purpose  of  asking  to  be 
relieved  of  my  duties  as  Councillor,  on  the  ground  that  other 
occupations  rendered  it  very  difficult  for  me  to  discharge  those 
duties  in  the  manner  in  which  I  considered  they  ought  to  be 
discharged. 

The  Council,  however,  did  me  the  honour  to  request  me  to 
accept  the  Presidency  of  the  Society;  and  they  urged  their 
wishes  with  so  much  unanimity,  that  I  did  not  feel  at  liberty  to 
persist  in  declining  it.  But  I  ventured  to  make  one  condition, 
and  this  was  that  the  Coimcil  should  heartily  agree  to,  and  assist 
in,  an  endeavour  to  bring  about  an  amalgamation  between  the 
Ethnological  and  the  Anthropological  Societies,  and  thereby  put 
an  end  to  a  state  of  affairs  which,  in  my  judgment,  was  not 
creditable  to  the  Members  of  either  Society. 

The  Council  readily  agreed  to  this  condition,  and  I  was  nomi- 
nated President.  The  day  after,  while  I  was  yet  considering  in 
what  way  best  to  commence  the  negotiations  with  the  Anthro- 
pological Society,  the  late  Dr.  Hunt,  at  that  time  President  of  the 
Anthropological  Society,  called  upon  me ;  and  (being  evidently 
fully  informed  of  what  had  taken  place  in  our  Council)  expressed 
his  readiness  to  cooperate  in  bringing  about  the  union  of  the 
two  Societies.  In  the  course  of  our  conversation.  Dr.  Hunt 
informed  me  that  Dr.  King  proposed  to  take  some  steps  in  this 
direction  at  the  Anniversary  Meeting  on  the  26th  of  May. 
However,  nothing  was  done,  and  Dr.  Hunt  commences  the  fol- 
lowing letter,  which  I  received  from  him  three  days  afterwards, 
by  an  allusion  to  this  circumstance : — 

Ore  HouBe,  near  HastingB, 
May  28, 1866. 

Mt  dkab  Sib, — Dr.  B.  King  writes  to  inform  me  that,  after  con- 
sulting with  his  friends  in  the  Ethnological  Sode^,  it  was  thought 
best  not  to  make  any  proposal  at  the  Aieeting  on  Tuesday.  It  was 
thought  best  that  such  a  resolution  should  come  from  the  Council.  On 
the  whole  there  is  no  reason  to  regret  this ;  but,  after  our  conversation 
last  week,  I  have  thought  it  my  duty  to  write  to  inform  you  why  the 
subject  was  not  brought  before  the  Society,  as  I  believed  (when  I 
had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you)  would  have  been  done. 

Col.  Lane  Fox  writes  to  me,  to  say  that  he  has  suggested  to  you 
the  desirability  of  having  a  department  for  "  Prehistoric  arch£K>logy," 
as  he  translates  '*  Palfo-anthrapolo^,**     With  reference  to  tnis 


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Presidents  Address.  xvii 

suggestion,  I  may  mention  tbat  last  year  I  prepared  a  scbeme  for  a 
union  of  the  two  Societies  on  such  a  basis. 

This  question  is,  howoTer,  worth  discussing,  and  I  think  at  some 
future  time  such  a  scheme  might  be  worthy  of  full  consideration. 

On  the  whole,  however,  I  do  not  think  such  a  scheme  is  at  present 
either  practicable  or  desirable.  I  think  it  is  a  great  pity  to  separate 
the  different  branches  of  the  same  science.  The  Gheologiod  Society 
is  an  instance  of  the  good  effect  of  the  union  of  different  benches  of 
one  large  science. 

I  shim  be  in  London  on  Tuesday  next,  and  if  you  would  ere  then 
consult  with  your  iriends,  I  shall  be  ready  to  call  on  yon  at  12  o'clocK 
on  that  day.  If  there  is  any  chance  of  a  union  being  effected,  I  can 
then  bring  the  subject  before  our  Council  the  same  afternoon.  I 
mention  this  because  I  go  Away  for  m^  vacation  the  end  of  June.  I 
think  that  if  a  union  can  be  effected,  it  should  be  decided  on  before 
the  meeting  of  the  Association  at  Norwich,  in  August.  If  this  is  to 
be  done,  the  subject  must  be  discussed  at  once.  We  usually  print 
our  cards  for  each  year's  meeting  in  July,  and  this  is  another  rea- 
son why  action  should  be  taken  in  the  matter  at  once,  or  the  whole 
subject  left  over  until  the  beginning  of  the  next  Session  or  next  year. 
I  have  been  trying  to  effect  this  union  for  the  last  five  or  six  years, 
and  as  I  firmly  believe  that  the  longer  it  is  delayed  the  better  will  it 
be  for  my  own  wishes,  I  shall  not  raise  any  objections  to  a  delay  in 
this  matter. 

Both  Societies  will  soon  have  to  give  up  their  rooms  at  4  St.  Mar- 
tin's Place,  and  we  each  have  to  give  six  months'  notice.  We  may 
have  to  leave  at  three  months'  notice;  but  we  have  to  give  six  if  we  wish 
to  leave. 

I  think,  therefore,  that,  on  the  whole,  it  will  be  desirable  if  we 
can  meet  and  see  if  we  can  agree  on  terms. 

Our  original  rules  wene  based  on  those  Cf  the  Geological  Society. 
We  changed  this  for  those  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  and  Asiatic 
Society. 

These  details  might  be  settled  by  a  special  committee. 

It  will,  however,  be  advisable,  if  possible,  that  the  general  scheme 
should  be  settled  before  the  subject  is  brought  before  the  Councils. 
Each  Society  can  then  nominate  a  committee  to  ofScially  negotiate 
terms  of  union  on  the  basis  proposed. 

I  shall  be  glad  to  have  a  line  from  you  as  soon  as  convenient,  and 
I  shall  then  know  what  my  plans  for  Tuesday  next  will  be. 

Believe  me. 

Tours  very  faithfully, 
Professor  Huxley,  F.RS.,  Jamxb  Huht. 

President  of  the  Ethnological  Society, 

My  reply  to  Dr.  Hunt^s  letter  was  as  follows  : — 

Jermvn  Street, 

May  29, 1868. 

My  dsab  Sib, — I  quite  agree  with  yon  that  whatever  is  done  in  tho 
way  of  fusing,  or  attempting  to  fuse,  our  two  Societies  into  one  should 

b 


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xviii  Presidenfs  Address. 

be  done  ^uicklj.  There  is  not  much  time  between  now  and  Tues- 
daj ;  but  if  you  will,  as  you  propose,  do  me  the  favour  to  call  here  at 
noon  on  that  day,  on  the  chance  of  my  having  been  able  to  get  things 
into  some  sort  of  shape,  I  shall  be  very  happy  to  see  you. 

The  Ethnological  Council  meet  on  the  9th  of  June,  and  it  would 
be  very  convenient  for  me  to  be  in  a  position  to  put  before  them 
some  scheme  of  union  which  I  could  be  sure  would  have  the  assent 
of  your  Society. 

Your  very  faithfully, 
Br.  Hunt,  T.  H.  HuxLBf. 

President  of  the  Anthropological  Society  of  London, 

To  this  letter  Dr.  Hunt  rejoined : — 

Ore  House,  near  Hastings, 
May  80, 1868. 

Mt  dsab  Sib, — In  reply  to  your  letter  of  yesterday's  date,  I  have 
pnt  on  paper  a  few  proposals  which,  if  they  receive  your  assent,  I 
will  undertake  to  submit  to  a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  the  Anthro- 
pological Society  on  Tuesday. 

In  reference  to  proposal  No.  Y.,  I  had  better  explain  that  we 
cannot  at  present  say  how  our  finances  will  stand  at  the  end  of  the 
year.  Our  de&ulters'  list  amounts  to  far  more  than  our  debts,  and 
we  have  a  stock  of  translations.  K  these  books  are  suddenly  thrown 
on  the  market,  we  shall  get  little  for  them,  and  there  may  be  a  loss 
— hence  the  insertion  of  tnis  proposal. 

I  am  alone  responsible  for  these  proposals.  In  drawing  them  up 
I  have  only  been  guided  by  a  desire  to  suggest  what  is  practicable. 

I  shall  myself  enter  into  negotiations  for  the  union  solely  anxious 
to  make  the  best  and  most  useful  Society  we  can.  I  do  not  think 
that  there  are  jtwo  interests  in  such  a  matter. 

Kyou  think  it  advisable  to  propose  that  the  future  Council  shall 
consist  of  an  equal  number  of  each  existing  councils,  or  to  suggest 
any  other  proposals  based  on  scientific  considerations,  I  shall  be  very 
glad  to  discustf  the  same. 

Believe  me, 

Tours  very  faithfully, 

Professor  Huxley^  F.E,S.  James  Hukt. 

Dr.  Hunt's  Proposals, 

Preliminary  Terms  of  Union^  which  have  received  the  sanction 
of  the  Presidents  of  the  Ethnological  and  Anthropological 
Societies,  and  submitted  by  them  to  their  respective 
Councils. 

I.  That  it  is  highly  desirable,  in  the  interest  of  science,  that  the 

Ethnological  and  Anthropological  Societies  should  be 
united. 

II.  That,  with  a  view  to  effect  such  union,  a  Committee  of  six 

(three)  Members  of  each  Council  be  nominated  to 


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Prerident^s  Address.  xix 

draw  up  terms  of  union  and  regulations^  and  nominate 
Officers  and  Council. 

III.  That  on  receipt  of  such  terms  of  union  and  regulations, 

by  the  respective  Presidents  of  the  two  Societies,  a 
General  Meeting  of  each  Society  shall  be  called  within 
fourteen  days  to  consider  the  same. 

IV.  That,  with  a  view  of  fSeusilitating  the  proposed  amalgamation, 

and  of  removing  obstacles  from  its  accomplishment, 
the  Committee  be  instructed  to  base  the  rules  of  the 
United  Society,  as  far  as  possible,  on  those  of  the 
Ethnological  Society ;  while  the  name  of  the  United 
Society  be  assimilated  to  that  of  (adopt  the  name  of) 
the  Anthropological  Society,  unless  a  better  can  be 
found. 

V.  That  a  sum,  not  exceeding  one-third  of  the  annual  income 

derived /rom  present  Fellows  of  either  Society,  shall 
be  put  aside  to  defiray  any  debts  that  may  exist  in  such 
Society. 

YI.  That  when  the  terms  of  Union  agreed  on  by  the  joint 
Committee  have  been  accepted  by  a  General 
Meeting  of  each  Society,  a  Meeting  of  the 
Councils  of  the  existing  Societies  be  called  to 
NOMINATE  Officers  and  Council  for  the  United 
Society,  and  to  fix  a  day  for  a  General  Meeting 
OF  the  Fellows  of  both  Societies. 

YII.  That  such  (a)  General  Meeting  {of  each  Society)  shall 

CONSIDER  AND  DECIDE  ON  THE  ORGANISATION  AND  NAME 

OF  THE  United  Society  [be  called  for  the  purpose  of 
accepting  the  terms  of  union  agreed  upon  by  the  before^ 
named  Committee) . 

VIII.  That  Professor  Huxley  be  President  of  the  Amalga- 

mated Society,  and  do  preside  at  such  Meeting, 
AND  THE  Officers  nominated  conduct  the  business 
OF  the  same. 

IX.  That  the  Councils  of  the  respective  Societies  undertake  to  use 

their  best  efforts  to  carry  out  the  recommendations  of 
the  Committee, 

The  document  submitted  to  me  by  Dr.  Hunt  is  here  printed 
SO  as  to  show  what  alterations  took  place  in  it  during  a  long 
conference  which  Dr.  Hunt  had  with  me  in  Jermyn  Street. 
What  remained  unaltered  is  in  ordinary  type;  what  was  struck 
out  is  in  capitals;  and  such  additions  as  were  made  by  myself, 
and  stand  in  my  handwriting,  are  in  italics. 

It  will  be  observed  that  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  propo- 
sition Dr.  Hunt's  words  ran  as  follows : — 

bi 

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XX  President's  Address, 

"  WhUe  the  name  of  tlie  United  Society  be  assimilated  to  that 
of  the  Anthropological  Society/' 

It  is  clear  that  I  might  have  accepted  this  proposition  as  it 
stood^  without  in  any  way  committing  myself  to  the  acceptance 
of  the  name  *' Anthropological ''  for  the  united  Societies. 
Strictly  construed^  in  fact,  the  word  "assimilated'*  excludes  the 
notion  of  the  acceptance  of  the  very  name  itself. 

But  seeing  the  ambiguity  of  the  phrase,  I  told  Dr.  Hunt,  in 
the  plainest  and  most  distinct  manner,  that  whatever  my  per- 
sonal opinions  might  be,  I  was  sure  that  any  proposition,  even 
to  "  assimilate*'  the  name  of  the  conjoined  Societies  to  that  of 
the  Anthropological  Society,  would  probably  meet  with  a  nega- 
tive firom  the  Ethnological  Council ;  and  that,  in  fact,  I  could 
not  go  to  the  Ethnological  Council  with  a  proposition  so 
worded. 

We  nearly  came  to  a  dead  lock  upon  this  point;  and  the 
difSculty  was  only  got  over  by  Dr.  Hunt's  acceptance  of  my 
suggestion,  to  add  the  words  "  unless  a  better  can  be  found." 

1  fiilly  explained  to  Dr.  Hunt  why  I  chose  this  form  of  words. 
I  imagined  (and  I  must  confess  I  still  imagine)  that  reasonable 
men  upon  both  sides  would  see  that  ''the  best  name  which 
could  be  found"  would  be  one  which  would  enable  the  Societies 
to  unite ;  and  that  any  name  which  should  be  an  obstacle  to 
that  union  would*  be  ipso  facto  not  ''the  best  name  which  could 
be  found." 

Dr.  Hunt  was  perfectly  well  aware  that  these  words  were 
added  on  no  other  ground  than  the  strong  objection  entertained 
by  Members  of  the  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society  to  the 
adoption  of  the  name  of  the  Anthropologic^  Society. 

A  Meeting  of  the  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society  was 
held  on  the  9th  of  June,  having  been  summoned  as  soon  as  I 
knew  that  the  propositions,  as  amended,  had  been  agreed  to  by 
the  Council  of  the  Anthropological  Society. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  propositions  are  silent  respecting 
any  confirmation  of  the  acts  of  the  delegates  by  the  respective 
Councils.  Both  Dr.  Hunt  and  I  agreed  that  it  would  be  better 
that  the  Councils  should  give  their  delegates  full  powers ;  but  it 
was  obviously  impossible  that  either  he,  or  I,  should  do  more 
than  attempt  to  bring  this  about. 

In  my  case,  the  Council  required  the  delegates  to  report  and 
receive  confirmation  of  their  acts,  while  the  Anthropological 
Council  gave  its  delegates  full  powers. 

Under  these  circumstances,  I  felt  bound  to  put  our  position 
clearly  before  Dr.  Hunt,  before  the  meeting  of  the  delegates  took 

Slace.     I  did  so  in  the  following  letter,  dated  the  10th  (not  11  th) 
une,  1868,  in  order  that  Dr.  Hunt  might  judge  for  himself  how 

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President's  Address.  xxi 

far  the  understanding  between  us  had  been  kept;  and  that  if  he 
were  dissatisfied^  he  might  say  so. 

Jermyn  Street, 

June  10th,  1868. 

My  dxab  Sib, — ^I  had  no  time  to  write  to  you  yesterday  after  the 
meeting  of  the  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society,  but  1  gave  Mr. 
Collingwood  a  copy  of  the  Besolution  which  the  Council  passed,  the 
names  of  the  Committee-men  appointed,  and  the  day  and  hour  of 
meeting,  viz.,  to-morrow  (Thursday,  llth  of  June)  at  4  p.m. 

After  a  very  long  discussion  the  Council  (which  was  a  very  full 
one)  determined  on  accepting  the  principle  of  the  terms  which  you 
and  I  had  discussed.  But  the  Committee  appointed  to  confer  with 
yours  was  requested  to  report  to  the  Council  oefore  finally  pledging 
the  Council  to  any  particular  line  of  action. 

I  think  the  Council  were  mainly  led  to  take  this  course  (in  the 
advisableness  of  which,  after  all  that  was  stated,  I  fully  agree)  by 
certain  facts  which  were  brought  forward  tending  to  show  that  the 
Anthropological  Society  is  in  a  very  unsatisfactory  financial  con- 
dition ;  and  unless  your  Committee  come  to  the  meeting  fully  pre- 
pared to  satisfy  ours  upon  this  point,  I  am  afraid  the  prospects  of 
amalgamation  are  not  very  bright. 

I  am,  yours  very  faithfully, 

T.  H.  HUXLKX. 

Dr.  Runt, 
President  of  the  Anthropologieal  Society, 

When  the  delegates  met  on  the  llth  of  June^  Dr.  Hunt  re- 
ferred to  the  contents  of  my  letter^  but  he  did  not  make  the  change 
any  ground  of  objection  to  the  opening  of  the  negotiations, 
which  accordingly  proceeded.  By  this  course^  Dr.  Hunt  barred 
himself  from  raising  any  objection  on  that  score  afterwards. 
There  is  no  allusion  in  my  letter  to  the  question  of  name^  the 
obvious  reason  being  that  the  propositions  which  I  had  read  to 
the  Ethnological  Council,  and  which  had  received  their  general 
approval,  left  the  question  of  name  entirely  open. 

But  so  far  from  there  being  **  no  anticipation  of  the  slightest 
objection  to  the  word  Anthropology/'  as  has  been  asserted,  I 
appeal  to  every  one  of  the  delegates  to  say  whether  this  was  not 
felt  to  be  the  great  and  prominent  difficulty, — ^a  difficulty  so 
great  that  it  was  referred  to  Dr.  Hunt  and  myself  to  deal  with 
at  a  separate  interview  on  the  following  day.  Dr.  Hunt,  in  fact, 
spent  somewhat  more  than  two  hours  with  me  on  the  12th  of 
June,  in  discussing  this  knotty  question ;  and,  at  length,  he  himself 
•^gested  *'  The  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  the  Science  of 
Man,''  as  the  title  of  the  new  Society.  I  accepted  the  name  at 
once ;  and  that  there  should  be  no  mistake,  wrote  it  down  and 
asked  Dr.  Hunt  to  put  his  signature  to  the  paper.  The  paper 
so  signed  lies  before  me. 


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xxii  Preaidenfa  Address. 

I  then^  at  Dr.  Hant's  request^  accompauied  him  to  see  Mr. 
Braybrook^  who  at  once  assented  to  the  proposed  name. 

The  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society  met  on  the  15th  of 
June. 

After  the  Meeting  I  wrote  to  Dr.  Hunt  as  follows : — 

26  Abbey  Place,  N.W., 

June  15th,  1868. 

Mt  deab  Sib, — ^I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  inform  you  that,  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Council  of  the  Ethnological  Society  to-day,  Major- 
General  Balfour,  Mr.  Hyde  Clarke,  and  myself  were  fmmished  with 
full  powers  to  arran^  the  terms  of  union  of  the  Ethnological  and 
Anthropological  Societies,  and  to  organize  the  resulting  new  Society 
under  tne  title  of  "  The  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  tne  Science  of 
Man." 

We  have  arranged  with  Mr.  Braybrook  to  meet  your  Committee  at 
five  o'clock  to-morrow  afternoon,  m  order  to  arriye  at  a  final  settle- 
ment with  respect  to  sundry  points  which  still  reaaire  discussion. 

I  am,  yours  very  faithfully. 
Dr.  Hunt,  T.  H.  Huxlit. 

President  of  the  Anthropological  Soeieiy. 

It  will  be  obvious^  from  the  tone  of  this  letter,  that  I  imagined 
the  business  was  practicalljr  settled,  the  '^  sundry  points  which 
still  require  discussion'^  being  matters  of  detail  about  which  I 
was  sure  that  our  side  would  make  no  difficulty. 

But  when  our  meeting  took  place,  the  delegates  of  the  Anthro- 
pological Society  placed  in  our  hands  a  resolution  just  passed  by 
the  Council,  wluch  rejected  the  one  stipulation  upon  which  the 
delegates  of  both  sides  had  absolutely  agreed. 

The  Council  of  the  Anthropological  Society  had,  undoubtedly, 
a  l^al  right  to  act  in  this  manner;  but  that  it  did  thus,  with- 
out any  provocation  on  our  part,  break  off  a  treaty  which  we 
considered  to  be  virtually  concluded^  is  clear ;  and  that  it  dis- 
avowed the  acts  of  its  delegates  is  perfectly  obvious  from  the 
fact  that  Dr.  Hunt  and  Mr.  Braybrook  thought  right  to  resign 
their  offices. 

Considering  the  circumstances  under  which  the  negotiations 
were  broken  off  by  the  Council  of  the  Anthropological  Society, 
the  CouncU  of  the  Ethnological  Society  could  hardly  take  the 
initiative  in  any  further  movement  towards  amalgamation,  though 
they  have  always  expressed  the  utmost  readiness  to  re-open  iSie 
negotiations.  However,  when  Dr.  Beddoe,  the  present  Presi« 
dent  of  the  Anthropological  Society  was  elected,  J  thought  the 
oppOTtunity  a  good  one  for  bringing  the  state  of  affairs  privately 
under  his  notice,  and  I  therefore  took  the  liberty  of  addressing 
the  following  letter  to  Dr.  Beddoe: — 


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President's  Address.  xxiii 

Jttnuvn  Streoty 

May  18th,  1869. 

DsAB  Sib, — ^I  hare  not  the  good  fortune  to  be  penonallj  known 
to  70U,  but,  as  President  of  the  Ethnological  Society,  I  take  the 
liberty  of  addressing  you,  as  President  of  the  Anthropological 
Society. 

It  must  be  obyious  to  every  one  that  the  existence  of  two  Societies 
haying  identical  objects  is  a  waste  of  power ;  and  when  I  became 
President  of  the  IJthnological  Society,  it  was  on  the  clear  under- 
standing that  the  Council  of  that  Society  would  heartily  cooperate 
with  me  in  endeavourii^  to  bring  about  an  amalgamation  of  the  two 
Societies.  The  Council  fully  acted  up  to  this  understanding.  As 
you  are  doubtless  aware,  delegates  were  appointed  on  the  part  of 
both  Societies,  and  these  delegates  agreed  upon  terms  of  union.  But 
the  treaty  was  virtually  repumated  by  the  Council  of  the  Anthropo- 
logical Society. 

Without  presuming  to  challenge  the  right  of  the  Council  of  the 
Antluropological  Society  to  take  this  step,  I  very  much  regretted  it, 
for  two  reasons, — ^the  first,  that  it  put  an  end  to  an  arrangement 
which,  I  think,  would  have  worked  very  well ;  the  second,  that  it  pre- 
cluded any  further  advances  on  the  part  of  the  Ethnological  Society. 

Thrown  back  upon  its  own  resources,  the  Ethnologic^  Society  has 
passed  through  a  session  which,  I  think  I  may  venture  to  sa^,  shows 
that  it  is  in  full  health  and  vigour,  and  quite  capable  of  taking  care 
of  itself ;  but  this  gratifying  fact,  so  far  from  leading  me  to  wish  to 
perpetuate  the  present  state  of  affairs,  rather  causes  me  to  lament 
more  than  ever  the  division  of  energies  which  would  gain  so  much 
by  combination,  and  strengthens  my  desire  for  a  speedv  union  of 
tbe  two  Societies.  I  expressed  these  views  in  a  brief  address  which 
I  delivered  at  the  Anniversary  Meeting  of  the  Ethnological  Society  on 
TuesdajT  last ;  and,  as  the  Anniversary  Meeting  of  the  Anthropologi- 
cal Society  is  at  hand,  and  will  take  place  before  my  address  can  be 
published,  I  write  to  inform  you  that  I  have  done  so,  and  to  express 
the  hope  that  you  will  see  nt  to  exercise  your  own  influence  in  the 
aame  direction. 

Honourable  as  I  feel  the  position  to  be,  the  Presidency  of  a  Society 
is  one  which  makes  such  inroads  upon  the  time  of  its  holder  that,  as 
soon  as  union  is  effected,  my  great  desire  will  be  to  withdraw  from 
office,  and  to  see  the  Chair  of  3ie  new  Society  occupied  by  some  one 
who  can  devote  to  its  duties  the  time  and  the  attention  they 
deserve. 

I  hope,  therefore,  that  it  is  quite  clear  that  I  have  no  personal 
interest  to  serve  in  advocating  amalgamation. 

I  am,  yours  very  faithfuUy, 

T.  H.  HirxLKr. 
Dr,  Beddae, 
President  of  the  Anthropological  Society. 

I  received  a  courteous  reply  from  Dr,  Beddoe^  expressive  of 
general  good-will ;  but  I  am  not  aware  that  any  other  result  has 


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xxiv  President's  Address, 

followed  my  commimication.     On  our  side  we  are  ready  and 
willing^,  as  we  always  have  been^  to  discuss  terms  of  union. 

So  much  for  an  earnest  but  fruitless  endeavour  to  bring  about 
an  amalgamation  directly  with  the  Anthropological  Society.  But 
it  may  be  worthy  of  consideration  whether  it  is  wise  thus  to 
limit  our  efforts.  The  Anthropological  Society  is  only  one  of 
several  Societies^  the  spheres  of  activity  of  which  all  more  or  less 
coincide  with  those  of  the  Ethnologiod  Society.  For  example^ 
I  need  only  name  the  Society  of  Antiquaries^  the  Archaeological 
Institute^  the  Archaeological  Association^  and  the  Geographical 
Society.  The  loss  of  time^  money,  and  energy  involved  in  the 
absence  of  any  cooperation  or  harmonious  action  among  these 
Societies  in  respect  of  the  ground  common  to  all  of  them  is 
'  very  lamentable,  and  I  should  be  very  glad  to  see  something 
done  to  prevent  the  occurrence  of  this  waste  in  future. 

I  am  glad  to  be  able  to  inform  you  that,  in  accordance  with 
the  practice  which  has  now  prevailed  for  some  years,  ample  pro- 
vision has  been  made  for  the  fiill  representation  of  Ethnological 
and  Anthropological  science  at  the  meeting  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  at  Liverpool,  in  Sep- 
tember next ;  and  I  trust  that  the  Department  of  Section  D, 
which  will  meet  under  the  Presidency  of  Mr.  J.  Evans,  F.R.S., 
will  be  well  supplied  with  papers. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


rORTHB 

STUDY  OP  THE  HUMAN  RACE  IN  ALL  ITS  VAMETIBS.  AND  IN 
ALL  THE  PHASES  OF  ITS  HIST0B7  AND  PBOGBESS. 

4  ST.  MARTIN'S  PLACE,  CHARING  CROSS. 


OFFICERS  AND  COXTNCIL  FOB  1870-71. 

PROFESSOR  T.  H.  HUXLEY.  LL.D.,  P.R,S..  etc. 

ARCHIBALD  CAMPBELL,  Ebq.,  M.D. 
SIR  JOHN  LUBBOCK,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
B.  BURNETT  TYLOR,  Esq. 
THOMAS  WRIGHT,  Esq.,  MA.,  P.S.A 

fion.  Creatlurfr. 
HENRY  G.  BOHN,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.R.S.L.,  F.RA.S.,  btc. 

)^on.  (Knural  Secretary. 

COL.  A.  LANE  FOX,  F.SJL 

)^on.  dToreign  Sttretarp. 
HYDE  CLARKE,  Esq. 

P.  W.  RUDLER,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

GEORGE  A  STRETTON,  Esq. 

Council. 
W.  BLACKMORE.  Esq. 
PROFESSOR  G.  BUSK,  RRS. 
G.  CAMPBELL,  Esq.,  D.C.L. 
J.  BARNARD  DAVIS,  Esq.,  M.D.,  P.R.8. 
W.  BOYD  DAWEINS,  Esq.,  M.A,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
JOHN  DICKINSON,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
ROBERT  DUNN,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S. 
J.  W.  FLOWER,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
DAVID  FORBES,  Esq,  P.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
A.  W.  FRANKS,  Esq..  D.SA. 
REV.  CANON  GREENWELL.  M.A,  F.S.A 
A  HAMILTON,  Esq. 
F.  HINDMARSH,  Esq.,  P.G.S.,  F.R.G.S. 
T.  M^K.  HUGHES,  Esq.,  M.A,  F.G.S.,  F.S.A 
RICHARD  KING,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.RC.S. 
J.  F.  M'LENNAN,  Esq. 

SIR  RODERICK  I.  MURCHISON.  Bart.,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 
DR.  NICHOLAS,  MA.,  F.G.S. 
S.  E.  B.  PUSEY.  Esq.,  F.RG.S. 

c 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


LIST  or  FELLOWS 


THE  ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


Members  who  have  paid  a  Composition  in  lieu  of  Stihscriptions  are  indi- 
cated by  an  asterisk  (♦)  prefixed  to  their  names. 

Members  who  have  contributed  Papers  which  have  appeared  in  the  Society^ s 
Publications  are  distinguished  by  a  dagger  (f)  prefixed  to  their  names. 


Date  of 
Election. 

1858.*Adams,  William,  Esq.    5  Henrietta  Street,  Cavendish  Square. 

1864.  Aitken,  Alexander  Muirhead,  Esq.     Calcutta. 

1862.  Alcock,  His  ExoeUency  Sir  Rutherford,  K.C.B.,  H.M.  Envoy 
Extraordinary  and  Minister  Plenipotentiary,  China. 

1862.  Amhurst,  W.  A.  Tyssen,  Esq.,  F.R.S.L.     DidUngton,  Brandon, 

Norfolk. 
1870.  Antrim,  the  Earl  of.     Christchurch,  Oaford. 
1865.»Arm8trong,  Sir  William,  Bart,  K.C.B.,  F.R.8.     The  Athenceum 

Club,  Pall  Mall. 
1853.»Arthur,  Rev.  William.    Methodist  College,  Belfast. 

1863.  Ashnrst,  W.  H.,  Esq.,   SoHcitor  to  the   General  Poet  Office. 

7  Prince  of  Wales  Terrace,  Kensington  Palace. 

1870.  Backhouse,  Edward,  Esq.     Ashhum,  near  Sunderland. 

1865.  Bagehot,  Walter,  Esq.     12  Upper  Belgrave  Street,  Eaton  Square. 
1861.»Baker,  John,  Esq. 

1866.tBaker,  Pasha  Sir  Samuel.     ffeadingJiam  Hall,  Bungay. 

1865.  Balfour,  Major-General  Sir  George,  C.B.     Athenceum  Club. 
1870.  Barnes,  J.  W.,  Esq.     Market  Place,  Durham. 

1866.  Bartrum,  John  Stothart,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.     41  Oay  Street,  Bath. 
1870.  Baylis,  T.  Henry,  Esq.     3  The  Terrace,  Kensington   Gardens 

Square,  W. 
1854.tBeddoe,  J.,  Esq.,  M.D.    2  Lansdowne  Place,  Clifton. 
1869.tBell,  WiUiam  A.,  Esq.,  M.D.     Care  of  Dr.  Bird,  18  Hertford 

Street,  Mayfair. 


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XXYIX 
Dttte  of 
Bleotioo. 

1866 .♦fBlackmore,  Wm.,  Esq.    Founders  Court,  Lothbury,  E.G. 
1861.  Bohn,  Henry  G.,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.R.S.L.    Treasttbbb. 

Henrietta  Street,  Oovent  Garden,  W.C. 
1870.  Bonavia,  E.,  Esq.,  M.D.     9  Northunck  Terrace,  Maida  BUI,  W. 
1869.tBonwick,  James,  Esq.,  F.K.G.8.     13  Alfred  Eoad,  Acton. 
1844»Bracebridge,  Charles  Holt,  Esq.    Aihenceum  Cltd),  8.W. 
1866.  Braddell,  Hon.  Thomas,  H.B.M.  Attorney-General,  Singapore. 
1870.  Bragge,  William,  Esq.,  F.R.G.8.,  F.S.A.     SJdrU  HiU,  Sheffield. 
1845.*Brigg8,  Lieut.-General  John.     Oriental  and  Athenamm  Clubs. 
1869.tBrino,  Capt.  lindsay,  R.N.    All  Saints  Rectory,  Axminster. 

1868.  Brookes,  Henry,  Esq.     12  De  Beauvoir  Square. 
1861.  Burke,  Lnke,  Esq.     5  Albert  Terrace,  Acton. 
1861.tBarton,  Capt.  Ridiard  Francis,  H.B.M.  Consul,  Damascus.  Care 

of  Foreign  Office. 
1863.tBnsk,  George,  Esq.,  F.R.B.     Athenceum  dub;  and  ^2  Barley 
Strut. 

1866.tCampbell,  Archibald,  Esq.,  M.D.    Viob-Presidknt.    104  Lans- 

downs  Eoad,  Kensington  Park,  NoUing  Bill. 
1869.fCampbell,  George,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  lieutenant-Goyernor  of  Bengal. 
1870.  Campbell,  Capt.  Walter,  R.E.    Neweastle-upon-Tyne. 
1845.»Camps,  William,  Esq.,  M.D.     The  Hall,  Wilburton,  Ely. 
1870.  Camao,  H.  Bivett,  Esq.     Simlah,  India. 

1866.  Carpenter,  Frederick  Stanley,  Esq.,  D.C.G.    CareofMrs.Trygam 

Griffith,  Carreglwyd,  Bolyhead. 

1869.  Chambers,  C.  Harcourt,  Esq.     2  Chesham  Place.  S.W. 
1855.  Charlton,  William,  Esq.     Besleyside,  BeUingham,  Bexham. 
1844.»Child,  W.  D.,  Esq.     8  Hnsbury  Place  South.  E.C. 

1868.  Cholmondeley,  Colonel  the  Hon.  T.  J.    Abbots  Moss,  J^orthwich, 

Cheshire. 
1867.fClarke,  Hyde,  Esq.     Fobeion  Sbcbbtabt.   32  St.  Oeorge^s  Square, 

Pimlico.  S.W. 
1861.  Clavering,  Sir  William  Aloysins,  Bart.     AthtMeum  Club.  S.W. 

1860.  Colebrook,  Sir  Thomas  Edward,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S. 

57  South  Street,  Park  Lane. 
1854.*Coleman,  J.  Sherrard,  Esq. 
1862 .♦Collins,  W.  W.,  Esq.     2  Bereford  Square,  Old  Brompton. 

1867.  Colonsay,  Right  Hon.  Lord.     New  Club,  Edinburgh. 

1861.  Copeland,  George  Ford,  Esq.,  M.R.C.S.     Bays  Bill,  Cheltenham. 
1845.*Comthwaite,  Rey.  Tullie.    Walihamstow,  Essex. 
1861.*Crawfurd,  Oswald  J.,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Consul,  Oporto;  and  Foreign 

Office. 
1857.  Croker,  T.  F.  Dillon,  Esq.,  F.S.A.     9  PeUiam  Place,  Brompton. 

S.W. 
1845.*tCull,  R.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.     13  Tatristock  Street,  Bedford  Square. 
1855.  Cunliff,  R.,  Esq.     21  Carlton  Place,  Glasgow. 

1869.  Cunningham,  Major-General  Alexander.    Care  of  Messrs.  Henry 

8.  King  &  Co.,  65  ComhiU.  E.C. 
1860.*Cutler,  G.,  Esq.,  F.R.S.L.     Nelson  lerrace,  Sheffield. 


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XXYIU 
Date  of 
Blection. 

1858 .♦tDanieU,  G.  Wythes,  Esq.,  M.D.  38  Bmb^n-ough  Street,  Pindico. 
S.W. 

1869.  Darbishire,  Robert  D.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.G.S.     26  George  Street, 

Manchester. 
1856.tDavis,  J.  Barnard,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.R.C.8.,  F.R.S.    Shdton,  Staf- 
fordshire. 

1868.  Daw,  George  H.,  Esq.     ChisUhurst,  Kent. 
1869.tDawkiiis,  W.  Boyd,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S.     Birch  View, 

Norman  Road,  Rusholme,  Manchester. 
1850.  De  Grey  and  Bipon,  Bight  Hon.  Earl.     1  Carlton  Gardens. 
1853.  Des  Ruffi^res,  C.  Robert,  Esq.,  F.G.S.    WUmot  Lodge,  Rochester 

Road,  Camden  Town,  N.W. 
1862.^Deyonshire,  His  Grace  the  Dnke  of,  E.G.,  F.R.S.    Devonshire 

House,  Piccadilly. 

1861.  Dickinson,  John,  Esq.,  F.G.S.    Athenceum  Clvh. 

1870.  Dilke,  Sir  Charles  Wentworth,  Bart.,  M.P.  76  Shane  Street.  S.W. 
1870.  Duncan,  Professor  David,  M.A.    Presidency  College,  Madras. 

1869.  Duncan,  Professor  P.  M.,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.     40  BUssington 

Road,  Lee,  Kent. 
1868.  Dunkin,  A.  J.,  Esq.    44  Besshorough  Gardens,  S.W. ;  and  DaH- 

ford,  Kent. 
1845.*tl>unn,  Robert,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.     39  Norfolk  Street,  Strand.  W.C. 

1870.  Dunrayen  and  Mountearl,  the  Earl  of,  £.P.,  F.R.S.,  &c.  5  Buck- 

ingham  Palace  Gate,  PtnUico.  S.W. 

1862.  Eastwood,  J.  W.,  Esq.,  M.D.     BinsdaU  Park,  Darlington. 
1870.  Edwards,  John,  Esq.     1  Hare  Court,  Temple.  E.G. 
1869.tElliot,  Sir  Walter,  K.C.S.I.     Wolfeelee  Hawick,  NB. 

1863.  Erie,  Right  Hon.  Sir  William.     12  Princes  Gardens,  Hyde  Park. 
1866.  Euing,  William,  Esq.     209  West  George  Street,  and  Royal  Ex- 
change, Glasgow. 

1861.tEvans,  John,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.8.,  F.S.A.    Nash  Mills,  Hemd 
Hempstead, 

1863.  Fairbaim,  Sir  W.,  Bart.,  F.R.S.  Manchester. 

1870.  Farrar,  Rev.  A.  S.,  D.D.     The  College,  Durham. 

1861.tFarrar,  Rev.  F.  W.,  M.A.,  F.R.8.,  Assistant  Classical  Master  at 

Harrow.     The  Park,  Harrow-on-tTie-HiU. 
1870.tFi8her,  Morton  Coates,  Esq.     58  Threadnedle  Street.  E.C. 

1868.  Fitzwilliam,  W.  S.,  Esq.,  F.S.S.,  late  Member  of  the  Supreme 

Legislative  Council  of  India.     28  Ovington  Square. 

1869.  Flower,  J.  W.,  Esq.,  F.G.S.     Park  HiU,  Croydon. 
1869.*tForbes,  David,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.     11  York  Place,  Portman 

Square,  W. 
1851.*Fowler,  R.  N.,  Esq.,  M.P.     30  Comhill.  E.C. 
1861.  Fox,  Charles  Henry,  Esq.,  M.D.      The  Beeches,  Brislington, 

Bristol. 
1861.tFox,  Colonel  A.  Lane,  F.S.A.,  F.G.S.    Gbkekal  Secbetakt. 

10  Upper  Phillimore  Gardens,  Kensington.  W. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC  ' 


ZXliL 
Bate  of 

BleotioD. 

IS^.^Franks,  Augufltua  W.,  Esq.»  Director  of  the  Sodety  of  Anti- 
quaries.  Hie  British  Museum;  and  103  Victoria  Street^ 
Westminster,  8.W. 

1865.  Eraser,  Captain  Thomas.  Olago^  New  Zealand.  Care  of  J. 
Fraser  McQueen,  Esq.,  8  (M  Square,  Lineoln*s  Inn. 

1866.tFytche,  Major-General  Albert,  Chief  Commissioner  at  Martaban. 

1861.»Galton,  Captain  Douglas,  F.R.8.     12  CfTiester  Street,  Orosvenor 

Place. 
1862.tGalton,  Francis,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.  42  Rutland  OaU,  Hyde  Park; 

and  AihenoBum  Club,  Pall  MaU, 
1869.tGardner,  C.  T.,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.     3  St  Jamais  Terrace,  Pad- 

dingUm  ;  and  Shanghai. 

1861.  Gardner,  E.  V.,  Esq.    Sunhwry,  Middlesex. 
1846.*Gardner,  Peter,  Esq.     41  Inverness  Terrace,  Bayswater.  W. 

1862.  Gassiot,  J.  P.,  Esq.,  F.R.S.     Clapham  Common.  8. 
1865.»Gille8pie,  William,  Esq.     Tarhane  HiU,  Edinburgh. 

1860.  Gore,  Richard  Thomas,  Esq.     6  Queen  Square,  Bath. 
1868.tGreenwell,  Rev.  William,  M.A.,  F.8.A.,  Canon  of  Durham. 

1865.  Greg,  W.  R.,  Esq.,  Superintendent  of  H.M.  Stationery  Office. 

Princes  Street,  Westmimter.  8.W. 

1861.  Grey,  Lieut.  Henry,  R.E.,  R.N.,  HM.S.  *AJgerineJ 
1860.»tGrey,  Right  Hon.  Sir  George.     Aihencswn  Club. 

1869.  Guise,  Sir  William  Vernon,  Bart.,  F.G.S.,  F.L.S.  Elmore  Court, 
Gloucester. 

1862.  Guthrie,  James,  Esq.    3  Pognder's  Boad,  Clapham  Park. 

1869.  Hamilton,  Captain  Alexander,  R.E.    Bermuda. 
1863.*Hamilton,  Archibald,  Esq.    Southboraugh,  Bromley,  Kent. 
1853.  Hamilton,  Rowland,  Esq.     Calcutta;  and  32  New  Broad  Street. 
1869.  Harrison,  Charles,  Esq.     10  Lancaster  QaU,  Hyde  Park. 

1863.  Harvey,  John,  Esq.,  Borneo  Company.     7  Mincing  Lan€. 
1863.  Henderson,  Robert,  Esq.    RandaWs  Park,  Surrey. 
1855.  Hepburn,  Robert,  Esq.     70  Portland  Place.  W. 

1869.  Hewitt,  Jonas,  Esq.     Crown  Court,  Threadneedle  Street.  E.C. 
1844.*Heywood,  James,  Esq.,  F.R.S.     26  Kensington  Palace  Gardens; 

and  AthenoBum  Club,  Pall  MaU. 
1845.*Hindmar8h,   Frederick,  Esq.,  F.G.8.,  F.R.G.8.     4  New  Inn, 

Strand;  and  Townsend  House,  Barkway,  Herts. 
1863.  Hodgson,  Kirkman  Daniel,  Esq.,  M.P.    37  Brook  Street,  Qros- 

venor  Square  ;  and  Sparrows  Heme,  Bushy,  Herts. 
1868.tHooker,  Joseph,  Esq.,  C.B.,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  Director  of  the  Royal 

Gardens,  Kew. 
1867.  Hotten,  John  Camden,  Esq.     174  Piccadilly. 
1856.tHoworth,  H.  H.,  Esq.    Derby  House,  EccUs,  Manchester. 
1869.  Hughes,  T.  M«K.,  Esq.,  M. A.,  F.G.S.,  F.S.A.    28  Jermyn  Street. 

S.W. 

1866.  Hunt,  John,  Esq.     156  New  Bond  Street.  W. 
1861.tHutchinson,  Thomas  J.,  Esq.,  F.R.G.8.,  F.R.8.L.,  F.A.8.L., 

H.B.M.  Consul  for  Rosario,  Argentine  Republic;  Yioe-Pr^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


Bate  of 


xzz 

sident  d'Honnenr  de  rinBtitat.  d'AMque,  Paris ;  Socio  £x- 
tranjero  de  la  Sociedad  Faleontologioa  de  Buonos  Ayres,  &o. 
&c.  Foreign  Office. 
1863.tHiixley,  Professor  T.  H.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.8.,  F.G.S.,  Pre- 
sident  of  the  Biitisli  Associatioii.  Pbbsident.  Mtueum  of 
Practical  Geology ;  and  26  Abl>ey  Place,  St.  JohvCs  Wood. 
N.W. 

1869.  Inman,  Robert  M.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  P.E.G.S.     Edinburgh  Home, 
West  Street,  Brighton. 

1869.  JeffcoU,  J.  M.,  Esq.,  M.H.K.,  High  Bailiff  of  Castletowii.    Ide 
of  Man. 

1866.  Johore,  His  Highness  the  Maharajah  of  Singapore.    Care  of  W. 

W.  Kerr,  Esq.,  21  St.  SwUhin's  Lane.  E.G. 
1869.  Jones,  W.  A.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  P.G.8.     Taunton. 

1868.  Kemahan,  Bey.  Dr.,  E.E.S.L.,  F.A.S.L.    50  Greenwood  Bead, 

Dalston. 
1845.*tKing,  Eichard,  Esq.,  M.D.,  M.R.C.8.,  L.S.A.,  F.A.8.L.,  Corr. 
Mem.  Eth.  8.  N.  York  and  8tat.  8.  Darmstadt,  Hon.  Eel.  Eth. 
8.  Paris,  H.M.  Medical  Inspector  of  Factories.    12  Buhtrode 
Strut,  Cavendish  Square.  W. 

1869.  Eirwan,  Bey.  Eichard,  M.A.     Gittisham,  Honiton. 

1868.  Laing,  8amuel,  Esq.,  F.G.8.    Brighton. 

1861.  Lang,  Andrew,  Esq.    Dunmore,  TeignmouOi. 

1867.  Langlands,  J.,  Esq.     Victoria,  New  South  Wales. 
1867.  Lawford,  Edward,  Esq.,  M.D.    Ldghton  Buxzard. 

1866.  Lennox,  Arthur  C.  W.,  Esq.,  F.G.8.     Care  of  Lord  T.  Cedl,  6 

Granville  Place,  Portman  Square.  W. 

1869.  Long,  William,  Esq.,  M.A.     West  Bay,  Wrington,  Somerset. 
1860.*Love,  Horatio,  Esq.      Upper  Norwood. 
1863.nLubbock,  8ir  John,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.E.8.   Yicb-Pbbsidbht.  High 

Elms,  Famborough,  Kent. 

1854.  McClelland,  James,  Esq.     32  Pembridge  Square,  Notting  HiU. 

1865.  Macfarlan,  John  Gray,  Esq.     Clyde  ViUa,  Anerly  HUl,  Upper 

Norwood. 

1870.  Madeay,  George,  Esq.     Pendhill  Court,  Bletchingley. 
1870.  McLennan,  J.  F.,  Esq.     81  2  rinces  Street,  Edinburgh. 

1867.  Maclnre,  Andrew,  Esq.     14  Ladbroke  Square,  Notting  HUl. 

1866.  McNair,  Major  John  Frederick,  E.A.,  Executiye  Engineer,  Sinn 

gapore.   Care  of  Messrs.  Codd  &  Co.,  31  Craven  Street,  Strand. 
1855.*Malcolm,  W.  E.,  Esq.     Bumfoot,  Langhohne,  near  Carlisle. 
1864.tMarkham,  dements  R.,  Esq.,  Hon.  1^.  Geographical  8ociety. 

21  Ecdeston  Square,  Pindico  ;   the  India  Office  ;  and  Oriental 

Club,  Hanover  Square. 

1862.  Marsh,  Matthew,  Esq.  Athenceum  Club  ;  and  Eamridge,Andover, 

Hants. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


XXXI 

Date  of 
Election. 

1868.*Martin,  Bichard  Biddulph,  Esq.  Lombard  Street;  and  Clare- 
wood,  Bickley. 

1869.  Mason,  James  Wood,  Esq.  Care  of  Lovell  Kemp,  Esq.,  2Q 
Charles  Strut,  St.  James's. 

1867.  Maxwell,  Sir  P.  Benson,  Cliief  Justice.    Singapore. 

1854.  Mayer,  Joseph,  Esq.,  F.S.A.     Lord  Street,  Liverpool. 

1864.  Mayers,  W.  F.,   Esq.,    H.B.M.    Vice-Consul,     CanUm;    and 

Foreign  Office. 
18o6.*Mayson,  John  S.,  Esq.     Fallowfield,  Manchester. 
1861.  MiUigan,  Joseph,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.G.S.,  F.Z.8.,  F.L.S.,  M.R.A.8. 

15  Northumberland  Street,  Strand.  W.C. 
1864.»Milton,  Right  Hon.  Yisconnt,  M.P.     17  Qrosvenor  Street. 

1868.  Mitchell,  Albert,  Esq.     Elmstead,  Kent. 

1858.  Mitchell,  Alexander,  Esq.,  M.P.  6  Great  Stanhope  Street,  May 
Fair ;   Caroldde^  Berwickshire. 

1869.  Moggridge,M.,Esq.,F.G.S.  MonmotUhshire.    Care  of  Bey.  M.  W. 

Mof^gridge,  Long  Ditton,  Kingston-on-Thames. 

1868.  Moody,  John,  Esq.     St.  Maurice  Villa,  ffeworth  Boad,  Fork. 

1870.  Morris,  E.  Bowley,  Esq.     Gungrog  Cottage,  Welshpool, 

1869.  Morris,  Eogene,  Esq.     Birchwood,  Sydenham  Hill. 

1869.  Morris,  John,  Esq.  28  Avenue,  Bennett's  Park,  Blackheath. 
1870.»Morrison,  W.,  Esq.,  M.P.  21  Bolton  Street,  PieeadiUy.  W. 
1861.tMonat,  F.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  H.M.   Inspector-General  of  Prisons. 

Bengal.    Care  of  Lepage  &  Co.,  1  Whitefriars  Street,  Fleet 
Strut. 

1870.  Mnnton,  Francis  Kerridge,  Esq.,  F.B.G.S.     21  Montague  Strut, 

BusseU  Square.  W.C. 
I860.  Murchison,  Sir  Boderidc  Impey,  Bart,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  Director- 
General  of  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology,  President  of  the 
Boyal  Geographical  Society.     16  Bdgrave  Square.  S.W. 

1868.  Napier,  William,  Esq.     Ardmore  Lodge,  Spring  Orove,  Isle- 
worth. 
1848.*Na8h,  Davyd  W.,  Esq.     Cheltenham. 
1870.  Nash,  Bobert  Lucas,  Esq.     Craven  Cottage,  Finchley.  N. 

1868.  Neale,  J.  Donor,  Esq.  13  South  Square,  Qray's  Inn.  W.C. 
1870.  NewaJl,  B.  8.,  Esq.     Femdene,  Gateshead. 

1869.  Nicholas,  Dr.  Thomas,  M.A.,  F.G.S.    3  Craven  Strut,  Strand. 

W.C. 

1855.  Nicholson,  Brinsley,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Surgeon-Major,  Medical  Staff, 

Cork. 
1858.  Nicholson,  Sir  Charles,  Bart.,  F.B.SX.,  F.B.G.S.,  &c.    26  Devon- 
shire Place,  MaryMnme.  W. 

1870.  O'CaJlaghan,  P.,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.S.A.     Leamington. 
1869.tOppert,  Dr.  Gustay.     5  Adelaide  Square,  Windsor. 
1868.  Orton,  W.  Billing,  Esq.     ChorlUm-on-Medlock^  Lancashire. 

1867.  Osbom,  Captain  Sherard,  B.N.     119  Gloucester  Terrace,  Hyde 

Park  ;  and  Athenaum  Club, 

1868.  Ouyry,  Frederic,  Esq.,  Treasurer  S.A.     12  Queen  Anne  Street, 


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xxxu 

Dstoof 
BleotioiLi 

1862.  Parkes,  Sir  Harry,  E.C.B.9  Minister  Plenipotentiary,  Toddo, 
Japan.     The  Athenamm  and  Oriental  Clube. 

1 865.  Pereira,  Frandsoo  E.,  Esq.     Singq^pore. 

1862.  Perry,  Qerald  Baoul,  Esq.,  H.M.B.  Consul,  Stockholm. 

1864.  Petherick,  H.  W.,  Esq.     2  Denmark  Villa»,  Waddon  New  Road, 

Croydon,  Surrey. 
1862.tPliayre,  lieut.-Col.  Sir  Arthur,  Governor  of  Pegu,  British  Bur- 

mah  :  and  EJ.  U.S.  Club,  14  St.  Jamet^e  Square.  S.W. 
1869.  Platts,  John,  Esq.,  Inspector  of  Schools,  Central  India  ;  and  24 

Ifield  Road,  Weet  BrompUm. 

1868.  Pope,  George  K.,  Esq.     New  University  Club,  St.  Jameses  Street. 
1856.^Postlethwaite,  J.  J.,  Esq:     65  Besehorough  Street,  Pimlieo  ;  and 

Northend  Cottage,  Hastings,  Sussex. 

1869.  Prestwich,  Joseph,  Esq.,  E.R.S.    Shoreham,  Sevenoaks. 

1861.  Price,  Dr.  David  S.     Crystal  Palace.  S.E. 

1868.  Price,  Lorenzo  T.  C,  Esq.     11  Hockley  HtU,  Birmingham. 

1866.  Pulford,  Alfred,  Esq.     BroomhiU,  Hampton  Wick,  Kingston-on-- 

Thames. 

1865.  Puller,  A.  Giles,  Esq.     Toungsbury,  Ware,  Herts. 

1862.  Pusey,  S.  E.  B.  Bouverie,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.A.S.L.  7  Green  Street, 

Orosvenor  Square  ;  and  Pusey  House,  Farringdon,  Berks. 

1867.  Bamsay,  John,  Esq.     49  Dunhp  Street,  Glasgow ;  and  Islay, 

Argyllshire. 
1861.  Katcliff,  Charles,  Esq.,  F.R.S.L.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.S. A.,  F.G.S. 

The  Wyddrington,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 
1861.  Reid,  Lestock  R.,  Esq.    122  Westboume  Terrace  ;  and  AUienaum 

Club. 

1863.  Richardson,  Francis,  Esq.    Park  Lodge,  Blaekheath. 

1867.  Rogers,  George,  Esq.,  M.D.     Longwood  House,  Long  A^Uon, 
Bristol. 

1860.  Rolleston,  Professor  Geoi^,  M.D.,  F.R.S.     Oarford. 

1865.  R6nay,  Dr.  Hyacinthe.    Pesth. 

1870.  Rosehill,  Lord.     Easter  Warriston  House,  Edinburgh. 

1861.  Rowcroft,    Lieutenant  H.   C,    Bengal    Engineers.      Care    of 

Messrs.  S.  King  &  Co.,  Cornhill  E.C. 

1862.  Ryan,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Edward.     Garden  Lodge,  5  Addison  Eoad, 

Kensington. 

1864.  St.^air,  Rev.  George,  F.G.S.     104  Sussex  Boad,  Seven  Sisters* 

Eoad,  HoUoway.  N. 
1862.tSt.-John,  Spencer,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Consul-General,  Hayti;  and 

Foreign  Office. 
1836.*Salomons,  Alderman  Sir  David,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S.L.     26  Great 

Cumberland  Street ;  and  Broom  Hill,  Tunbridge  WeUs. 

1869.  Sanderson,  W.  Walbank,  Esq.     Boyal  Infirmary,  Manchester. 

1866.  Scott,  Thomas,  Esq.     Singapore. 
1855.*Scouler,  Professor  John.     Glasgow. 

1865.  Sheffield,  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of.     20  Portland  Place:  and 

Sheffield  Park,  UekfieJd,  Sussex. 


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Date  of 

ElecUoiL 

1862.t8hortt,  John,  Esq.,  M.D.,  M.B.C.P.L.,  Surgeon  of  H.M.  MadraB 
Army,  Superintendent  Qeneral  of  Yaccination.  Madras  Frt- 
gidency. 

1862.  Showers,  lieut-Colonel  Charles  lioneL    Agra,  India. 

1869.  Simpson,  Bey.  James.     Kirkhy  StepJien,  Westmoreland. 

1861.  Smart,   Bath  Charles,   Esq.,   M.D.,   M.B.C.S.      Oruk  Eowe, 

Waterloo  Eoad,  Manchester. 
1860.^Smith,  John,  Esq.    Stroud  Qreen,  Upper  HoUoway. 
1869.  Smith,  Thomas  J.,  Esq.     Hessle,  Kingston-on-HtUl. 

1862.  Somervell,  William,  Esq.    Strathaven  House,  ffendon. 
1861.»t8pottiswoode,  WiUiam,  Esq.,  F.B.8.     60  Orosvenor  Place. 
1861.»Stanbridge,  W.  E.,  Esq.     Wombat,  Daylesford,  Victoria. 
1866.  Stepney,  Frederick  William  Cowell,  Esq.    8  Bolton  Street,  Pic- 
cadilly. W. 

1862.  Stevens,  N.  H.,  Esq.     14  Finshury  Circus,  E.C. 
1865.*Stewart,  Dr.  Alexander  Patrick.     74  Orosvenor  Street,  Orosvenor 

Square. 

1869.  Stewart,  Captain  Charles  Edward,  5th  Punjab  Infantry.     14 

Sussex  Gardens.  W. 

1866.  Swift,  Bichard  Levinge,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Consul  at  Barcelona. 

Levinge  Lodge,  Richmond. 

1860.  Talbot  de  Malahide,  The  Bight  Hon.  Lord,  F.B.S.,  F.S.A. 
Aihenantm  Club,  Pall  Mall;  and  MoHdhide  Castle,  near 
Dublin. 

1867.  Tanner,  Bev.  James,  Junior  Chaplain  Madras  Ecclesiastical 

Establishment.     BeUary,  Madras, 

1865.  Temple,  Sir  Bichard,  E.C.S.I.,  Minister  of  Finance,  Calcutta. 

Indian  and  Oriental  Club,  Hanover  Square ;  and  India  Office. 

1863.  Tennant,  John,  Esq.    St.  BoUax,  Olasgow ;  and  Brookes  Club, 

London.  S.W. 

1866.  Thomson,  John,  Esq.     Singapore.    Care  of  John  Simpson,  Esq., 

52  North  Bridge,  Edinburgh. 

1863.  Thurlow,  Bev.  Edward.     Athenaum  Club,  PaUMall. 

1852.  Thumam,  John,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  Wilts  County  Asylum, 
Devizes. 

1870.  Tiddeman,  Bichard  Hill,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.G.S.,  H.M.  Geological 

Survey.     28  Jermyn  Street.  S.W. 

1866.  Timmins,  Samuel,  Esq.,  F.B.G.S.,  F.B.S.L.  Elveiham  Lodge, 
Birmingham. 

1849.*Tuke,  T.  Harrington,  Esq.,  MJ).     Manor  House,  ChiswicJe. 

1867.tTylor,  Edward  Burnett,  Esq.  Yice-Pbesident.  Linden,  Wel- 
lington, Somerset. 

1864.  Wade,  Thomas  Francis,  Esq.,  Secretary  H.M.  Legation,  Peking, 

China:  and  Foreign  Office. 
1854.»Walker,  J.  S.,  Esq.     The  Bury,  Hunsdon,  Ware. 
1854.»Walker,  T.,  Esq.     Beulah  Eoad,  Tunbridge  Wells. 
1866.tWallace,  Alfred   Bussell,   Esq.      Holly  House,  Tanner  Street, 

Barking. 


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ZXXIV 

Date  of 
Eleotion. 

1862.  Warner,  Edward,  Esq.,  M.P.     49  Orosvenor  Place  ;  andHigham 

Hall,  Woodford,  Essex. 
1867.  Warren,  Thomas  T.  P.  Bruce,  Esq.     MUcham,  Surrey. 
1846.*Whishaw,  James,  Esq.,  F.S.A.     Oriental  Club,  Hanover  Square. 

1869.  Winwood,  Rev.  Henry  H.,  M.A.,  E.G.  8.     11  Cavendish  Crescent, 

Bath. 
1860.  Wood,  Samuel,  Esq.     Shrewsbury. 

1863.  Woods,  Eobert  Carr,  Esq.     Care  of  Messrs.  H.  8.  King  and  Co., 

Cornhill.  E.G. 

1870.  Wright,  E.  Beresford,  Esq.     Aldercar  Hall,  LangUy  Mills,  near 

Nottingham. 
1853.tWright,  Thomas,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.8.A.,  Hon.  F.A.S.L.,  &c..  Corre- 
sponding Member  of  the  Institute  of  France.  Vicb-Presidekt. 
14  Sydney  Street,  Brompton.  8.W. 


1866.  The  Library  Committee  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  London. 


LIST  OP  HONORARY  FELLOWS  OF  THE 
ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY. 

Agassiz,  M.  Louis.     Cambridge,  Mass.,  V.S. 

Aner,  Alvis.    Vienna. 

Baer,  Professor  von.    St.  Petersburg. 

Bastian,  M.  A.     Berlin. 

Bonaparte,  His  Highness  Prince  Louis  Lucien.     8  Norfolk  Terrace, 

Notting  Hill.  W. ;  and  Paris. 
Broca,  M.     Paris. 

Darwin,  Charles,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.E.8.     Down,  Beckenham. 
D'Ayezac,  M.,  Membre  de  Plnstitut  &c.    42  Hue  de  Bac,  Paris. 
Dohne,  Eey.  J.  L. 
Edwards,  H.  Milne-,  M.D.     Paris. 
Folsom,  George,  Esq.    New  York. 
Hayden,  Prof.  F.  V.     Philadelphia. 

Henry,  Professor  Joseph.     Smithsonian  Institution,  Washingt<in. 
Hodgson,  B.  H.,  Esq.     The  Orange,  Wooton^under-Edge,  nearAlderley, 

Cheshire. 
Hunter,  W.  W.,  Esq.     Bengal  Civil  Service. 
fLatham,  R.  G.,  Esq.,  M.D.     Athenasum  Club. 
Layard,  Eight  Hon.  Austin  H.,  D.C.L.,  M.D.,  H.M.  Ambassador  at  the 

Court  of  Madrid. 
Leidy,  Dr.  Joseph.     Philadelphia. 
Lepsius,  Dr.  Bd.     Berlin. 
Leuckart,  Dr.,  Professor  of  Anatomy  and  Zoology  in  the  University  of 

Oiessen. 


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xxrv 

Lucae,  Dr.,  Professor  of  Anatomy  in  the  Senckenburg   Institute, 

FranJrfort'On-^'Main. 
Haury,  M.  Alfred,  Member  of  the  Institnte,  Paris, 
Meigs,  Dr.  J.  Aitken,  Librarian  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences, 

PMhdelphia, 
Miiller,  Professor  Max.     Oxford, 
Nicolncci,  Dr.  Giustiniano.     Naples. 
tNilsson,  Professor.     Stockholm. 
Otto,  Professor.     Copenhagen, 
Palgrave,  W.  Gifford,  Esq.     TrMzond. 
Perty,  Professor.    Berne. 
Phcebus,  Dr.,  Professor  of  Natoral  Philosophy  in  the  University  of 

Giessen, 
Pictet,  M.     Geneva. 
Qnatrefages,  M.  A.  de,Membre  de  Tlnstitat,  and  Professor  of  Ethnology. 

Jardin  des  HanteSj  Paris. 
Quetelet,  M.  L.  A.  J.,  Astronomer  Eoyal,  Brussels, 
Bawlinson,  Major-General  Sir  Henry,  K.C.B.,  E.R.S.    21  Charles  Street^ 

Berkeley  Square. 
Renan,  M.  E.,  Member  of  the  Institate,  Paris. 
Eoth,  Professor.     Heidelberg, 
Scherzer,  Dr.  Carl  Ritter  von.    Vienna. 
Semper,  Professor  Carl.    Wurzburg, 
Steenstrup,  Japetns,  Esq.     Copenhagen. 

Steinhaner,  Carl,  Director  of  the  Ethnological  Museum,  Copenhagen. 
Sutherland,  J.  P.,  Esq.,  M.D.    Natal,  SoiUh  Africa. 
Yogt,  Professor  Carl.     Geneva. 
Walther,  Dr.  Philipp  A.     Darmstadt. 
Wilkinson,  Sir  J.  Gardner,  F.R.S. 
Wrangell,  Admiral  Perdinand  yon.    St.  Petersburg, 


LIST  OF  CORRESPONDING  MEMBERS  OF  THE 

ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY. 

Appleyard,  Rev.  W. 

Baker,  W.  Bailey.     New  Zealand, 

tBollaert,  W.,  Esq.    21  a  Hanover  Square,  W. 

Clark,  Robert,  Esq. 

Firm,  James,  Esq.    Jerusalem, 

Friend,  Wm.,  M.A.,  LL.D.    Breslau. 

Fullner,  Monsieur  A.  D. 

Giglio,  Professor.     Pavia, 

Henderson,  Rey.  Alex. 

Inglis,  Rev.  John. 

Isenburg,  Rev. 

Jef&ies,  Edmund,  Esq.     KondosaUa,  Ceylon, 

fJones,  James,  Esq.    Amoy,  China, 

Enapp,  Rev.  J.  L. 


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ZZXVl 

tLockhart,  William,  Esq.,  M.R.C.S. 

Logan,  Alexander,  Esq.     Singapore. 

Macgowan,  Dr.     518  Broadway,  New  York. 

tMann,  Robert  James,  Esq.,  M.D.     6  Duke  Street,  Strand, 

Meadows,  Thomas  Taylor,  Esq. 

Miles,  William  Augustus,  Esq. 

tOliver,  Lieut.  S.  P.,  R.A.,  F.R.G.8.     40  ffauteviHe,  Guernsey. 

O'Riley,  Edward,  Esq.     Burmah. 

Patterson,  Edmund,  Esq.     Sydney,  New  South  Wales. 

Pickering,  Dr.  Charles. 

Robinson,  Edward,  Esq.,  D.D.,  LL.D. 

Robinson,  G.  A.,  Esq.    Paris. 

Ross,  J.  G.  C,  Esq.     Cocoa  Island,  near  Java. 

Schwarcz,  Dr.  Julius. 

Swinhoe,  Robert,  Esq. 

Threlkeld,  Rev.  Mr.     Sydney. 

Turner,  Professor. 

Wienecke,  M.  Le  Docteur,  Officier  de  Sant^  de  S.  M.  le  Roi  des  Pays- 

Bas.     Batavia. 
Vaughan,  J.  D.,  Esq. 


*^*  FeUows  of  the  Society  are  particularly  requested  to  oommunicate 
any  change  of  residence  to  the  Assistant-Socretary  as  early  aa 
possible. 


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THE  JOURNAL 

07  THB 

ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


Ordinary  Meeting^  Nov.  9th,  1869. 

Professor  Huxlet,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Members. — Sir  William  Vernon  Guise,  Bart.,  P.G.S., 
F.L.S. ;  Rev.  W.  A.  Jones,  F.G.S.;  Rev.  Richard  Kirwan, 
M.A. ;  Rev.  Henry  H.  Winwood,  M.A.,  F.G.S.;  Dr.  Gustav 
Oppert;  Robert  D.  Darbishire,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.G.S. ;  J.  M, 
Jeffcott,  Esq.,  M.H.K.;  William  Long,  Esq.,  M.A.;  M. 
MoooRiDOE,  Esq.,  F.G.S. ;  and  John  Plaits,  Esq. 

Mr.  S.  Thompson  exhibited  a  collection  of  photographs  of 
Stonehenge  and  other  megalithic  structures. 

Col.  A.  Lane  Fox  exhibited  some  worked  flints,  which  he  had 
recently  found  at  Stonehenge ;  and,  at  the  request  of  the  Pre- 
sident, made  the  following  remarks  on  the  proposed  examination 
of  this  structure  : — 

I.  On  tfie  Proposed  Exploration  of  Stonehenoe  by  a  Com- 
mittee of  the  British  Association.  By  Col.  A.  Lane 
Fox,  F.S.A. 

It  may  perhaps  be  desirable  that  I  should  take  advantage  of  the 
opportimity  afforded  by  the  exhibition  this  evening  of  a  series  of 
admirably-executed  photographs  of  Stonehenge,  by  Mr.  S.Thomp- 
son, to  state  to  the  Society  the  steps  which  were  taken  this  year 
by  the  British  Association,  at  Exeter,  to  promote  a  systematic 
examination  of  this  monument,  with  the  view  of  determining, 
if  possible,  the  long-standing  question  of  its  origin  and  uses. 
Perhaps  no  better  illustration  could  be  given  of  the  unwarrant- 
able deductions  of  past  ages  than  by  quoting  the  long  list  of  opi- 
nions which  have  been  hazarded  upon  this  monument,  side  by  side 
with  the  fact  that,  up  to  the  present  time,  no  proper  exploration 
of  the  place  has  been  attempted.  Since  the  time  of  Henry  of 
Hmitingdon,  who  was  the  first  author  by  whom  Stonehenge  is 
VOL.  II.  /^^^^T^ 

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2  Col.  A.  Lane  Fox — On  the  Proposed  Exploration 

mentioned^  in  the  twelfth  century^  few  antiquaries  of  note  have 
written  without  giving  the  world  the  benefit  of  their  speculations 
upon  this  structure.  It  has  been  attributed  to  every  race  that 
has  contributed  to  the  population  of  these  isles,  not  even  ex- 
cepting the  Romans.  It  has  been  described,  in  turns,  as  a  place 
of  worship,  a  court  of  justice,  a  place  of  burial,  a  sanctuary,  a 
race-course,  or  a  hanging-place;  and  learned  reasons  have  been 
assigned  for  considering  it  an  observatory ;  but  I  am  not  aware 
that  any  of  these  conjectures  have  better  foundation  for  them 
than  the  old  legend  which  ascribes  the  origin  of  the  place  to 
Merlin,  who  brought  the  stones  from  Ireland  by  supernatural 
agency,  and  set  them  up  here.  To  the  best  of  my  Imowledge, 
no  attempt  has  been  made  to  remove  the  turf  and  examine  the 
soil  within  the  enclosure  for  those  relics  of  the  constructors 
which  afford  the  only  reliable  evidence  of  the  origin  and  uses  of 
such  structures.  All  the  tumuli  in  the  neighbourhood  have  been 
opened ;  and  a  small  tumulus  within  the  area  of  the  earthwork 
surrounding  the  standing  stones  has  been  examined;  but  as 
there  is  good  reason  for  supposing  this  tumulus  to  be  of  older 
date  than  the  earthwork,  its  contents  throw  no  light  upon  the 
monument  itself. 

Apart  from  the  question  whether  or  not  it  is  a  place  of  burial, 
which  would  at  once  be  set  at  rest  by  an  examination  of  the 
ground  within  the  enclosure,  it  is  hardly  possible  to  conceive 
that  stones  of  such  great  magnitude  should  have  been  trans- 
ported to  this  place,  rough-hewn  probably  upon  the  spot,  and 
that  excavations  should  have  been  made  for  the  reception  of  the 
massive  uprights,  without  leaving  in  the  soil  trampled  beneath 
the  feet  of  the  constructors  some  traces  of  the  implements  em- 
ployed during  the  operations,  which  if  brought  to  light  would 
suffice  at  least  to  determine  the  period  and  degree  of  civilization 
of  the  people  who  erected  it. 

That  such  relics  might  be  expected  to  turn  up  if  the  soil 
were  properly  examined,  appears  probable  from  the  fact  of  my 
having  found  several  worked  flints  in  the  rubbish  around  the 
Trilithons,  during  the  short  visit  that  I  paid  to  the  spot  this 
year  on  my  way  to  Exeter.  Observing  that  two  or  three  bare 
places  had  been  scratched  in  the  soil,  apparently  by  animals,  at 
the  foot  of  the  stones,  I  examined  the  loose  earth  carefully,  and 
succeeded  in  finding  the  four  flints  which  are  exhibited  to  the 
meeting.  Two  of  these,  it  will  be  seen,  are  perfect  flakes,  hav- 
ing bulbs  of  percussion,  with  ribs  and  facets  at  the  back — ^points 
which  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  mention  are  now  admitted  by 
all  prehistoric  archaeologists  to  be  evidence  of  human  agency. 
Besides  the  flakes,  I  observed  numerous  small  splinters  of  flint, 
such  as  might  well  have  resulted  from  the  fracture  of  flint  tools. 


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of  Stonehenge  by  a  Committee  of  the  British  Auociation.    3 

had  such  been  used  in  the  process  of  dressing  the  great  blocks; 
but  upon  this  point  I  should  not  wish  to  hazard  a  conjecture 
without  examining  a  larger  quantity  of  soil  than  presented  itself 
upon  the  few  bare  spots  from  which  the  turf  had  been  removed 
at  the  time  of  my  visit. 

It  may  be  thought^  perhaps^  that  the  occurrence  of  flakes  in 
the  places  indicated,  proves  nothing,  because  the  soil  may  be 
everywhere  teeming  with  worked  flints  owing  to  the  abundance 
of  tumuli  in  the  neighbourhood.  This,  however,  is  not  the  case. 
As  cultivation  has  now  encroached  upon  the  plain  to  within  a 
short  distance  of  Stonehenge,  I  was  able  to  examine  a  field  close 
by  that  had  been  ploughed,  rolled,  and  subsequently  washed  by 
the  rain,  and  which  was  therefore  in  the  best  possible  condi- 
tion for  finding  the  flints,  had  there  been  any ;  but  I  failed  to 
discover  a  single  worked  flint  of  any  kind,  except  in  one  place 
where  a  small  tumulus  had  been  scored  by  the  plough;  here  I 
picked  up  as  many  as  twenty,  some  of  which  are  exhibited.  In 
all  the  tumuli  in  this  neighbourhood,  as  in  those  of  other  parts 
of  England,  evidence  of  the  practice  of  strewing  worked  flints 
upon  the  grave  is  observed ;  and  the  fact  of  finding  flakes  in  any 
number  in  Stonehenge  would  serve  to  connect  it  in  this  practice 
with  the  tumuli.  Now,  the  majority  of  the  tumuli  hereabout 
are  found  by  their  contents  to  belong  to  the  bronze  age ;  and  Sir 
John  Lubbock  has  inferred,  from  the  presence  of  an  unusual 
number  of  these  tumidi  within  a  radius  of  three  miles  of  the 
place,  that  Stonehenge  may  also,  with  great  probability,  be  at- 
tributed to  this  period :  the  flakes  tend  to  confirm  this  supposi- 
tion. Supposing,  however,  it  were  to  be  proved  hereafter,  as 
seems  not  impossible,  that  Stonehenge  belongs  to  the  bronze 
age,  it  would  not  necessarily  follow  that  the  stones  were  dressed 
with  bronze  tools.  I  am  inclined  to  think,  on  the  contrary,  that 
stone  or  flint,  used  with  sand  and  water,  would  be  the  more  Ukely 
materials  to  be  employed  for  the  purpose.  In  any  case,  the 
wear  and  tear  of  the  implements  must  have  been  considerable. 
Having  mentioned  my  discovery  to  Mr.  Stevens,  of  Salisbury,  I 
learnt  from  him  that  the  Wiltshire  Archaeological  Society  had 
applied  some  time  ago  to  Sir  Edmund  Antrobus,  the  owner  of 
the  property,  for  permission  to  make  the  necessary  excavations ; 
but  that  gentleman  had  been  unwilling  to  grant  permission,  on 
the  ground  that  the  examination  of  a  monument  of  such  great 
national  interest  ought  not  to  be  entrusted  to  a  local  society. 
It  therefore  appeared  to  me  desirable  that  the  subject  should  be 
brought  before  the  British  Association;  and  having  consulted 
Sir  John  Lubbock  and  Mr.  Evans,  who  concurred  in  my  sugges- 
tion, it  was  decided  that  this  should  be  done.  The  following 
gentlemen  were  therefore  appointed  by  the  Association  as  Mem- 
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4      Col.  A.  Lane  Fox — On  the  Exploration  of  Stonehenge. 

bers  of  a  Committee^  with  instruction  to  apply  to  Sir  Edmund 
Antrobus  for  permission  to  make  the  necessary  investigations, 
viz.,  Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  F.R.S.,  John  Evans,  Esq.,  F.R.S., 
Geoi^e  Busk,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  E.  T.  Stevens,  Esq.,  and  myself. 
The  Committee  having  subsequently  met  and  considered  the 
necessary  measures  to  be  taken,  has  applied  in  due  form  to  Sir 
Edmund  Antrobus.  No  decided  answer  has  been  received  as 
yet  j  and  it  is  presumed  Sir  Edmund  is  anxious  to  take  the  gene- 
ral sense  of  archaeologists  on  the  subject  before  granting  per- 
mission. Under  these  circumstances,  it  appears  to  be  desirable 
that  I  should  bring  the  subject  to  the  notice  of  this  Society, 
which  has  at  all  times  taken  such  deep  interest  in  the  megalithic 
monuments  of  this  country,  with  the  view  of  affording  to  the 
Members,  should  they  feel  disposed,  an  opportunity  of  cooperating 
in  the  recommendation  of  the  British  Association.  There  are 
only  two  heads  imder  which,  in  my  humble  judgment,  any  valid 
objection  could  be  raised  to  the  proposal  of  the  Committee: — first, 
from  the  apprehension  that  the  excavation  might  endanger  the 
stability  of  the  monument ;  and,  secondly,  from  doubts  as  to  the 
competence  of  the  Committee  appointed  for  the  purpose.  With 
regard  to  the  first  objection,  I  think  there  is  no  reasonable 
ground  for  fear.  The  part  to  be  examined  would  be  the  flat 
surface  within  the  stone  circles,  which  it  would  only  be  neces- 
sary to  excavate  as  far  as  the  natural  surface  of  the  chalk ;  nor 
would  it  be  necessary  to  approach  anywhere  near  the  foundations 
of  the  Trilithons ;  no  trace  of  the  excavations  would  be  observable 
when  the  soil  and  turf  were  replaced.  It  might  also  be  desi- 
rable to  examine  the  ditch  of  the  earthwork  surrounding  the 
structure.  As  regards  the  competence  of  the  Committee,  I 
think  that,  as  a  very  humble  Member  of  it  myself,  and  having 
no  pretension  to  act  in  any  other  capacity  than  that  of  its  Secre- 
tary, I  may  safely  say,  of  those  associated  with  me,  that  it  would 
not  be  possible  in  all  Europe  to  find  four  persons  better  qualified 
for  the  undertaking  than  those  whose  names  I  have  mentioned. 
In  Sir  John  Lubbock  and  Mr.  Evans  we  have  the  two  best 
authorities  of  our  age  upon  prehistoric  subjects ;  in  Mr.  Busk's 
hands  any  human  or  animal  remains  that  may  turn  up  will  be 
treated  with  that  great  scientific  knowledge  which  he  alone  is 
competent  to  devote  to  them,  while  Mr.  Stevens's  great  archae- 
ological experience  and  local  knowledge  render  his  services  in- 
dispensable in  any  properly-conducted  examination  of  Stone- 
henge. I  trust,  therefore,  that  with  a  Committee  so  constituted, 
backed  by  the  authority  of  what  has  been  aptly  termed  our  Na- 
tional Parliament  of  Science,  and  aided,  as  I  hope  we  shall  be, 
by  the  good  wishes  of  this  Society,  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
and  other   archaeological  Societies  of  London,   Sir  Edmund 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race.  5 

Antrobus  may  be  induced  to  accede  to  the  request  of  the  Asso- 
ciation^ and  thereby  to  settle  (if  science  and  observation  can 
settle)  a  question  which  for  seven  centuries  has  been  regarded 
as  one  of  the  most  interesting  subjects  of  inquiry  ever  submitted 
to  the  judgment  of  archaeologists. 


The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  author : — 

II.  On  the  Chinese  Race:  their  Language^ Government^  Social 
Institutions,  and  Religion.  By  C.  T.  Gardner,  Esq., 
F.R.G.S.,  of  Her  Britannic  Majesty's  Consular  Service  in 
China. 

In  treating  of  the  Chinese  people,  the  points  to  which  I  am  most 
particularly  desirous  to  direct  attention  are : — their  extreme  anti- 
quity and  conservatism ;  the  phenomenon  they  afford  of  a  great 
modern  nation  possessing  the  characteristics  of  nations  long  since 
extinct ;  the  tenacitv  with  which  they  have  retained  the  roost 
ancient  principles  of  primitive  government,  and  the  skill  with 
which  they  have  adapted  them  to  the  requirements  that  arise  in 
ruling  a  vast  empire ;  and,  finally,  the  fact  of  their  having  dis- 
covered a  method  of  rendering  the  most  primitive  form  of  writing 
capable  of  expressing  the  abstract  truths  of  a  profound  philosophy 
and  the  fanciful  flights  of  a  fertile  imagination.  These  points 
render  China  a  most  promising  field  for  the  researches  of  the 
ethnologist. 

With  regard  to  the  written  characters,  Chinese  legends  state 
that  the  first  attempt  of  man  to  express  his  wants  by  means  of 
symbols  instead  of  by  words  was  by  tying  knots  in  string  at 
different  distances  apart.  It  is  said  that  about  2800  b.  c,  Fo-hi  in- 
vented the  following  eight  symbols  : — ;;^^^  heaven,  or  pervading 

principle, ""  "*  balance, .  water,  ^^earthqtuike,  ^  ^  wood, 

^-^  sacrifice,  ^  —  boundary,  and  ^  —  the  earth.  At  the  same 
Hme,  pictorial  representations  of  these  knotted  strings  were  taken 
to  represent  the  object  thereby  symbolized.  Another  Chinese 
legend  tells  us  that  the  most  ancient  forms  were  540  characters, 
formed  by  a  combination  of  the  knotted  strings  and  the  eight 
symbols,  made  in  the  form  of  birds^  claws  in  various  states  of 
tension,  and  that  these  540  characters  were  suggested  to  the 
inventor  by  the  marks  left  by  birds'  feet  on  the  sand.  Leaving 
legends,  we  find  that  the  Ghmese  themselves  have  from  the  most 
ancient  times  classified  their  characters  under  six  heads,  and  that 
this  classification,  although  made  in  times  too  remote  to  admit  of 
any  date  being  affixed,  yet  holds  good  in  the  present  day.  The 
six  divisions  are  as  follow : — ideographic,  figurative-combined, 
indicative,  reversed,  borrowed  or  metaphoiic,  and  phonetic  cha- 

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6  C.  T.  Oabdner — On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

racters.  This  grouping  closely  resembles  the  classification  of 
hieroglyphics  into  ideographic,  determinative,  and  phonetic. 
The  ideographic  group  of  hieroglyphics  would  correspond  with 
the  first  five  divisions  of  the  Chinese,  while  the  sixth  Chinese 
division  would  comprise  both  the  determinative  and  the  phonetic. 

So  far,  the  identity  of  the  principle  of  the  Chinese  character 
and  of  the  hieroglyphics  is  evident ;  but  a  slight  difierence  exists 
in  the  use  of  phonetics;  and  here,  curiously  enough,  the  Egyptian 
shows  a  greater  resemblance  to  the  alphabetic  system  than  the 
Chinese,  both  in  regularity  of  sound  following  its  proper  phonetic 
symbol,  and  in  form  of  writing. 

Mr.  Hunter,  in  his  learned  work  on  the  Aryan  and  non- Aryan 
languages,  of  Asia,  has  shown  a  wonderful  sonal  similarity  among 
the  various  languages  of  the  east  and  west.  I  may,  in  passing, 
remark  that  had  Mr.  Hunter,  in  the  part  devoted  to  Chinese, 
distinguished  where  the  variation  of  the  Chinese  dialects  was 
one  merely  of  pronunciation,  and  where  it  was  one  also  of  the 
word  used,  he  would  still  further  have  enhanced  the  value  of 
his  work. 

Still  it  is  sufficiently  evident  that  the  sonal  similarity  of  the 
Aryan  and  what  have  been  generally  called  non- Aryan  lan- 
guages is  deserving  of  attention.  It  is  true  that  a  theory  has 
been  advanced  to  explain  this  fact,  to  the  effect  that  human 
language  had  its  origin  in  the  imitation  of  the  cries  of  animals ; 
and  arguing  thus,  it  is  easy  to  imagine  that  all  human  beings, 
having  heard  lambs  bleat,  would  all  fix  on  the  same  sounds,  ma 
for  mother,  nndpa  {or  father;  but  it  may,  we  deem,  be  reasonably 
asked  why  all  the  human  race  should  have  selected  the  bleating 
of  sheep  to  express  affiliation,  and  not  have  taken  as  their  model 
the  lowing  of  kine,  or  the  whistlings  of  birds.  Be  that  as  it 
may,  I  think  it  would  be  possible  to  point  out  that  a  similarity 
also  exists  in  the  form  of  writing^. 

But  the  question,  of  course,  arises  whether  these  coincidences 
are  purely  accidental,  or  whether  they  are  small  links  in  a  chain 
tending  to  show  a  connexion  between  the  several  races. 

Originally  each  character  in  Chinese  expressed  an  idea.  These 
characters  are  either  simple  or  compound ;  but,  from  the  changes 
that  have  taken  place  in  the  Chinese  mode  of  writing,  it  is  difficult 
to  assert  with  exactitude  which  are  the  simple  characters  and 
which  the  compound.  Comparatively  recent  Chinese  lexicogra- 
phers discovered  the  fact  that  there  were  214  signs  which  occurred 
in  all  the  40,000  characters  of  which  the  language  is  composed. 
Each  of  these  214  signs  has  a  meaning  of  its  own,  as  a  separate 
character,  and  in  general  modifies  the  meaning  (not  the  sound) 

**  [The  author  exhibited  a  number  of  diagiams  intended  to  illuBtrate  the 
relation  that  he  sought  to  trace  between  certain  characters  in  Chinese,  Hebrew, 
Arabic,  and  Egyptian  hieroglyphic  writing.— Sub-Ed.] 

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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  ifc.        7 

of  the  compound  character  of  which  it  forms  part.  Thus^  a 
single  compound  character  will  represent  lion  or  tiger,  wolf  or 
fox-,  but  in  each  there  will  be  the  simple  character  which  stands 
for  dog.  Sometimes  a  character  is  formed  by  the  composition 
of  two  radicals,  each  of  which  gives  part  of  the  meaning  to  the 
composite  character ;  thus,  the  radiccd  meaning  one,  added  to  the 
radical  standing  for  great,  signifies  heaven;  while  the  radical 
htart,  added  to  the  radical  white,  denotes  fear.  Besides  the 
radicals,  there  are  some  seven  hundred  characters  which  may  be 
termed /^Aone/tctf;  these  added  to  the  radical  give,  to  a  certain 
extent,  the  sound  of  the  character  of  which  they  form  part ;  thus, 
cKing  (azure)  added  to  the  radical  signifying  water,  means 
clear  or  clean ;  to  the  radical  signifying  cart,  it  denotes  light  in 
weight;  to  that  signifying  heart,  it  measiB  feeling  or  emotion;  to 
that  denoting  sun,  it  implies  bright,  while  to  that  signifying 
words,  it  means  to  beg.  la  all  these  examples,  the  compound 
characters  are  pronounced  by  the  same  sound,  though  not  in 
the  same  tone,  as  the  original  phonetic  character,  ch'ing,  while 
the  radicals  to  which  it  is  joined  are  successively  pronounced, 
shui,  chi,  hsin,Ji,  yen.  The  same  phonetic  joined  to  the  radical 
muh  (the  eye),  signifies  translucent  or  clearly;  to  mi  (rice),  it 
signifies  semen,  and  is  pronomiced  ching  without  the  aspirate. 
With  this  double  system  of  a  radical  to  express  the  genus,  and 
the  phonetic  to  express  the  sound,  it  will  be  easily  perceived  that 
the  Chinese  written  language  possesses  a  greater  power  even  than 
the  Greek  or  Grerman  for  the  coining  of  new  words;  and  I  sup- 
pose it  was  in  reference  to  this  that  M.  Remusat  expressed  the 
opinion  that,  if  ever  a  universal  language  were  arrived  at,  it  would 
be  the  Chinese. 

There  are,  however,  two  things  in  the  very  nature  of  the 
Chinese  language  which,  I  think,  are  sufficient  to  prevent  the 
consummation  hinted  at  by  M.  Remusat.  The  first  is  the 
complicated  construction  of  the  Chinese  character.  At  a  very 
early  period  the  Chinese  discovered  the  inconvenience  of  the 
purely  pictorial  method  of  writing,  and  substituted  fixed  signs  to 
represent  the  thing  desired  to  be  expressed.  So  long  ago  was 
this  done  that  no  examples  can  now  be  obtained  of  writing  in 
the  ancient  pictorial  form.  Still  the  Chinese  character  passed 
through  many  intermediate  stages  before  it  became  fixed  in  its 
present  form.  In  some  of  the  more  ancient  of  these  intermediate 
stages  we  have  only  a  few  characters  preserved  to  us.  Each  new 
form  of  writing  has  been  an  improvement  on  the  one  that  pre- 
ceded it. 

In  the  present  day  there  are  two  forms  of  writing — ^the  printed, 
or  official,  and  the  current  hand.  The  objection  to  the  printed 
or  official  is  the  difficulty  of  writing  it :  each  character,  unlike 
the  hieroglyphic,  occupies  the  same  space,  and  is  variously  formed 

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8  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

by  from  one  stroke  of  the  brush  up  to  as  many  as  sixty  or  more ; 
hence  the  lines  are  of  different  sizes^  so  that  a  man^  to  write 
Chinese  neatly^  must  have  considerable  powers  as  a  draughtsman^ 
and  even  then,  in  spite  of  the  terseness  of  the  Chinese  written 
language,  the  most  practised  Chinese  writer  would  take  more 
than  double  the  time  to  copy  a  Chinese  document  that  an  En- 
glishman would  occupy  to  copy  the  English  translation.  The 
objection  to  the  running  hand  is  twofold : — ^first,  that  we  lose  in 
it,  to  a  great  extent,  the  generic  nature  of  the  Chinese  character ; 
and,  secondly,  that,  from  its  being  a  kind  of  short  hand,  it  is  very 
difficult  to  decipher,  except  in  conveying  the  simplest  possible 
ideas :  hence  it  is  used  only  in  accounts,  memoranda,  and  small 
notes,  although,  for  purposes  of  ornament,  prefaces  to  books  are 
generally  printed  in  the  current  hand. 

Another  reason  that  will  prevent  the  Chinese,  ever  becoming  a 
universal  tongue,  is  the  impossibility  of  the  spoken  language  being 
identical  with  the  written.  I  have  before  remarked  that,  with  the 
exception  of  a  few  expletives,  each  character  represents  an  idea; 
but  each  character  is  only  a  monosyllable,  and  in  Pekinese  there 
are  only  690  odd  sounds  to  represent  the  whole  of  the  written 
language.  Even  if  we  add  together  all  the  different  monosyllabic 
sounds  employed  in  the  local  dialects  throughout  the  empire,  we 
should  not  have,  I  believe,  more  than  1200.  To  obviate  this  diffi- 
culty, the  Chinese,  besides  the  sound,  have  invented  a  system  of 
tones  or  fixed  inflexions  of  the  voice,  in  which  each  character 
must  be  pronounced.  These  tones  differ  in  number  and  applica- 
tion :  thus,  in  northern  mandarin  there  are  four ;  in  the  southern 
mandarin  there  are  likewise  four,  though  not  precisely  the  same  ; 
in  Cantonese  there  are  eight ;  and,  I  believe,  in  some  dialects 
there  are  as  many  as  twelve  or  fourteen.  The  same  character 
pronounced  in  different  tones  has  different  meanings :  thus,  hao 
(to  love),  formed  of  the  two  radicals  mother  and  child,  means 
good  or  well  or  very  according  as  it  is  pronounced  in  different 
tones.  Still  in  Pekinese  there  are  in  common  use  as  many  as 
37  characters,  all  of  different  meanings,  with  the  same  sound 
chi,  and  pronounced  with  the  same  inflexion  of  voice;  hence,  did 
one  speak  as  tersely  as  is  intelligible  in  writing,  one  would  not 
be  understood.  Again,  the  Chinese  written  language  being  in- 
capable of  inflexion,  one  has  to  judge,  in  books,  by  the  context,  in 
great  measure,  as  to  the  case  and  number  of  the  substantives, 
and  as  to  the  tense  and  mood  of  the  verbs.  In  the  spoken  lan- 
guage this  difficulty  of  the  absence  of  declension  is  met  by  the 
construction  of  polysyllabic  words  formed  by  joining  together 
two  or  more  characters  :  thus,  fien  (heaven)  is  generally  called 
in  speaking  chHng  fien  or  azure  heaven;  jih  (the  sun),  jiA  tou 
or  sun's  head;  mu  (mother),  mu  chHn  or  mother-relation;  a  pcr- 


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their  LanguaffCy  GovemmerU,  Social  Institutions^  ifc.        9 

trait^  hsinff  lo  iu  or  a  picture  that  puts  in  motion  pleasant  remi^ 
niscences;  "  a  photograph/^  chao  hsiang  or  ray-of -light  likeness. 
Another  plan  is  that  of  adding  a  numeric  expletive :  thus^  san 
being  three,  one  says: — san  k^owjen,  or  ''three  mouth-men;" 
san  wei  kwan,  or  ''  three  persons  mandarins ;  "  san  kai  kwan,  or 
"  three  roof-offices ;  '^  san  ko  hsing,  or  ''  three  grain-stars;"  san 
ko  hsing,  "  three  names/'  &c.  Puns  and  verbal  equivoques  are 
thus  very  easy ;  and  many  Europeans  who  cannot  catch  the  dis- 
tinction of  tones^  sometimes  make  very  ludicrous  mistakes. 

I  have  already  made  some  observations  as  to  the  different 
forms  of  the  Chinese  character;  but  besides  these,  the  written 
language  or  literature  contains  six  distinct  styles  : — 

1.  Ancient  poetry.  4.  Despatch  style. 

2.  Ancient  classic.  5.  Descriptive. 

3.  Essay  style.  6.  Colloquial. 

The  first  two  styles  are  as  distinct  from  the  modern  language 
as  Latin  is  from  Italian.  In  them  are  the  writings  of  the  ancient 
sages,  which  have  to  be  learnt  by  candidates  for  examinations. 
These  ancient  books  have  been  translated  into  the  descriptive 
style ;  and  learned  native  commentators  often  differ  in  their  ren- 
dering of  many  of  the  difficult  passages.  The  third  style  is  used 
in  Imperial  edicts,  memorials  to  the  throne,  and  original  essays 
composed  on  a  given  subject,  or  themes.  The  despatch  style  is 
used  in  letters  and  despatches ;  the  descriptive  in  ordinary  works ; 
and  the  colloquial  in  romances,  and  in  reports  of  evidence,  where 
conversation  is  set  down  as  it  actually  occurred.  One  ethic  work, 
called  the  Sacred  Edict,  has  been  translated  into  colloquial. 

The  spoken  language  is  divided  into  two  great  branches,  Man^ 
darin  and  local  dialects.  The  Mandarin,  again,  may  be  divided 
into  two  branches.  Northern  and  Southern ;  the  Northern  is  the 
more  fashionable,  but  less  pure,  being  corrupted  by  Manchu 
lisps,  accents,  &c.  The  two  dialects,  however,  are  so  similar, 
that  a  person  acquainted  with  one  can  readily  understand  the 
other.  Mandarin  is  understood  and  spoken  more  or  less  all 
over  the  empire  by  officials,  respectable  shopmen,  merchants,  &c., 
and  is  itself  the  local  dialect  as  far  south  as  Shantung,  and  of 
many  individual  towns  in  other  provinces. 

The  local  dialects  are  endless  in  number,  and  are  some  of 
them  as  different  from  Mandarin,  and  from  each  other,  as  are 
English,  French,  and  Spanish — ^though,  like  these  languages,  they 
employ  the  same  system  of  written  characters.  It  is  by  no  means 
an  uncommon  occurrence  for  Ningpo,  Shangai,  Amoy,  Swatow, 
Hongkong,  Hakka,  and  Cantonese  men  to  be  obliged  to  resort  to 
what  is  called  ''  pijin  English  "  to  render  themselves  intelligible 
one  to  another. 

Sometimes  the  difference  of  dialect  is  merely  one  of  pronun- 


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10  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

ciation ;  but  sometimes  it  is  also  a  diflTerence  of  character  em- 
ployed. I  have  observed  that  where  the  Cantonese  employ  a 
different  word  from  that  used  in  the  Mandarin^  one  genertdly 
finds  that^  on  comparing  the  characters^  the  Cantonese  is  the 
more  ancient  word  of  the  two :  thus^  many  of  the  words  in  the 
ancient  classics  are  in  colloquial  use  in  Cantonese^  while  very  few 
are  in  vogue  in  Mandarin.  I  have  heard  that  the  Fokienese  is 
still  more  ancient ;  but  as  I  am  totally  unacquainted  with  that 
dialect^  I  cannot  vouch  for  the  fact. 

Many  are  the  difficulties  which  the  student  experiences  in 
reading  Chinese.  Among  these  may  be  noted : — ^the  absence  of 
inflexion ;  the  fact  that  many  words  are  substantives,  verbs, 
adjectives  or  adverbs,  according  to  the  context ;  the  absence  of 
punctuation,  and  the  want  of  any  distinction  between  a  word 
commencing  and  a  word  ending  a  sentence,  or  between  proper 
names  and  common  nouns. 

There  is  a  great  peculiarity  about  proper  names  in  China, 
namely  that  characters  forming  part  of  them  become  forbidden 
{chHn  tzUy  as  they  are  called).  No  man  may  write,  for  example, 
any  character  that  forms  part  of  either  his  mother^s  or  his  father^s 
name,  but  must  use  another  character  of  the  same  sound  and 
significance ;  and  where  such  other  character  does  not  already 
exist,  he  must  invent  one.  Any  character  forming  part  of  an 
Emperor's  name,  is  henceforth  forbidden  all  over  the  Empire : 
thus  ning  (peaceful)  was  originally  written  differently  from 
its  present  form,  but  being  a  character  entering  into  an  emperor's 
name  it  was  necessarily  changed.  Any  candidate  at  an  exami- 
nation writing  a  forbidden  character  would  at  once  be  plucked. 

Each  Emperor,  besides  his  own  name,  has  a  title  of  his  reign 
(nien  hao  as  it  is  called),  and  a  canonized  name  or  posthumous 
title  given  him  after  his  death  (called  miao  hao,  or  "  Temple 
name  ").  Hien  fung,  for  instance,  was  not  the  late  Emperor's 
real  name,  but  only  the  title  of  his  reign.  When  he  was  buried, 
he  was  canonized  under  the  posthumous  title  of  Wen  tsung  hsien, 
or  "  Illustrious  for  Literary  Ancestors.''  The  characters  forming 
part  of  the  title  of  reign  and  posthumous  title  are  not  forbidden. 

With  regard  to  the  proper  names  of  subjects,  every  Chinaman 
has: — a  surname,  which  he  derives  from  his  father;  a  name 
given  him  eight  days  after  his  birth  by  his  parents,  and  by  which 
he  is  only  addressed  by  his  closest  relatives ;  a  nickname,  some- 
times of  a  complimentary  character,  and  sometimes  the  reverse, 
by  which  he  is  addressed  by  his  companions ;  and,  lastly,  his 
literary  name,  which  he  has  assumed  at  the  examinations.  In 
speaking  to  a  man,  except  one  is  very  intimate  with  him  or  he 
is  a  servant,  one  addresses  him  by  his  patronymic,  with  the 
addition  of  Sien-Sang  (Mr.)  to  a  non-official,  Lao-yi  (Esq.), 


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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  ^c.      1 1 

Tai-yi  (Your  Honour),  Ta-hu-yi  (Your  Worship),  or  Ta-jen 
(Your  Excellence),  according  to  rank.  An  assistant-magistrate 
is  called  Lao-yi ;  a  magistrate,  Tat^yh^  a  prefect,  Ta^ou-yi,  and 
a  Taofai  and  his  superiors,  Ta-Jen, 

An  intimate  friend  is  always  addressed  by  his  literary  name. 
In  writing,  the  use  of  the  patronymic  is  not  so  common,  and  is 
seldom  us^,  except  in  addressing  strangers  and  in  official  cor- 
respondence. A  wife  is  generally  called  by  her  maiden  surname 
when  speaking  of  her  or  describing  her  in  official  documents  ,*  but 
in  addressing  her  it  is  more  complimentary  to  do  so  by  her 
husband's  patronymic ;  the  name  she  receives  from  her  parents 
is  used  in  about  the  same  way  as  a  lad/s  Christian  name 
in  England.  Chinese  proper  surnames  are  limited  in  number 
to  one  hundred.  No  persons  of  the  same  surname  are  allowed 
to  marry.  Tatars  have  other  surnames  besides  those  of  the 
Chinese.  Before  their  intercourse  with  the  Chinese,  their  system 
of  patronymics  was  similar  to  that  of  the  Parsees  and  Indian 
Jews ;  that  is  to  say,  each  Tatar  took  the  first  name  of  his  father 
as  his  own  surname.  Now,  however,  the  Tatars  have  adopted 
the  Chinese  custom  in  name  as  in  every  thing  else. 

In  Government,  while  preserving  the  most  primitive  form —  , 
the  patriarchal — ^the  Chinese  have  so  adapted  it  as  to  make  it  fit 
into  the  complications  that  must  necessarily  arise  in  the  social 
relations  of  a  highly  civilized  nation  numberiug  400  millions  of 
people.  Their  theory  of  government  may  be  thus  briefly  stated. 
The  emperor,  whose  title  is  "  Son  of  Heaven,^'  owes  obedience 
to  G-od  as  bis  father,  and  stands  in  loco  parentis,  as  regards 
authority,  to  the  whole  empire.  A  viceroy  stands  in  loco  parentis 
to  two  provinces ;  a  governor-general,  to  one  province ;  an  in- 
tendant  of  circuit  or  Taot'ai,  to  about  one  quarter  of  a  province ; 
a  prefect,  over  about  a  sixteenth  part  of  a  province ;  and  the 
district-magistrate,  over  about  an  eightieth  of  a  province.  The 
district-magistrate  occupies  the  positions  both  of  judge  of  the 
lower,  criminal,  and  civil  courts,  and  of  collector  of  the  revenue 
of  his  district ;  this  will  include,  in  weU-populated  provinces, 
about  400  square  miles,  and  in  less-crowded  provinces  about 
1000,  and  even  1500  square  miles.  He  is  assisted  in  his  duties 
by  a  stafi^  of  assistant-magistrates  and  candidates  for  entering 
the  government  service.  Each  magistrate's  district  is  subdivided 
into  what  the  Chinese  called  Ti  (literally  lands),  or  what  we 
may  call  parishes.  These  parishes  are  so  regulated  as  to  contain 
each  from  150  to  200  families,  and  are  of  greater  or  less  extent 
according  to  the  density  of  the  population.  For  each  parish, 
one  of  the  inhabitants  is  chosen  by  his  fellows  to  be  a  sort  of 
mediator  between  the  official  magistrate  and  the  people.  This 
person,  called  by  the  Chinese  the  ''  parish  security,''  is  generally 

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12  C.  T.  Gardnisk — On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

termed,  in  European  works  on  China,  a  "  mayor/'  His  office  is 
one  of  far  more  trouble  than  either  emolument  or  honour. 
Being  chosen  by  the  people,  these  mayors  are  a  great  guarantee 
for  liberty ;  and  in  case  of  riot  often  side  with  the  people  against 
the  authorities.  No  district-magistrate  would  attempt  to  carry 
a  measure  in  which  he  was  opposed  by  all  the  mayors  of  the 
district.  At  the  same  time,  the  magistrate  has  the  power  severely 
to  punish  any  mayor  for  a  lache  of  duty,  either  by  fine,  im- 
prisonment, or  flogging.  GeneraUy  speaking,  these  mayors  are 
more  the  mouthpieces  than  the  directors  of  public  opinion ;  they 
are  always  natives  of  the  place  of  their  duties,  while,  ft*om  the 
magistrate  upwards,  no  mandarin  is  allowed  to  hold  office  in  his 
native  province. 

The  Magistrate's  duties  are  those  of  a  registrar ;  he  has  to 
forward  the  government  mails,  put  down  disturbances,  etc.,  and 
is  considered  in  part  a  mediator  between  the  people  and  the  divini- 
ties. He  is  generally  addressed  l)y  the  title  o{  father  and  mother 
of  the  district ;  nor,  to  the  fervid  minds  of  an  eastern  people,  is 
this  title  meaningless. 

The  duty  of  the  Prefect  is  more  connected  with  public  works 
and  education,  though  he  is  often  deputed  by  the  Taot'ai  to  hear 
appeals  from  the  judgment  of  the  Chihien ;  but  even  in  those 
matters  most  connected  with  his  peculiar  sphere  he  is  by  no 
means  able  to  act  on  his  own  responsibility.  In  the  educational 
department,  such  as  for  instance  the  prefectural  and  government 
examinations,  he  is  assisted  and  controlled  by  a  board  of  un- 
official scholars,  one  of  whom  is  generally  appointed  a  local  pre- 
sident for  the  publication  of  government  works  of  instruction. 
In  the  public  works'  department,  such  as  the  mending  of  roads, 
building  of  bridges,  &c.,  he  is  aided  by  a  municipal  council, 
formed  of  the  presidents  of  the  various  leading  guilds  and  chief 
landed  gentry ;  and  the  prefect  does  little  more  than  give  his 
sanction  or  veto  to  their  deliberations.  The  Taot'ai,  though  a 
civil  officer,  directs  altogether  in  time  of  peace,  and  in  great 
measure  in  times  of  war,  the  military  and  naval  operations  and 
the  manner  of  fortification,  &c.  He  is  likewise  general  supe- 
rior to  the  prefects  and  Chihiens  in  his  circuit,  and  holds  courts 
of  appeal  firom  the  decisions  of  the  latter,  but  in  all  impor- 
tant measures  he  generally  consults  the  landed  gentry,  scholars, 
and  principal  merchants. 

The  Governor-General  exercises  a  general  supervision  over 
his  province,  and,  except  that  he  has  to  obey  the  instructions  of 
the  ministry  at  Peking,  is  almost  a  sovereign.  He  has  his  court 
and  secretaries  of  state  and  council  for  the  province,  corre- 
sponding with  those  of  the  sovereign  for  the  empire.  Attached 
to  his  court  is  a  provincial  judge,  whose  duty  it  is  to  hear 


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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  8fc.      13 

appeals  from  the  court  of  the  Taot'ai,  8tc.  The  Viceroy,  besides 
being  nominally  the  superior  of  one  governor-general,  often 
rules  another  province  himself  as  governor-general.  Attached 
to  the  court  of  the  Emperor  are  certain  officers  called  Censors, 
whose  duty  it  is  to  report  to  the  Emperor  in  cases  of  misconduct 
of  any  of  the  officials  or  courtiers. 

Such  is  the  government  of  sixteen  of  the  provinces.  The 
province  of  Pe-chi-li,  being  the  seat  of  the  Court,  is  governed 
in  a  slightly  different  manner,  so  as  to  bring  it  more  directly 
under  the  central  government.  The  province  of  Liaou-yang, 
which  is  beyond  the  Great  Wall  of  China,  but  which  was  en- 
closed l)y  a  palisade  soon  after  the  Manchu  conquest  of  China, 
having  been  the  original  seat  of  the  Manchu  Government,  still 
retains  to  a  great  extent  Tatar  traditions  in  its  government. 
In  all  the  other  provinces  of  China  the  military  is  subordinate 
to  the  civil  officer ;  a  general  has  often  to  receive  instructions 
from  a  civilian  nominally  far  his  inferior  in  rank.  Here,  how- 
ever, the  civil  authorities  are  under  the  military ;  here,  too,  the 
form  of  government  preserves  a  record  of  the  national  jealousy 
that  existed  between  the  Chinese  and  Manchu  races  at  their  first 
fusion — a  national  jealousy  which  has  now  entirely  disappeared. 
It  is  the  rule  that  while  all  the  military  mandarins  of  the  pro- 
vince must  be  of  Tatar  birth,  there  shall  to  each  officer  be 
attached  a  civilian  adviser,  who  shall  receive  emoluments  and 
rank  almost  equal  to  those  of  his  military  confrire,  and  that 
these  civilians  shall  be  exclusively  Chinese  by  birth.  It  is  a 
matter  of  remark  that  the  province  of  Liaou-yang  is  by  far  the 
worst  governed  of  the  whole  empire j  and  that  of  Pe-chi-li, 
though  not  nearly  so  bad,  is,  I  believe,  worse  governed  than  any 
of  the  other  provinces. 

Having  thus  given  a  brief  outline  of  the  administrative  govern- 
ment of  the  country,  I  proceed  to  describe  its  fiscal  system. 
Taxes  were  originally  raised  in  the  old  patriarchal  way — the 
tiller  of  the  ground  giving  a  proportion  of  his  crop  to  the  go- 
vernment. This  was  soon  commuted  into  a  fixed  quantity  of 
rice  per  mow  or  sixth  of  an  acre.  At  present,  this  land-tax,  or, 
as  it  is  called.  Government  Rice- rent,  is  payable  on  all  land — 
sometimes  in  rice  forwarded  to  Peking,  and  sometimes  in  money. 
This  land-tax  varies  according  to  circumstances,  from  a  few 
pence  in  hill-districts  to  £2  an  acre  in  large  towns. 

In  addition  to  land-tax,  the  public  revenue  receives  aid  from 
the  government  monopoly  in  salt,  and  from  export  and  import 
taxes.  When  these  latter  are  on  trade  carried  in  foreign  bot- 
toms, they  are  collected  by  the  aid  of  European  and  American 
gentlemen  in  the  Chinese  service,  on  the  same  principles  as 
in  western  nations;  while  those  on   trade  carried  in  native 

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14  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

bottoms  are  collected  by  Chinese  officials^  in  a  manner  more 
conducive  to  their  own  satisfaction  than  to  the  profit  of  the 
imperial  treasury.  These  import  and  export  duties  only  clear 
the  goods  at  the  port  itself^  further  duties  (called  transit  dues) 
having  to  be  paid  at  barriers  erected  on  the  road  between  the 
port  and  the  interior.  Lastly^  there  are  the  war-taxes^  collected 
in  various  manners^  the  product  of  which  should  in  theory  be 
applied  to  the  military  defences  and  expenditure  of  the  province 
in  which  they  are  required.  A  fixed  sum  is  estimated  as  being 
necessary ;  and,  after  consultation  with  the  different  presidents 
of  the  trading-guilds,  landed  gentry,  &c.,  the  authorities  decide 
as  to  the  sum  each  guild  shall  pay,  leaving  the  guild  the  power 
to  raise  such  sum  in  what  manner  it  may  see  fit.  The  money 
is  generally  raised  indirectly,  by  levying  a  small  tax  on  each  sale 
of  goods.  This,  with  the  transit  taxes,  cripples  trade  very  much, 
and  almost  annihilates  speculation.  It  has  a  further  injurious 
eflFect  on  the  wealth  of  the  country,  by  subverting  the  principle 
of  division  of  labour.  Thus  a  man  has,  as  it  were,  a  premium 
offered  him  for  growing  his  own  cotton,  flax,  wheat,  sugar,  &c. 
for  his  own  use.  Unsatisfactory  as  the  Chinese  fiscal  system  is 
in  a  commercial  point  of  view,  much  may  be  urged  in  its  favour 
in  a  sentimental  light.  The  peasant  who  is  able,  with  the  aid 
of  his  family,  to  support  himself  independently  of  any  circu- 
lating medium  is  naturally  a  much  more  intelligent  being  than 
the  artisan  whose  sole  qualification  is  perhaps  the  perfection 
with  which  he  makes  the  thirty-second  part  of  a  pin  ! 

Besides  these  Government  taxes,  Chinamen  in  towns  have  to 
pay  local  rates,  assessed  by  local  municipal  councils,  for  repairing, 
lighting  the  streets,  &c.  These  local  rates  are  generally  levied 
on  the  principle  of  a  percentage  on  the  rent  of  the  habitation. 

While  political  economists  may  deplore  the  backwardness  of 
the  Chinese  fiscal  system,  I  think  jurists  will  be  absolutely 
startled  at  hearing  that  a  nation  of  nearly  400  millions  has  ex- 
isted hitherto  quite  happily  without  any  Civil  Code  whatever.  I 
deem  it  very  probable,  however,  from  the  attention  the  govern- 
ment is  now  bestowing  on  the  civil  laws  of  European  nations,  that 
this  defect  will  soon  be  remedied.  Meanwhile  the  want  of  a 
civil  code  is  supplied  in  three  manners:  first,  by  imperial  edicts; 
secondly,  by  custom  and  the  sayings  of  the  sages ;  and,  thirdly,  by 
the  criminal  law.  With  regard  to  imperial  edicts^  the  Govern- 
ment at  Peking  publishes  daily  a  Gazette,  containing  lists  of 
promotions,  appointments,  memorials  to  the  throne,  national 
news,  and  imperial  edicts  or  ukases.  These  gazettes  often  con- 
tain imperial  decisions  with  regard  to  complicated  civil  cases, 
and  form  precedents  highly  useful  though  by  no  means  servilely 
followed.     Edicts,  too,  are  sometimes  repealed  by  edict,  and  are 


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their  iMnguage,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  ifc,      15 

sometimes  allowed  to  become  obsolete.  Local  custom  obtains 
much  more  force  in  China  than  it  does  in  our  courts ;  the  usual 
manner  of  conducting  trade  would  be  more  taken  into  conside- 
ration than  the  letter  of  written  documents,  while  ancient  say- 
ings and  wise  saws  go  far  in  modifying  a  legal  decision. 

Much  is  said  concerning  the  barbarous  nature  of  the  Chinese 
Criminal  Code,  the  torture  of  witnesses,  and  the  like.  Without 
reminding  ourselyes  that  it  is  not  long  since  we  did  the  same, 
I  shall  briefly  touch  upon  the  practice  of  putting  witnesses  to 
the  question.  With  Asiatics  verbal  truth  is  hardly  recognized 
as  a  virtue,  while  fidelity  to  one^s  friend,  clan,  or  guild  is  re- 
garded ;  consequently  giving  false  evidence  in  court  is  so  xmi- 
versal  that  it  is  impossible  to  attempt  to  punish  for  peijury 
except  on  the  spot.  Again,  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  witnesses, 
not  because  they  fear  the  torture  in  court,  but  that  they  are 
afraid  of  the  vengeance  of  somebody  who  may  fancy  himself  in- 
jured by  their  testimony.  Moreover  no  amount  of  evidence  is 
sufficient  to  convict  a  man  unless  he  himself  confesses  his  guilt. 
Hence,  when  a  case  is  clearly  made  out,  torture  is  resorted  to 
in  order  to  make  him  confess  and  thus  fulfil  the  requirements 
of  the  law. 

Though,  nominally,  in  China  there  are  no  such  things  as 
Court-fees  or  hired  advocates,  yet  the  necessary  bribes  and  pre- 
sents make  a  Chinese  law-suit  as  expensive  a  luxury  as  it  is  in 
England ;  and  this,  combined  with  the  absence  of  civil  laws, 
renders  the  judgment  in  any  given  case  almost  as  uncertain  as 
the  multiplicity  of  our  civil  laws  makes  it  in  our  own  country. 

To  obtain  an  appointment  under  Government,  it  is  necessary 
that  the  candidate  should  have  passed  with  success  several  com- 
petitive examinations.  There  are  four  principal  degrees,  Han- 
Un,  Chin-sze,  Chu-jen,  and  Hsiu-ts'ai.  A  fixed  number  of  these 
degrees  are  allotted  to  the  Chinese,  and  are  called  civil  degrees, 
and  a  fixed  number  to  the  Tatars,  and  called  military  degrees. 
The  lowest  degree  is  competed  for  at  the  prefectural  town,  the 
next  at  the  provincial  capital,  and  the  two  highest  at  Peking.  A 
fixed  number  of  the  lowest  degrees  are  allowai  to  each  province. 
Every  precaution  is  taken  to  ensure  fair  examination.  After 
obtaining  a  literary  degree,  the  candidate  has  to  exert  his  in- 
fluence in  order  to  obtain  a  nomination  to  purchase  a  civil  official 
post.  Of  course,  the  higher  his  literary  attainments,  the  less 
interest  he  requires  to  obtain  this  nomination.  Having  secured 
this,  he  has  no  difficulty  in  borrowing  the  necessary  money 
firom  his  friends — either  relatives  who  are  glad  to  pay  for  the 
honour  of  having  their  kinsman  in  a"  government  post,  or  specu- 
lative money-lenders  who  expect  an  exorbitant  interest.  The 
amount  of  the  government  purchase  is  enormous ;  and  when  in- 


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16  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race  .- 

creased  by  the  sums  which  it  is  customary  for  the  new  officer  to 
give  to  his  immediate  superiors^  the  total  is  something  astound- 
ing. Men  of  great  family  influence^  very  distinguish^  scholars^ 
and  those  who  have  performed  highly  meritorious  actions^  often 
receive  appointments  without  purchase. 

Military  appointments  are  given  without  purchase  and  irre- 
spective of  literary  attainments^  and  are  obtained  either  by  in- 
terest or  by  merit.  Men  whose  fathers  are  professional  thieves, 
beggars,  slaves,  actors,  executioners,  brothel-keepers,  or  barbers 
are  theoretically  not  eligible  for  government  employment.  The 
inhibition  relates  only  to  the  first  generation.  This,  so  far  as  I 
know,  is,  with  a  single  exception,  the  only  symptom  of  caste  in 
the  empire*. 

Mutual  dependence  of  man  on  man  is,  in  China,  carried  so  far 
that  even  thieves  and  beggars  have  their  trade-unions,  with 
boards  of  management  to  whom  they  give  an  implicit  obedience. 
This  system  of  almost  communism,  combined  with  the  genero- 
sity of  Chinamen  towards  their  relatives,  renders,  in  times  of 
prosperity,  pauperism  an  unknown  thing,  and  crime  (especially 
of  the  violent  kind)  exceedingly  rare.  In  times  of  adversity, 
however,  it  is  very  difierent.  Each  trade-union  can  naturally 
aid  only  the  members  of  its  own  body.  Famine  and  drought 
sometimes  leave  certain  villages  without  any  resource  but  that 
of  plunder;  and  those  who  have  been  plundered  have  no  other 
means  of  indemnifying  themselves  for  the  loss  they  have  sus- 
tained than  by  exercising  a  similar  violence  on  others ;  hence 
the  disordered  state  of  the  empire,  since  the  Government  has 
not  always  the  monetary  resources  to  relieve  the  distress  as  it 
arises,  nor  the  military  means  to  suppress  the  consequence  of 
that  distress.  In  this  respect,  our  foreign  trade  has  not  been 
an  unmixed  blessing.  Thousands  of  Chinamen  were  thrown  out 
of  employment  by  the  introduction  of  foreign  vessels.  One  may 
reckon  that  for  every  100  tons  of  foreign  shipping  employed  on 
the  China  coast,  30  Chinese  were  deprived  of  their  means  of 
living,  and  that  half  of  them  so  deprived  became  robbers  or 
insurgents.    The  introduction  of  railways  into  China  would 

*  The  exception  to  which  I  allude,  is  formed  hy  a  class  of  people  called 
the  To'pi,  or  *^  lazy  people.''  These  people  are  not,  as  is  generally  helieved, 
of  Chinese  race.  Some  legends  state  that  they  are  of  Mongol  extraction. 
They  exist  in  the  province  of  Che-kiang,  and  may  only  be  barbers,  ser- 
vants, actors,  &c.  They  are  obliged  even  to  button  their  dresses  in  a  dif- 
ferent way  from  those  who  have  the  birthright  of  freedom.  They  are 
forbidden  to  marry  with  respectable  people ;  and  any  one  taking  a  wife  from 
them  is  for  ever  polluted,  and  becomes  as  one  of  them.  Still  this  dis- 
quaJdfication  of  the  To-]^i  holds  good  only  in  the  Che-kiang  province ;  for 
when  they  have  crossed  into  other  provinces  they  can  merge  mto  respect- 
able citizens. 


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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  8fC.      17 

create  far  greater  distress ;  and  I  conscientiously  believe  that  the 
Chinese  government  is  not  as  yet  capable  of  coping  with  the 
complications  and  difiSculties  which  too  sudden  an  introduction 
of  railways  would  occasion.  Emigration  to  the  rice-fields  of 
South  America^  and  to  the  unoccupied  lands  in  Africa  and 
Australia^  together  with  a  good  military  organization^  wiU^  I  be- 
lieve, eventually  solve  the  question.  The  fear  of  such  sudden 
distress  makes  the  Government  averse  to  encouraging  any 
scheme  which  involves  taking  a  body  of  men  away  from  the  in- 
fluence of  their  family^  and  placing  them  in  any  position  where 
a  temporary  distress  might  render  them  desperate ;  hence  the 
discouragement  which  the  Government  always  shows  to  work- 
ing mines^  and  to  other  enterprises  which  would  vastly  increase 
the  national  wealth.  Hence^  too^  the  Government  shows  great 
readiness  to  appease  popular  fury  by  the  sacrifice  of  an  officer 
who  has  given  umbrage  to  the  people. 

We  have  thus  seen  that  the  sphere  of  the  executive  is  much 
limited  by  municipal  councils,  guilds^  and  trade-unions^  and 
that  the  officers  of  the  Government  are  often  prevented  from 
giving  effect  to  arbitrary  and  unjust  measures  by  the  dread  of 
popular  resentment.  Great  as  these  checks  are  on  the  auto- 
cracy of  the  authorities^  a  still  greater  exists  in  the  closeness  of 
famOy  ties,  the  enormous  power  of  the  head  of  the  household, 
the  willingness  with  which  his  dictates  are  obeyed  by  his  rela- 
tives and  dependents,  and  the  readiness  with  which  members  of 
the  same  family  assist  each  other.  The  clannish  feeling  is  so 
strong  that  a  wealthy  man,  instead  of  hoarding  his  money,  or 
spending  it  in  pleasure,  takes  a  pride  in  maintaining,  in  various 
degrees  of  dependence  and  subserviency,  a  number  of  followers. 
Every  shop  supports  a  far  greater  number  of  a  family  than  in 
England  we  should  imagine  possible ;  and  from  the  highest  guild 
down  to  the  lowest  trade-union,  family  interest  is  required  to 
get  a  man  admission  as  a  member.  The  head  of  the  family  is 
not  necessarily  what  we  should  call  the  representative  of  the 
house  genealogically ;  he  is  often  a  cadet  who  has  retrieved  the 
house^s  fortune,  and  to  whom  his  elder  has  voluntarily  yielded 
the  precedence.  Cadets,  too,  often  leave  their  own  family,  and 
form  a  branch  family  that  may  in  power  eclipse  the  family  from 
which  it  has  sprung ;  but  however  rich  and  powerfrd  such  cadet 
may  be,  and  to  however  low  a  state  the  elder  may  have  fallen 
(provided  there  has  been  no  crime  or  disgrace  connected  with 
the  affair),  the  cadet  will  always  verbally  treat  his  elder  as  a 
superior.  In  China  there  exists  a  system  which,  I  believe,  is 
peculiar  to  that  country — a  system  of  keeping  a  Ckia-pu,  or 
Family  Register,  in  which  are  entered  the  names  of  every  mem- 
ber, and  a  short  account  of  their  lives.     Some  of  these  registers 

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18  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race  .* 

extend  to  a  thousand  volumes ;  but  they  are  guarded  with  such 
secrecy  that  few  Europeans^  even  those  well  acquainted  with  the 
Chinese  character^  know  of  their  existence.  In  published  trans- 
lations of  Chinese  novels^  the  word  Chia-pu  has  been  misunder- 
stood. I  was  very  anxious  to  send  an  account  of  these  Chia-pu 
to  the  Paris  Exhibition  of  1867,  and  to  place  in  the  Chinese 
model  house  an  imitation  Chia-pu;  but  no  inducement  that 
I  offered  could  prevail  on  any  Chinaman  to  let  me  have  a  sight 
of  one. 

If  a  member  of  a  family  has  disgraced  himself,  a  family  conclave 
is  held ;  and  if  after  repeated  warnings  there  seems  no  hope  of 
amendment,  his  name  is  solemnly  erased  from  the  family  regis- 
ter, and  the  motives  of  his  punishment  duly  recorded.  From 
this  time  forth,  he  is  an  outcast,  can  get  no  respectable  employ- 
ment, and  has  either  to  emigrate,  live  a  life  of  crime  or  mendi- 
cancy, become  a  Buddhist  priest,  or  be  converted  to  Christianity. 
If  his  after-life  retrieves  his  character,  he  is  often  readmitted 
into  the  family. 

Connected  with  family  influence  is  the  position  of  women.  It 
is  a  common  mistake  regarding  this  subject  to  suppose  that 
women  are  considered  in  China  mere  animals.  Nothing,  in 
fact,  can  be  Airther  from  the  truth.  Marriage  is  fenced  about 
by  ceremonies  and  observances  more  stringent  and  minute  than 
it  is  in  European  countries ;  and  though  a  man  is  allowed  nomi- 
nally to  have  as  many  concubines  as  he  pleases,  he  is  allowed 
only  one  wife,  properly  speaking.  To  this  wife  he  is  generally 
married  at  the  age  of  sixteen ;  and  the  alliance  is  usually  con- 
cluded by  the  parents  of  the  young  people  through  the  means 
of  a  professional  matrimonial  agent.  Theoretically  a  man  has 
full  power  over  his  wife ;  practically  she  has  a  father  and  big 
brothers  who  will  not  allow  her  to  be  ill  used.     By  law,  daugh-  I 

ters  of  men  who  have  attained  the  lowest  literary  grade  can  only  I 

be  first  wives ;  but  this  law  is  often  evaded.  The  first  betrothal 
consists  of  the  reception  by  the  family  of  the  bride  of  a  present 
from  the  family  of  the  bridegroom ;  but  on  the  ceremony  of 
marriage  a  large  trousseau  and  dowry  are  generally  given  to  the 
bride.  The  husband  does  not  usually  interfere  with  this  dowry : 
moreover,  at  the  wife's  death,  her  wishes  as  regards  the  bestowal 
of  her  dowry  generally  receive  attention.  It  is  disgraceful  for 
a  wife  to  marry  a  second  time ;  a  concubine,  on  the  other  hand, 
is  generally  a  purchased  slave,  and  she  incurs  no  disgrace  in 
uniting  herself  to  another  master,  either  after  the  death  of  her 
first  master  or  after  her  divorce  from  him.  The  punishment  of 
a  wife  for  adultery  is  far  more  severe  than  that  of  a  concubine 
for  the  same  crime.  Again,  husband  and  wife  mutually  worship 
each  other's  ancestors. 


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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  ifc.       19 

Another  curious  fact  with  regard  to  women  in  China  is  that 
the  law  compels  a  father  or  slave-owner  to  provide  a  husband  or 
husband  master  for  his  daughter  or  female  slave  before  she 
arrives  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years^  unless  the  girl  goes  be- 
fore a  magistrate  and  declares  that  she  prefers  a  life  of  celibacy. 
Girls  frequently  do  this,  being  moved  thereto  either  by  religious 
motives  of  Buddhist  asceticism,  or  by  believing  that  in  thus 
doing  what  they  call  Haoh-shUi  (or  work  of  supererogation), 
they  may  bring  down  the  blessing  of  Heaven  on  their  friends, 
or,  finally,  in  order  that  they  may  live  with  their  parents  and  be 
a  succour  to  them  in  their  old  age.  Hence,  if  we  except  Bud- 
dhist nuns,  old  maids  are  unknown  in  the  country. 

The  concubines,  as  before  stated,  are  generally  purchased 
slaves;  but  slavery  is  not  confined  to  them.  The  condition  of  a 
slave  is  modified,  first  by  the  fact  of  the  absence  of  caste  in  China, 
secondly  by  the  slave  and  master  belonging  to  the  same  race,  and 
thirdly  by  the  natural  good  temper  of  the  Chinese  people.  The 
household  drudges  of  a  great  family  are  generally  slaves,  and  in 
most  cases  identify  themselves  with  the  interests  of  their  mas- 
ter's family,  living  with  them  on  terms  of  great  intimacy.  Field- 
labourers  are  sometimes  slaves.  Occasionally  a  childless  man 
purchases  a  boy  to  adopt  as  his  son  in  order  to  have  some  one 
who  will  sacrifice  to  his  spirit  after  death.  Slaves  are  generally 
treated  kindly ;  and  the  institution  of  slavery  acts  as  a  great  pre- 
ventive of  infanticide.  Connected  with  slavery,  I  may  be  allowed 
to  mention  a  curious  episode  which  came  under  my  own  obser- 
vation. In  the  course  of  my  ofl&cial  work  it  became  my  duty  to 
prosecute  an  Englishman  for  extorting  money  by  means  of 
threats  of  violence  from  a  poor  Chinese  family.  As  collateral 
evidence  I  brought  before  the  Court  a  pawn-ticket  of  the  same 
date  as  the  alleged  offence,  worded  in  Chinese  as  follows : 

Foo-SHENO  Pawnshop. 

June  14th,  1868. 

Article  Pawned   Young  girl,  5  years  old. 

Amount  advanced   7  dollars. 

Conditions Money  to  be  repaid  within 

,-  ^   ,  three  months,  or  property 

^  *    i  to  vest  in  pawnbroker. 

Child's  maintenance  to 
be  paid  by  borrowers  of 
the  money. 

The  mother  of  the  family  had  pawned  her  own  child  to  obtain 
the  money  needful  to  satisfy  the  extortion  of  the  Englishman. 
The  Chinese  are  in  general  a  kindly-disposed  people,  as  is 

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as 

=1 

Ah 


20  C.  T.  Gardner— On  the  Chinese  Race  : 

proved  by  the  great  number  of  their  Benevolent  Institutions. 
Among  the  chief  of  these  is  the  Government  plan  of  dissemi- 
nating a  long  moral  work  called  the  Sacred  Edicts  which  is  an 
ethicid  discourse  on  the  five  cardinal  duties  between  children 
and  parents^  husband  and  wife^  senior  and  junior  relatives^ 
friend  and  friend^  people  and  government.  By  law^  this  Sacred 
Edict  has  to  be  read  once  a  year  to  aU  the  subjects  of  the  em- 
pire. Again^  Chinese  genti^  often  subscribe  towards  printing 
and  disseminating^  as  advertisements^  exhortations  to  the  people 
to  lead  a  moral  and  virtuous  life.  Buddhists  have  a  regular 
Tract  Society,  for  inculcating  their  tenets. 

At  Peking  some  of  the  empty  granaries  are  put  at  the  dispo- 
sal of  beggars  and  the  extreme  poor  as  gratuitous  lodgings. 
In  times  of  famine,  the  Chinese  Government  distributes  rice 
gratuitously.  Soup-kitchens  are  established,  and  benevolent 
merchants  and  gentry  associate  to  sell  food  to  the  poor  at  cost 
price.  In  times  of  plague,  Government  and  private  individuals 
give  free  theatrical  representations  and  displays  of  fireworks  to 
the  people,  in  order  to  distract  their  minds.  At  Pakwan  afid 
many  other  places  there  are  free  schools.  At  Hangchow,  there 
is  a  hospital  for  the  blind  and  infirm,  with  'their  families,  con- 
taining 2000  inmates,  with  a  statf  of  forty  medical  men  who 
give  gratuitous  advice  and  medicine.  Free  lodging  is  given; 
but  the  patients  are  provided  with  light  work  in  order  to  pay 
for  their  own  food.  Societies  for  the  prevention  of  infanticide 
are  common  all  over  the  empire.  These  societies  both  issue 
good  books  and  establish  foundling  hospitals,  where  the  children 
of  the  poor  are  received.  Another  institution  common  to  the 
empire,  with  local  committees  and  managing  boards,  is  that  for 
the  burial  of  the  uncoffined  dead. 

It  is  notable  that  there  exists  a  society  for  collecting  waste 
paper  on  which  there  are  any  written  characters.  The  Chinese 
in  their  reverence  for  literature  have  a  superstitious  respect  for 
any  thing  containing  writing.  Hence,  in  every  town  which  I 
have  visited,  there  are  little  boxes,  above  which  is  written  a 
request  to  the  passer-by,  asking  him  to  deposit  in  it  any  waste 
paper  that  he  may  be  possessed  of,  bearing  written  characters, 
in  order  to  avoid  ^he  literature  being  trampled  in  the  dust. 
The  Chinese  avoid  using  printed  paper  as  wrappers.  Again, 
during  the  late  war  the  Government  being  greatly  straitened 
for  money  on  account  both  of  the  Tai-ping  war  and  of  our  ex- 
pedition, were  urged  to  the  resource  of  greatly  depreciating  the 
coinage,  and  issued  a  quantity  of  iron  cash,  which,  however,  the 
people  refused  to  receive,  and  threw  away  in  quantities.  As 
on  each  coin  four  characters  were  engraved,  a  benevolent  asso- 
ciation started  into  existence  and  paid  for  their  collection,  in 

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their  Language,  Government,  Social  Institutions,  ^c.      21 

order  to  prevent  their  being  trodden  in  the  mud^  and  thus  got 
together  many  cartloads  of  them,  which  they  afterwards  melted 
into  a  monument  to  commemorate  the  event. 

The  Chinese  Religion  shows  signs  of  antiquity  similar  to  those 
already  seen  in  its  language,  government,  and  institutions.  The 
worship  of  ancestors,  and  the  deification  of  national  heroes  con- 
stitute the  religion  of  all  classes.  With  regard  to  ancestral 
worship,  there  are  evidences  to  prove  that  at  one  time  there  was 
human  sacrifice  to  the  manes  of  the  departed.  From  early 
times,  figures  made  of  wicker  and  covered  with  painted  paper 
were  substituted,  and  are  still  in  use  over  the  empire,  being 
burnt  at  funeral  obsequies,  with  similar  images  representing 
horses,  mules,  carriages,  &c.  These  are  supposed  to  afford  at- 
tendants to  the  deceased,  suited  to  his  rank  in  the  next  world  ; 
and  gilt  and  silvered  paper  made  up  in  the  form  of  specie  (i.  e. 
shoes  of  sycee)  being  burnt  in  a  similar  manner,  are  supposed 
to  give  him  the  means  of  keeping  up  state,  bribing  the  infernal 
judges,  and  so  forth.  Among  the  more  intelligent  natives  of 
the  present  day  these  usages  are  practised  only  because  dictated 
by  all-powerful  custom ;  while  the  ignorant  still  believe  in  their 
efficacy.  Again,  the  Chinese  believe  that  all  disease  is  caused 
by  maleficent  spirits  of  departed  men,  who,  having  no  posterity 
to  offer  sacrifices,  and  yet  possessing  the  same  need  of  food  as 
when  sojourners  on  earth,  are  compelled,  vampyre-like,  to  prey 
upon  the  health  of  the  living.  Hence  the  Chinese  have  insti- 
tuted a  yearly  service  called  the  Foo-ying-k'ow,  or  "  appeasing 
the  burning  mouths.'' 

Confucianism,  commonly  called  a  religion,  is  in  reality  merely 
a  system  of  ethics.  The  grand  master,  chief  of  conservatives, 
would  not  interfere  with  the  religion  sanctioned  by  custom; 
and  as  his  mind  was  too  intelligent  to  believe  in  its  fables,  he 
careftdly  abstained  from  discussing  them  in  his  precepts,  though 
invariably  adopting  the  customary  rites  in  his  practice. 

Buddhism,  which  has  a  greater  power  to  adapt  itself  to  cir- 
cumstances than  even  Roman  Catholicism,  has,  instead  of  trying 
to  make  a  tabula  rasa  of  former  creeds,  simply  reared  a  super- 
structure, and  only  endeavoured  to  engraft  its  legends,  morals, 
and  philosophy  on  the  ancient  stock ;  hence,  in  a  measure,  its 
great  success.  Its  hard  dogmas  are  not  preached  to  any  but 
the  adepts.  To  the  ignorant,  a  material  heaven  and  hell  is 
spoken  of,  the  latter  with  all  the  apparatus  of  torture  used  in 
the  Chinese  prisons.  Nor  in  this  matter  are  mere  words  em- 
ployed :  in  many  of  the  Buddhist  temples  are  rooms  with 
painted  figures  representing  the  punishment  of  the  wicked  in 
the  next  world.  Pictures  of  these  are  sold,  and,  coming  to  Eng- 
land under  the  name  of  "  Chinese  punishments,"  have  tended. 


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22  C.  T.  Gardner— 0«  the  Chinese  Race : 

more  than  any  thing  else^  to  disseminate  the  idea  that  the  Chi- 
nese are  a  cruel  people. 

Mahomedanism  and  Christianity^  by  demanding  a  renuncia* 
tion  of  superstitious  practices  dear  to  the  Chinese^  have  had  as 
yet  only  a  limited  influence.  But  it  may  be  observed  that,  un- 
derlying all  belief  in  a  multiplicity  of  gods  and  deified  heroes, 
there  has  ever  been  a  notion,  more  or  less  vague,  of  a  Supreme 
Being  {'Pien),  who,  when  made  a  subject  of  thought,  has  been 
sometimes  confounded  with  nature,  but  sometimes  also  regarded 
as  a  personal  being — ^a  hearer  and  answerer  of  prayer. 

So  much  for  the  past  and  present  of  the  Chinese  people.  It 
is  not  difficult  to  prophesy  their  future.  Inch  by  inch  they  are 
disputing  possession  of  new  worlds  with  the  Auglo-saxon  race. 
Their  industry,  economy,  and,  above  all,  their  clannishness 
make  them  formidable  competitors  with  us  in  the  labour- 
market.  Probably  this  competition  will  end  in  a  compromise. 
John  Chinaman  will  occupy  to  himself  the  torrid  regions,  but 
will  be  found  utterly  unsuited  to  work  in  cold  climates — ^not 
from  lack  of  industry,  but  from  lack  of  energy.  The  frigid 
zones  will,  I  think,  be  monopolized  by  the  Saxon  race,  who 
have  plenty  of  energy,  perseverance,  and  endurance,  but  not  so 
much  patience  as  is  possessed  by  the  Chinese. 

APPENDIX. 

I.  On  Chinese  Mythological  and  Legendary  History. 

Native  legends  state  that  in  the  beginning  of  the  world  China 
was  governed  for  several  millions  of  years  by  a  great  number 
of  princes.  The  first  was  Pan-ku,  or  Huen-tun,  the  Chinese 
first  man.  Then  came  the  Tien-Hwang,  or  Celestial  King,  with 
thirteen  successors,  each  of  whom  reigned  18,000  years.  These 
were  followed  by  the  Ti- Hwang,  or  Earthly  King,  with  eleven 
successors,  each  of  whom  reigned  18,000  years.  Next  came 
Jen-Hwang,  or  Human  King,  with  nine  successors,  reigning, 
some  say,  1,100,760  years,  whilst  others  say  90,000.  After 
the  Jen- Hwang  and  his  successors  came  the  Emperor  Yu-chao 
(the  name  signifying  ''he  that  hath  a  nest^').  In  his  time 
men  were  in  a  stage  of  savagery,  eating  fruits  and  raw  animal 
food.  Yu-chao  taught  them  to  make  huts  of  the  branches 
of  trees  and  of  leaves.  The  next  Emperor,  Sui-jfen  (or  "  firc- 
by-friction  man''),  observed  in  hut-building  that  wood  was 
combustible,  and  taught  men  to  cook  their  food,  instead  of  eat- 
ing it  raw ;  he  also  taught  them  a  system  of  writing  by  tying 
knots  in  string  at  different  distances.  The  lengths  of  the  reign 
of  Yu-chao  and  Sui-jSn  are,  as  may  be  expected,  a  disputed 
point.     Next  came  Fo-hi,  who  is  said  to  have  invented  the 


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their  Language^  Government ,  Social  Institutions,  Sfc,        23 

Pa-kwa  (or  eight  symbols)  previously  given  (p.  5),  to  have  dis- 
covered the  existence  and  use  of  metals  and  also  of  musical  in- 
struments, to  have  instituted  marriage,  to  have  divided  the 
Chinese  into  one  hundred  family-names,  to  have  forbidden  mar- 
riages between  persons  of  the  same  family-name  (a  law  which 
still  exists),  and  to  have  invented  a  system  of  chronology  of 
cycles  of  sixty  years — ^a  system  even  now  existing  among  the 
Chinese :  a  key  to  this  system,  made  by  myself,  and  a  compara- 
tive table  with  the  Christian  era,  compiled  by  Mr.  Mayers,  will  be 
found  in  Appendix  II.  But  the  most  wonderful  work  attributed 
to  Fo-hi  was  the  design  for  a  written  language — ^namely,  that 
all  writing  should  be  composed  of  a  picture  of  Sui-jSn's  knotted 
string  and  his  own  eight  symbols,  and  that  they  should  be 
formed  according  to  six  rules  coinciding  with  the  six  divisions 
into  which,  as  I  have  stated,  the  Chinese  divided  their  written 
characters. 

With  Fo-hi  commences  exactitude  of  dates ;  thus  Fo-hi  is  said 
to  have  reigned  from  2953  to  2838  b.c,  or  115  years,  commen- 
cing from  &22  years  ago.  Fo-hi  also  instituted  religious  cere- 
monies, such  as  sacrifices,  and  extended  the  Chinese  dominion 
from  Shansi  to  Honan  and  Shantung.  After  Fo-hi  came  Yenti 
or  Shen-nung ;  he  set  apart  peculiar  places  for  sacrifice,  removed 
the  capital  to  Shantung,  instituted  the  use  of  wheat,  rice,  peas, 
&c.,  and  discovered  what  plants  were  poisonous  and  their  anti- 
dotes. In  his  reign  first  arose  rebellions  and  wars,  and  he  accord- 
ingly demanded  military  service  from  his  subjects.  He  is  said 
to  have  reigned  from  2838  to  2698  b.c,  or  140  years,  and  was 
finally  deposed  by  Hsien-yuan,  also  called  Hwang-ti  and  Yew- 
hsiung,  whose  acts  were  as  follow : — ^the  invention,  by  a  subject, 
of  540  characters  made  in  the  form  of  bird^s  claws,  and  of  other 
characters  called  the  ^^  tadpole-head  characters  /'  the  institution 
of  punishment  by  public  decapitation ;  the  invention  of  brick- 
making;  the  builc[Lng  temples  and  palaces;  the  use  of  bows, 
arrows,  military  standards,  &c. ;  the  invention  of  a  new  musical 
instrument ;  and  the  discovery  of  copper.  In  his  reign,  silk- 
weaving  and  textile  fabrics  were  introduced,  as  also  the  use  of 
carts  and  carriages  on  rollers.  He  established  a  tribunal  of  his- 
torians— some  to  write  down  facts,  and  others  to  report  speeches. 
He  divided  the  then  existing  empire  into  chow  of  860,000 
families ;  each  chow  comprised  10  sze  of  36,000  families  each, 
each  sze  10  tu  of  3600  families,  each  tu  10  y  o{  360  families, 
each  y  5  /t  of  72  families,  each  li  3  pong  of  24  families, 
and  each  pong  3  tin  of  8  families.  His  astronomers  disco- 
vered the  fact  that  19  solar  years  contained  235  lunar  months. 
In  his  time  state-robes  were  first  used.  After  a  reign  of  100 
years  (2698  b.c  to  2598  b.c),  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son 


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24         •       C.  T.  Gardner— On  the  Chinese  Race : 

Shao-hao^  who  is  said  to  have  instituted  the  present  prevailing 
custom  that  civil  mandarins  should  wear  on  their  dress  the 
figure  of  a  bird^  and  military  mandarins  that  of  a  beast :  the  prac- 
tice of  sorcery  and  magic  commenced  in  this  reign.  Shao-hao 
reigned  84  years  (2598  b.c.  to  2514  b.c.)j  and  was  succeeded  by 
Chwan-hu^  a  grandson  of  Hwang-ti,  who  reigned  78  years,  fix)m 
2514  to  2437  b.c  The  only  thing  important  to  note  in  this  reign 
is  that  it  is  said  that  the  existing  custom  that  makes  the  Em- 
peror the  intermedium  between  heaven  and  the  people  was  now 
first  introduced.  To  him  succeeded  Ti-ku,  or  Kao-sin,  grandson 
of  Shao-hao,  and  great-grandson  of  Hwang-ti.  It  was  he  who 
first  established  public  collies :  he  reigned  70  years,  from  2437 
to  2367  B.C.  Poems  said  to  have  been  written  in  his  reign  are 
preserved  in  Chinese  classics.  After  Kao-sin  succeeded  Ti-chih, 
who  reigned  9  years,  2367  to  2358,  after  whom  came  Yao*, 
who  was  a  son  of  Kao-sin :  born  ten  months  after  the  death  of 
the  father,  by  an  immaculate  conception,  he  was  exposed  on  the 
mountain  by  his  mother,  who  feared  a  charge  of  incontinence ; 
but  he  was  spared,  nay,  succoured,  by  the  wild  animals  of  the 
forest. 

Chinese  history  up  to  this  time  I  imagine  to  be  mythologic, 
an  attempt  as  it  were  to  account  for  the  existence  of  the  human 
race  generally — ^though  of  course  occasional  traits  of  national 
ideosyncrasy  show  themselves,  and  national  pride  has  fixed 
upon  known  localities  as  the  theatre  of  the  different  events  said 
to  have  occurred.  It  is  for  others,  better  acquainted  than  I  am 
with  the  early  myths  of  mankind,  to  state  whether  any  analogy 
can  be  found  between  these  myths  and  those  of  other  nations. 

We  now  come  to  the  Chinese  legendary  history : — Yao  from 
2357  to  2255,  Shun  from  2255  to  2205,  and  Yu  from  2205 
to  2197 — a  period  in  all  of  160  years.  To  other  previous 
emperors,  Chinese  history  had  ascribed  the  invention  of  nearly 
all  the  great  material  appliances  and  customs  in  use  up  to 
the  time  of  Confucius.  While,  therefore,  history  preceding  the 
time  of  Yao  describes  the  deeds  of  rulers,  after  Yao  to  Yu 
we  have  instead  of  deeds  their  moral  discourses.  There  is  a 
notable  exception  to  this  rule  in  the  fact  that  to  Yao,  Shun, 
and  Yu  (especially  the  latter)  is  ascribed  the  clearing  of  the 
primaeval  forest  of  Shan-hsi,  Shen-hsi,  and  Honan  to  as  far 
south   as   Shao-hsing  in  the  province  of  Ch£-kiang,      Now, 


Other  chronologists  give : — 

Fo-hi B.c.  2862-2737 

Shen-nung. .  B.C.  2737-2697 
Hrien-yuan  B.C.  2697-2697 
Shao-hao  . .  b.c.  2697-2613 
Chwan-hu. .  B.C.  2613^2435 


Kao-sin B.C.  2435-2365 

Ti-chih B.C.  2366-2367 

Yao    B.C.  2357-2266 

Shun B.C.  2256-2206 


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their  Language,  Government ,  Social  Institutions,  8fC/       25 

though  we  may  not  credit  all  that  Chinese  historians  have  said 
of  Yu,  and  though  works  which  must  necessarily  have  occupied 
many  centuries  are  by  the  Chinese  said  to  have  been  executed  in 
the  reigns  of  Yao,  Shun,  and  Yu,  yet  the  existence  of  Yu 
is  an  undoubted  fact.  An  inscription  containing  his  very 
words,  and  probably  also  the  fac  simile  of  the  characters  in 
which  those  words  were  written,  is  still  existing;  but  it  is  a 
noteworthy  fact  that  the  mountains  therein  mentioned  as  the 
scene  of  his  labours  are  all  in  Shan-hsi,  a  province  in  the 
north-west  of  China,  bordering  upon  Artous  Mongolia,  anciently 
called  Serica.  These  four  mountains  are  situated  between  40^ 
and  32°  N.  lat.,  and  108"*  and  114"*  E.  long.  We  may  therefore 
reasonably  condude  that  the  colonization  of  the  southern  pro- 
vinces and  the  clearing  of  the  primaeval  forests  were  effected 
after  the  time  of  Yu.  Two  things  are  worth  mentioning— one 
being  that  before  the  time  of  Yu  the  monarchy  was  elective. 
Yu,  however,  was  the  founder  of  the  first  Chinese  dynasty ;  and 
nineteen  of  his  descendants  sat  on  the  throne.  Again,  an;er  the 
time  of  Yu  we  have  no  account  of  kings  living  and  reigning 
beyond  the  number  of  years  that  modem  experience  shows  to  be 
probable.  Close  upon  Yu's  time,  too,  was  the  first  eclipse  re- 
corded by  the  Chinese,  viz.  that  which  took  place  b.c.  2127. 

From  these  records  I  think  we  may  not  unreasonably  make 
the  following  hypotheses : — First,  at  some  time  before  2300  b.c. 
colonists  with  some  civilization,  such  as  the  art  of  writing  in  a 
rudimentary  form,  existed  or  came  to  the  north-west  of  China; 
and,  secondQy,  these  colonists  were  not  in  a  sufficiently  civilized 
state  to  preserve  any  records  or  even  legends  available  for  his- 
toric uses  earlier  than  the  time  of  Yu,  say  2250  b.c,  at  which 
date  they  must  have  been  a  long  time  in  the  country,  as  no  le- 
gends are  in  existence  showing  how  they  first  arrival.  If  we 
allow  that  the  human  race  is  of  a  common  origin,  it  is  an  inter- 
esting problem  to  determine  when  the  Chinese  first  separated 
firom  the  common  stock,  and  whether  the  Tolboth  Beni  Noah 
throws  any  light  on  the  subject.  While  we  take  lat.  40°  and 
long.  108°  as  the  principal  point  of  ingress  of  the  Chinese  race 
into  their  present  country,  we  must  remember  that  it  is  proba- 
bly not  the  only  point  of  ingress,  but  it  is  in  all  likelihood  the 
most  ancient,  and  the  only  one  where  we  can  fix  an  approximate 
date,  viz.  fix)m  b.c  2800  to  b.c  2300. 


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26 


C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race : 


II.  On  Chinese  Time. 


m 


(YiH  Chow.) 

A  cycle  of  sixty  years. 


Ten  Heavenly  Characters, 

a*bcdefghij 
Twelve  Earthly  Characters. 


1 


m 


p    q 


Year  of 

Year  of 

Year  of 

Year  of 

Year  of 

Year  of 

Year  of 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

Cycle. 

1  ak 

11  au 

21  as 

81  a  q 

41  a  0 

51  am 

1  ak 

2  bl 

12  bv 

22  bt 

32  br 

42  bp 

52  bn 

8  cm 

13  ck 

23  cu 

38  C8 

43  cq 

53  CO 

4  dn 

14  dl 

24  dv 

34  dt 

44  dr 

54  dp 

5  eo 

15  e  m 

25  ek 

35  eu 

45  es 

65  e  q 

6  f  p 

16  fn 

26  fl 

36  fv 

40  ft 

56  fr 

'M 

17  go 

18  hp 

27  gm 

28bn 

87frk 
38  hi 

47  pu 

48  hv 

67  ffs 

68  It 

9i8 

19  iq 

29  io 

39  im 

49  ik 

59  iu 

10  jt 

20  jr 

30jp 

40  j  n 

60jl 

60  jv 

SuppoBing  the  system  of  cycles  to  have  existed  in  4004  b.c.  (which 
it  did  notf),  that  year  would  have  been  the  fourteenth  of  the  cycle ; 
thence  it  is  easy  to  find  out  any  date,  as  the  first  year  of  the  cycle 
would  fall  as  follows : — 


Female. 

Male  and 
Female. 

Male  and 

Female  in 

conjmiction. 

No  Gender. 

Mal& 

B.C.  4017 

8957 

8897 

3837 

8777 

8717 

3657 

8697 

3537 

3477 

3417 

3357 

3297 

3237 

3177 

8117 

8057 

2997 

2937 

2877 

2817 

2767 

2697 

2637 

2677 

2517 

2467 

2397 

2337 

2277 

2217 

2167 

2097 

2037* 

1977 

1917 

1857 

1797 

1737 

1677 

1617 

1567 

1497 

1437 

1377 

1317 

1267 

1197 

1137* 

1077 

1017 

957 

897 

837 

777 

717 

667 

697 

637 

477 

417 

367 

297 

237 

177 

117 

57 

A.D.4 

*  The  letters  are  given  only  to  denote  the  order. 

t  Either  2037  B.C.  or  1737  b.c  was  probably  the  commencement  of  the 
Cycle. 


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their  Language y  Government y  Social  Institutions,  Ifc.       27 

The  year  1  a.d.  is  the  fifty-eighth  year  of  cycle ;  the  first  year  Mis 
as  follows : — 


Male  Axid 

female  in 

conj  unction. 

No 
Gender. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male  and 
Female. 

A.D.4 

804 

604 

004 

1204 

1604 

1804 

64 

364 

664 

964 

1264 

1564 

1864 

124 
424 
724 
1024 
1324 
1624 
1924 

184 

484 
784 
1084 
1884 
1684 
1984 

244 
544 
844 
1144 
1444 
1744 
2044 

By   denoting   gender 
of  cycle  of  60  years 
the  Chinese  educe  a 
cycle  of  300  years. 

The  present  year,  1870,  is  consequently  the  seventh  year  of  cycle 
without  gender.  It  is  interesting  to  observe  that  in  the  cycle  in 
Tibet,  1870  is  the  fifth,  not  the  seventh  year  of  cycle ;  that  is,  a 
discrepancy  of  two  years  has  crept  in  between-  tne  Chinese  and 
Tibetan  cycles. 

JSjeg  to  Animal  identified  with  gears  of  Cycle,  or  Cgcle  of 
twelve  gears. 


I 

13 

25 

37 

49 

year  of  cycle, 

a  mouse. 

2 

14 

26 

38 

50 

ff           fj 

ox. 

3 

15 

27 

39 

51 

f*             n 

tiger. 

4 

16 

28 

40 

62 

ff             f} 

hare. 

5 

17 

29 

41 

63 

V                   V 

dragon. 

6 

18 

30 

42 

54 

»>             *j 

serpent. 

7 

19 

31 

43 

55 

ft             ij 

horse. 

8 

20 

32 

44 

56 

}}             Ji 

sheep. 

9 

21 

33 

45 

57 

9f             n 

ape. 

10 

22 

34 

46 

58 

9}             yt 

bird. 

11 

23 

35 

47 

59 

it             tf 

dog. 

12 

24 

36 

48 

60 

99                    99 

hog. 

Having  thus  mentioned  the  formation  of  cycles,  I  proceed  to  the 
formation  of  the  year.  This  consists,  in  China,  of  twelve  lunar 
months  of  alternately,  or  nearly  alternately,  twenty-nine  and  thirty 
days ;  hence  new  moon  always  rails  on  the  Ist  of  the  month,  and  fuU 
moon  on  the  15th  or  16th.  To  approximate  lunar  to  solar  time, 
seven  intercalary  months  are  added  m  the  course  of  nineteen  years. 
The  month  is  aivided  into  three  periods — the  first  ten  days,  second 
ten  days,  third  nine  or  ten  days  according  to  the  leujc^th  of  the 
month.  The  division  of  time  into  weeks  of  seven  davs  is  unknown 
in  China.  It  is  evident,  from  what  I  have  stated  above,  that  235 
lunar  months  make  nearly  nineteen  years ;  hence  the  Chinese  have 
235  astronomical  names  of  months,  which  names  are  used  in  judicial 
astrology,  and  form  two  of  the  eight  characters  exchanged  in  the 
ceremony  of  marriage. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


28  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race, 

Discussion. 

Thk  President  referred  to  the  similarity  between  certain  Chinese 
customs  and  those  of  the  Polynesians,  such  as  the  exclusion  of  a 
word  occurring  in  the  name  of  a  great  chief.  In  like  manner,  the 
prohibition  of  marriage  between  persons  of  the  same  surname  is  a 
custom  common  to  the  Chinese  and  the  Australians.  He  alluded  to 
the  popular  but  erroneous  notion  that  the  Chinese  were  physicallr 
identical  with  the  Mongols,  and  pointed  to  the  fact  that  althoura 
both  had  long  black  hair  on  the  head,  and  only  scanty  hair  on  the 
face,  yet  the  Chinese  had  a  long  skull,  with  fairly  developed  brow- 
'  ridges,  whilst  the  Central  Asiatic  had  a  broad  skull  deficient  in 
brow-ridges. 

Capt.  8HERARD  Osborne,  E.N.,  said  that  he  was  not  competent 
to  pass  an  opinion  upon  any  of  the  points  alluded  to  in  the  paper 
beyond  that  of  the  social  organization  of  the  Chinese  people.  On 
that  point  Mr.  Gardner's  paper  appeared  to  him  a  very  perfect  pho- 
tograph of  the  condition  of  a  race  that  had  attempted  to  extend  the 
patriarchal  and  plirental  system,  which  serves  to  control  a  family,  to 
the  government  of  400  millions  of  people.  That  it  was  a  success  he 
disputed,  though  it  might  be  interesting  and  strange.  The  Chinese 
systems  of  education,  morality,  and  government  were  incapable  of 
meeting  the  wants  of  to-day,  or  of  securing  the  progression  and  hap- 
piness of  that  mighty  people  in  their  inevitable  contact  with  Euro- 
pean civilization.  Mr.  Gardner  bore  somewhat  hard  on  the  effect 
which  contact  with  a  superior  civilization  had  produced  on  the  con- 
dition of  the  Chinese  race,  and  had  depreciated  that  progress  which 
was  as  inevitable  as  it  was  good.  Capt.  Osborne  joined  issue  with 
him  there,  Chinese  civilization  and  self-government  were  of  them- 
selves incapable  of  progress  beyond  a  certain  point,  which  seemed  to 
be  reached  about  every  200  years,  when  there  was  a  general  up- 
heaving of  the  masses,  horrible  rebellions,  and  frightful  destruction 
of  human  beings.  Then  the  land  relapsed  into  a  state  of  torpor, 
and  peace  reigned  again  in  China.  Such  had  been  her  past  history. 
The  remedy  for  this  was,  no  doubt,  Emigration ;  but  whence  came 
that  new  institution  ?  When  the  speaker  first  went  to  China,  thirty 
years  ago,  it  was  death  by  the  laws  of  the  country  for  the  poorest 
creature  to  emigrate.  They  are  wiser  now ;  but  thanks  to  whom  ? 
why,  to  European  example  and  English  pressure.  So  with  all  else  we 
offer  them.  The  steamship  they  have  already  accepted.  The  railway 
and  engineering  talent  of  Europe  is  just  what  China  now  most  needs. 

They  are  excellent  in  aU  that  they  have  put  their  hand  to,  and 
the  speaker  knew  no  limit  to  what  the  people,  unhampered  by  their 
wretched  government  and  laws,  were  capable  of  becoming.  In  front 
of  them,  across  the  Pacific,  lay  land  whither  they  were  going  in  tens 
of  thousands.  Around  them  on  every  side  were  countries  wild  and 
hostile,  which  they  had  already  colonized  or  would  shortly.  As 
colonists  their  powers  of  self-government,  and  the  ease  with  which 
they  formed  petty  organizations,  were,  in  such  wild  lands  as  Borneo 
and  Malaya,  a  great  advantage  against  the  idle  and  hostile  races 
which  they  were  superseding.     It  was  there,  as  compared  with  wild 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Discussion.  29 

Malays  and  savage  Dyaks,  that  the  Chinese  system  of  goyemment 
shone ;  but  it  would  not  bear  comparison  with  even  tlie  worst  of 
European  rule  for  large  communities  in  modem  days. 

It  nad  been  said  that  the  introduction  of  railways  near  Shangai 
wotdd  throw  thousands  of  Chinamen  out  of  employ,  and  perhaps 
drive  them  to  become  mere  banditti ;  but  Capt.  Osborne  repied  bv 
referring  to  the  great  inundations  of  the  Yellow  River,  through  which 
it  had  been  computed  that  many  millions  of  Chinese  had  been  either 
starved  or  driven  to  beggary.  European  engineering  skill,  if  in- 
troduced, would  probably  have  averted  these  inundations,  and  would 
thus  have  saved  all  these  unfortunate  beings. 

Mr.  BowLAi^D  Hamiltok,  in  reference  to  Capt.  Osborne's  re- 
marks that  the  rebellions  of  the  Chinese  were  caused  by  the  want 
of  any  means  of  subsistence  being  found  for  the  people  in  case  of  any 
great  catastrophe,  stated  that,  in  1859,  one  of  the  worst  of  the  rebel- 
lions (that  of  the  so-called  Nienfi,  who  ravaged  Shantung  speciallv) 
was  understood  to  have  arisen  from  the  abandonment  of  the  works 
to  retain  the  Hwang-Ho  after  they  had  been  carried  away  by  a  great 
inundation.  Some  30,000  people  were  then  said  to  have  been  thus 
thrown  out  of  employment ;  and  no  other  means  of  gaining  a  sub- 
sistence were  open  to  them,  nor  were  there  any  imperid^or  pro- 
vincial resources  applicable  to  meeting  so  great  an  evil :  hence  the 
wretched  people  had  no  other  means  of  saving  their  lives  than  by 
plundering  the  neighbouring  cities.  He  believed  that  two  great 
evils  in  China  were  the  want  of  a  **  Poor  Law,"  and  inadequate  tax- 
ation. For  any  great  disaster  beyond  the  newer  of  private  or  local 
benevolence,  there  were  no  means  of  remedy  provided  by  the  law ; 
and  as  regarded  taxation,  though  no  doubt  the  people  paid  heavily, 
yet  no  adequate  amount  ever  came  to  the  genend  or  imperial  trea- 
sury. 

The  moral  state  of  the  people  showed  a  marked  coincidence  with 
this  social  condition.  The  feeling  of  fidelity  to  the  village  or  guild 
was  very  strong ;  but  the  conscience  of  the  people  did  not  rise  to  the 
perception  of  Uieir  hisher  duties  to  the  state  or  to  its  courts  of  law. 
W  ith  a  vast  extent  of  empire,  showing  many  excellencies  in  detail, 
there  was  no  power,  moral  or  material,  to  meet  great  difficulties  or  to 
bring  imperial  resources  to  meet  imperial  necessities. 

The  Eev.  Prof.  Suhmsbs  expressed  his  opinion  that  if  the  language 
of  China  were  viewed  apart  from  the  written  characters  by  which  it 
was  expressed,  and  then  compared  with  the  languages  of  the  neieh- 
bouring  nations,  some  common  points  of  resemblance  would  be  dis- 
covered, especially  in  the  construction  of  phrases  and  sentences,  as 
well  as  in  the  forms  of  words  and  idioms.  The  Chinese  language 
was  more  worthy  of  the  attention  of  the  philologist  than  it  was 
generally  deemed  to  be ;  and  in  this  opinion  the  speaker  was  borne 
out  by  the  assertion  of  a  very  learned  Sanskrit  scholar,  who  be- 
lieved that  Chinese  should  form  the  basis  and  starting-point  of 
philological  study.  With  regard  to  the  similarity  of  constructions, 
be  found  resemblances  between  the  Chinese  and  Tibetan,  and  even 
the  Sanskrit. 

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80  C.  T.  Gardner — On  the  Chinese  Race. 

Mr.  Htde  Clabkb  said  be  felt  bound  to  differ  from  bis  friend 
Mr.  Hunter  aa  to  tbe  bjpotbesis  tbat  tbe  Chinese  is  tbe  original 
language  from  wbicb  tbe  Aryan  languages  bave  been  practicallj 
denved.  It  was  necessary  to  be  particularly  cautious  in  draw- 
ing conclusions  of  this  kind ;  for  tbere  is  no  language  wbicb  will 
not  offer  suggestions  of  similarity  witb  otbers.  IGs  learned  friend 
Prof.  Summers  bad  naturally  referred  to  tbose  wbicb  be  bad  found 
between  Cbinese  and  tbe  Aryan  languages.  He  bimself  bad  found 
remarkable  coincidences  between  Osmanli  Turkisb  and  Englisb ; 
but  no  one  could  suppose  tbat  eitber  language  bad  exercised  an  in- 
fluence  on  the  other  in  these  details. 

Mr.  Ghu^ner  had  referred  in  bis  paper  to  an  interesting  subject — 
tbe  relation  of  tbe  Cbinese  characters  to  those  of  the  other  ancient 
nations ;  and  be  might  have  added  examples  from  the  cuneiform,  thus 
extending  tbe  field  of  relationship.  At  the  same  time  the  propagation 
and  distribution  of  ideographic  and  phonetic  signs  bave  no  necessary 
connexion  witb  any  affinity  of  language  as  between  the  Cbinese  and 
any  other  stock ;  nor  do  they  justify  the  impression  that  the  Cbinese 
were  tbe  inventors,  since  they  perhaps  received  them  from  another 
and  an  earlier  race.  On  tbe  other  nand,  they  do  not  prove  that 
ideographic  writing  was  obtained  by  all  the  nations  at  one  common 
centre,  because  the  earlier  systems  of  writing  were  most  likely 
propagated  from  nation  to  nation,  as  at  a  later  period  the  Phos- 
nician  alphabet  is  said  by  tradition  to  have  been  communicated  by 
Cadmus  to  the  Greeks.  Tbe  distribution  of  tbe  system  of  writing 
is  a  comparatively  late  ethnological  phenomenon,  one  much  posterior 
to  tbat  of  any  community  of  language. 

The  President  had  referred  to  illustrations  of  corresponding  facts 
to  those  adduced  by  Mr.  Gardner;  and  such  must  be  famiBar  to 
all  of  them.  He  had  witnessed  many  such  instances  on  tbe  other 
side  of  Asia ;  and  even  details  like  the  applications  of  names  and  the 
influence  of  women  bad  their  parallel  in  the  Osmanli  and  other 
eastern  empires.  We  bad  a  recent  instance  of  tbe  literary  name  in 
tbe  case  of  our  visitor,  the  late  Puad  Pasha,  Euad  being  the  literary- 
name.  Such  illustrations  might  be  multiplied.  While  making  this 
observation,  wbicb  goes  chiefly  to  this  extent — ^that  a  similar  state  of 
society,  or  of  circumstances,  will  often  bring  about  similar  institu- 
tions, it  must  nevertheless  be  borne  in  mind,  as  a  practical  result  of 
ethnological  teaching,  tbat  tbe  government  of  a  country  must  be 
conducted  in  relation  to  tbe  habits  and  customs  of  tbe  natives.  In 
this  respect  such  researches  as  tbose  of  Mr.  Gardner,  and  the  dis- 
cussions wbicb  they  receive  at  tbe  hands  of  men  of  science,  are  of 
particular  value  in  their  bearing  on  the  art  of  government,  and  in 
our  diplomatic  and  commercial  relations  with  various  races.  Of  this 
influence  the  Government  of  India  is  showing  evidence,  and  tbe  ex- 
ertions of  Mr.  Hunter,  Mr.  Gardner,  and  otbers,  all  contribute  to  a 
better  understanding. 

Mr.  Clarke  remarked  tbat  be  bad  observed  linguistic  afflnities 
between  tbe  languages  of  tbe  S6urs  and  tbe  Thugs  of  India  and 
tbose  of  the  Koriaks,  &c.,  and  also  between  tbose  of  the  Japanese  and 


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Dr.  Leitner — On  the  Races  and  Languages  of  Dardistan,    31 

Loo-Chooans  and  the  Tamil  group.  If  these  be  true,  then  the 
Chinese,  as  intrusive  on  their  intervening  area,  will  be  later  in  time, 
and  their  descent  irom  the  Tibeto- Chinese  centre  comparatively  late, 
and  perhaps  within  the  historic  period.  In  such  case  they  may  have 
inherited  the  civilization  of  earlier  occupants.  They  would  occupy 
in  China  a  position  corresponding  to  that  of  the  Aryans  in  India. 


Ordinary  Meeting,  November  28rd^  1869. 

Professor  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.B.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Member. — ^Major-General  Alexander  Cunningham. 

Dr.  Leitner  exhibited  a  portion  of  his  collection  of  objects  of 
ethnological  interest  from  Dardistan  and  Tibet.  He  then  made 
a  verbal  communication  on  the  Dards^  of  which  the  following  is 
an  abstract : — 

III.  On  the  Races  and  Languages  of  Dardistan. 
By  Dr.  G.  W.  Leitner,  M.A. 

The  author  commenced  by  giving  an  account  of  his  tour  in  1866^ 
which  extended  from  the  beginning  of  May  to  the  last  week  in 
October.  During  this  period  he  passed  through  Lahul^  Zans- 
kar,  Ladak^  Little  Tibet,  Kashmir,  Astor,  and  Ghilghit.  Find- 
ing the  ordinary  passes  closed,  he  discovered  with  much  difficulty 
a  passage  into  Ladak  through  Lahul  and  Zanskar  by  crossing 
the  Shingun  and  Marang,  instead  of  by  following  the  usual  route 
by  the  Bara-lacha  and  the  Lachalung.  He  thus  reached  Ladak 
in  the  middle  of  May,  one  month  before  the  arrival  of  the  post, 
and  long  before  the  passes  are  considered  open. 

In  visiting  the  Abbot  of  Pugdal  in  Zanskar,  Dr.  Leitner  found 
him  willing  to  undertake  the  safe  conveyance  of  any  European 
to  and  from  Lassa.  It  was  in  the  huge  cavern-monastery  of 
Pugdal  that  the  Hungarian,  Csoma  de  Coros,  spent  five  years  as 
a  lama  in  order  to  learn  Tibetan.  Among  the  good  effects  of 
his  life  here,  may  be  mentioned  the  abolition  of  the  use  of  the 
prayer- wheel. 

Dr.  Leitner  referred  to  the  exertions  of  the  Maharajah  of  Kash- 
mir in  promoting  the  advance  of  Hindooism,  a  fact  opposed  to 
the  general  idea  that  this  faith  is  never  proselytizing.  During 
this  tour  the  author  discovered  a  people  called  the  Brokhpd,  of 
pure  Aryan  origin  and  traditions,  living  side  by  side  with  the 
Tibetans. 

As  the  Maharajah  of  Kashmir  held  some  Chilasi  prisoners,  it 
was  considered  by  the  Punjab  Government  that  the  services  of 


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82  Dr.  Leitner — On  Dardistan, 

Dr.  Leitner,  when  in  Kashmir,  might  be  utilized  for  the  purpose 
of  collecting  information  regarding  these  people.  It  was  sug- 
gested that  there  might  be  some  connexion  between  Chilas  and 
the  Kaylus  or  Olympus  of  the  Hindoo  gods.  Failing,  however, 
to  obtain  the  required  information  in  Kashmir,  Dr.  Leitner  felt 
it  to  be  his  duty  to  cross  the  frontier,  although  the  country  was 
then  engaged  in  war  with  Kashmir.  He  accordingly  advanced 
to  Ghilghit,  thus  going  four  marches  beyond  the  furthest  point 
previously  attained  by  any  European  traveller.  In  this  way  he 
dispelled  the  illusion  regarding  the  inaccessibility  of  Dardistan, 
or  the  country  lying  between  Khagan  and  the  Hindoo- Koosh. 
The  Dards  inhabiting  this  country  were  previously  regarded  as  a 
ferocious  people,  and  even  as  cannibals.  They  are  a  remnant 
of  an  ancient  and  pure  Aryan  race;  and  their  languages  were 
probably  spoken  long  before  Sanskrit  was  developed  into  the 
language  of  literature. 

A  great  exception,  however,  is  to  be  found  in  the  Khajunah 
(the  language  spoken  by  the  people  of  Hunza  and  Nagyr),  which 
apparently  bears  no  resemblance  to  any  other  known  language. 
The  only  attempt  at  inflection  consists  in  certain  prefixed  gut- 
turals. It  would  seem,  however,  that  the  verb  to  be  resembles 
an  Aryan  form;  but  it  may  have  been  introduced  at  a  late 
period.  The  Hunza  people  speaking  this  language  are  known 
as  the  mountain-robbers  of  Kunjut. 

Although  the  Dards  have  no  written  character,  they  have  pre- 
served orally,  in  songs  and  stories,  some  most  interesting  frag- 
ments of  history  and  mythology.  Dr.  Leitner  concluded  by 
reading  a  Dardu  legend  which  he  had  committed  to  writing, 
and  which  professed  to  give  an  historical  account  of  the  origin 
of  Ghilghit.  In  this  legend  it  was  stated  that  a  race,  believed  to 
be  aborigines,  were  once  ruled  over  by  a  monster  who  indulged 
in  cannibalism.  At  a  certain  time  three  fairies  appeared  on  a 
mountain,  and  ultimately  delivered  Ghilghit  from  the  oppressor. 
After  his  death,  an  annual  festival  was  held  in  commemoration 
of  the  deliverance. 

Discussion. 

The  Presidskt  inquired  as  to  the  physical  characters  of  the  Siah- 
p6sh  Kafirs,  who  haid  been  described  as  a  fair-haired,  blue-eyed 
people.  The  author  replied  that  they  were  certainly  &irer  than  the 
Kashmirs,  and  that  one  of  the  Kafir  youths  who  stayed  with  him  had 
blue  eyes. 

Mr.  Trxlawitt  Sa-UNDSRs  was  desirous  of  obtaining  some  infor- 
mation on  the  natural  conditions  of  these  Ghilghit  valleys,  especially 
of  the  north-eastern  branch,  including  Bunza  and  Nagar  or  Nagayr. 
The  latter  valley  was  often  alluded  to  by  the  name  of  Kunjut,  espe- 
cially with  reference  to  the  depredations  made  by  its  people  upon 


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Discussion.  33 

carayana  trading  to  Yarkand  from  Badakshan  on  the  west  and  Ladak 
on  the  south. 

It  is  remarkable  that,  although  Kunjut  is  surrounded  by  peaks 
25,000  feet  in  height,  it  is  occupied  by  a  permanent  population ; 
while  at  the  same  time  the  adjoining  valleys  on  tbe  east,  which  form 
a  part  of  the  Shigar  basin,  are  filled  by  the  most  formidable  glaciers. 
The  Biafo  glacier  was  found,  by  Captain  Godwin- Austen,  extending 
from  the  frontier  of  Nagyr  eastward  for  fifly  miles.  The  causes  of 
these  distinctions  have  yet  to  be  explained. 

It  was  with  great  pleasure  that  Mr.  Saunders  had  heard  of  the 
willingness  of  the  Lama  Abbot  of  the  monastery  of  Pugdal  in  Zan- 
skar  to  enable  a  qualified  European  to  reach  Lassa.  Having  in 
view  the  promotion  of  negociations  at  Peking  for  the  removal  of  the 
absolute  prevention  bv  the  Chinese  Ghovemment  of  European  inter- 
course between  Britisn  India  and  the  Chinese  dominions,  Mr.  Saun- 
ders regarded  such  an  exercise  of  the  Lama's  influence  as  highly  desi- 
rable, and  deserving  of  the  attention  of  Q-overnment. 

Mr.  ErvENQToir  begged  to  be  allowed  to  speak  on  the  subject  of 
his  frient  Mr.  Cooper's  journey  through  China  into  Tibet.  Me  had 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  ]S£r.  Cooper  at  Hong  £on&;  after  his  return, 
and  understood  that,  furnished  with  passes  from  the  Chinese  author- 
ities, he  met  with  no  opposition  from  the  Maudarins  to  the  prosecu- 
tion of  his  journey  through  China ;  but  after  leaving  Chma  and 
Penetrating  into  Tibet,  he  was  robbed  and  turned  back  by  the 
'ibetans;  upon  his  return  through  China  he  met  with  kindness 
from  the  Chinese.  British  subjects,  he  believed,  found  no  difficulty 
in  obtaining  the  requisite  passes,  which  enabled  them  to  travel  through 
China  with  few  obstacles  from  the  authorities ;  but  were  passes  to 
be  obtained  from  Peking  authorizing  British  subjects  to  travel  in 
Tibet,  it  is  considered  very  doubtful  whether  they  would  thereby 
be  rendered  secure  from  hindrance  and  ill-usage  at  the  hands  of  tribes 
only  nonunally  subject  to  the  Chinese  Emperor. 

Mr.  Htde  Clajslke  confirmed  the  statements  of  Dr.  Leitner,  that, 
as  far  as  his  own  investigations  had  gone,  there  are  no  known  conge- 
ners of  Khajunah ;  and  he  agreed  with  him  that  the  verb  ''  to  be  "  was 
not  Aryan,  but  that  the  resemblance  was  casual.  The  numerals  in 
many  groups,  as  in  the  Indo-European,  the  Semitic,  and  the  Malay, 
are  typical  and  can  be  traced  through  each  member  of  the  group ; 
but  in  the  TJgro-Tatar  this  Ib  not  the  case,  and  there  is  more  than  one 
type  of  numerals.  This  may  be  the  case  with  the  Khajunah,  which 
possibly  belongs  to  some  group  in  which  the  numerals  are  un- 
conformable. With  regard  to  the  other  leading  radicals,  he  hoped  he 
should  not  be  misunderstood  when  he  stated  that  they  appeared  to 
bear  some  resemblance  to  Yenisseian.  In  the  case  of  a  member  dis- 
severed at  a  very  andent  period,  the  variations  of  type  are  always 
found  to  be  considerable.  A  very  interesting  question  for  investiga- 
tion is  whether  there  is  any  ethnological  connexion  between  the 
Khajunah  and  the  Dardi  stocks,  and,  in  such  case,  whether  the  Dardi 
tribes  have  not  lost  the  Khajunah  language  and  assumed  the  later 
Aryan. 

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34  Dr.  Lkitner — On  Dardisian, 

Br.  Campbell  said  that  through  Dr.  Leitner's  kindness  he  had 
been  enabled  to  inspect  the  whole  of  his  collection  at  the  India 
Office,  of  which  a  small  portion  only  was  then  exhibited.  It  ap- 
peared to  him  that  the  articles  of  clothing  and  of  domestic  use 
clearly  indicated  that  they  belonged  to  a  Tibetan  people,  and  that 
the  symbols  of  religious  worship  were  decidedly  Buddhistic.  This 
was  worthy  of  note,  as  the  great  body  of  the  people  in  Ghilghit,  Chi- 
tral,  and  Chilas  were  described  by  Munphool  Pundit  in  1867,  and  by 
Dr.  Leitner  himself,  as  Mahomedans  of  tne  Sunni  and  Shia  sects.  Dr. 
Campbell  greatly  regretted  that  General  Cunningham  (whose  account 
of  Ladak  and  I)ardistan  had  been  frequently  referred  to  by  Dr. 
Leitner)  was  not  present ;  but  Munphool  Pundit's  report  was  valuable 
as  confirming  Dr.  Leitner's  account  of  the  country  and  people  ho 
had  visited*.  Begarding  the  Siah-Posh  Kafirs,  said  by  the  Pundit 
to  have  blue  eyes,  ruddy  complexion,  and  fair  hair.  Dr.  Leitner  hesi- 
tated to  give  his  assent.  Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  who  described  the 
Kafirs  in  1831,  saw  one  boy  only  of  this  remarkable  tribe ;  "  his  com- 
plexion, hair,  and  features  were  quite  European,  his  eyes  were  of  a 
bluish  colour,"  and  *'  some  of  his  words  were  Indian."  9o  that  in 
respect  of  language  Dr.  Leitner's  account  agreed  with  Bumes's. 

Dr.  Leitner  laid  great  stress  on  the  advancement  of  Hindooism 
in  Dardistan,  and  on  the  authoritative  efforts  of  the  Maharajab  of 
Kashmir  to  spread  his  own  religion  in  that  country,  and  he  depre- 
cated the  Maharajah's  action  in  this  direction.  Dr.  Campbell  was 
quite  familiar  with  a  similar  advancement  of  quasi-Hindooism  in 
Nipal,  where  the  Government  was  strictly  Hindoo,  and  all  classes  had 
to  look  to  Hindoos  as  the  sources  of  honour  and  preferment.  Among 
the  various  tribes  of  Nipal  who  are  not  Hindoos  there  is  a  constant 
increase  of  Hindoo  observances  in  religion  and  social  usages,  although 
no  forcible  means  are  ever  used  to  produce  it. 

Dr.  Campbell  was  greatly  pleased  to  hear  the  flattering  tribute 
paid  by  Dr.  Leitner  to  the  memory  of  the  late  Csoroa  de  Cords. 
The  speaker  knew  De  Cords  well ;  there  never  was  a  more  modest 
and  single-minded  man,  or  a  more  devoted  scholar.  He  came  to 
Darjeeling  as  his  last  hope  of  getting  to  Lassa ;  but  on  his  way  there 
from  Assam  he  caught  jungle-fever  and  died.  Dr.  Campbell  said 
he  should  have  great  pleasure  in  communicating  what  Ih*.  Leitner 
had  said  of  De  Coros  to  his  fellow  townsmen  of  Pesth,  where  his 
memory  was  held  in  great  veneration. 

Dr.  Leitner  did  not  believe  in  the  stories  of  cannibalism  told  of 
some  of  the  tribes  of  Dardistan ;  and  they  might  not  be  true ;  but  as 
it  appeared,  from  the  historical  account  he  had  read  of  the  foundation 
of  a  new  dynasty  in  Ghilghit  on  the  destruction  of  a  tyrant  and 
cannibal  ruler,  that  there  was  some  slight  foundation  for  them, 
Dr.  Campbell  said  it  was  not  surprising  that  the  charge  had  come 
down  to  present  times. 

•  [An  Extract  from  this  Report  follows  the  Discuasion. — Sub-Ed.] 


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MuNPHOoL  Pundit — On  Gilffit,  Chitral,  and  Kashmir.     85 

The  following  Extract  from  a  Communicatiou  by  Munphool 
Pundit  to  the  Political  Department,  India  Office,  1867,  is  printed 
by  permission  of  Dr.  A.  Campbell*. 

Relations  between  GUgit,  Chitral,  and  Kashmir. 

Oilgit  is  a  small  mountainous  country,  traversed  by  a  river  of  that 
name  and  lying  to  the  south  of  the  Kara  Koram,  or  Trans-Thibetan 
range,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Indus. 

It  is  about  100  miles  lon^  from  north  to  south,  with  a  mean 
breadth  of  26  miles.    Its  area  is  therefore  about  2500  square  milesf. 

Tasin,  a  subdivison  of  Chitral-bala  (Upper  Chitral),  borders  on 
Gilgit  in  the  west,  Hunza  and  Nagri  in  the  north  and  north-east, 
Danl  (Chelas  and  Hasura  or  Astor  across  the  Indus)  in  the  south 
and  south-east,  and  Balti  in  the  east. 

The  Gilgit  river  is  one  of  the  principal  mountain  feeders  of  the 
Indus.  Its  upper  course  is  formed  of  two  principal  branches,  the 
Tasin  and  Parasot  rivers.  The  former  rises  in  north  latitude  87° 
and  east^longitude  73°,  at  the  point  where  the  Kara  Koram  merges 
into  the  Hindu-kush.  The  source  of  the  Parasot  is  in  36°  10'  north 
latitude  and  72°  40'  east  longitude,  on  the  eastern  face  of  the  range 
which  gives  rise  to  the  Chitral  or  Kunar  river.  After  a  separate 
course  of  75  miles  each,  the  two  streams  join  above  Eoshan,  in  lati- 
tude 36°  20'  and  longitude  73°  30',  and  take  an  easterly  course  for 
25  miles  to  Gkk)kuch,  where  they  are  joined  by  the  Chatarkun  river 
from  the  north.  Thence  to  the  town  of  Gilgit  its  course  is  east- 
south-east  for  50  miles,  below  which  it  receives  the  joint  tribute  of 
the  Hunza-Nagri  rivers.  It  continues  the  same  course  for  about 
30  miles  further,  to  its  junction  with  the  Indus,  below  the  defile  of 
Makpon-i-Shang-Bong.  The  general  direction  of  the  stream  is  to 
the  east-south-east,  and  its  whole  length  not  less  than  180  miles. 
The  minimum  discharge  is  probably  2(W0  cubic  feet,  or  even  morej. 

The  valleys  in  Gilgit  are : — Gilgit  in  the  south  and  south-west, 
Chaprot  in  the  north,  Bakrot  in  the  east,  and  Sai  and  Gor  in  the 
south-east,  &c.  And  the  forts  or  walled  habitations : — in  the  north, 
Barr,  Badlus,  Chaprot,  Chalat,  and  Nummul,  along  the  right  bank  of 
the  Hunza  river ;  in  the  north-west,  Bargu,  Shakeyot,  and  Sherot,  in 
the  Gilgit  valley,  the  largest  in  the  counhy,  in  the  direction  of  Fayal 
and  Yasin;  in  the  south,  Gilgit,  Danyur,  Naupur,  Shakwar,  and 
Manor ;  in  the  south-east,  Nanrot,  Chakarkot,  Jagote,  Domat,  Sai, 
and  Got  ;  in  the  east.  Sanagahr,  Bakrot,  Hamusal,  Ziaj,  <&c. 

The  people  of  Gilgit  are  Shia  Musalmans ;  and  the  whole  country 
is  now  supposed  to  contain  not  more  than  1000  houses. 

Its  produce  in  grain  and  fruits,  viz.  rice,  barley,  apples,  pomegra- 
nates, apricots,  walnuts,  peaches,  figs,  and  grapes,  barely  suffices  for 
home  consumption. 

•  [This  document  is  reprinted  without  anyattempt  to  reconcile  the  spjelling 
of  proper  names  with  that  followed  in  Dr.  Leitner^s  communication. — 
SuB-lSt).] 

t  Cunningham's  'Ladakh/  p.  3d.  X  ^&^-  PP-  ^,  ^^^ 


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86  MuNPHooL  Pundit — On  GVffii, 

Gilgit  is  22  marches  distant  from  Kashmir  (the  road  between  the 
two  places  lying  in  a  north-westerly  direction,  through  Hasura  aud 
Bunji,  old  dependencies  of  Kashmir),  8  from  Yasin,  4  from  Gaokuch 
(chief  place  in  Payal,  an  old  dependency  of  Yasin),  22  from  Kashkaro 
(capital  of  Lower  Chitral),  ana  6  from  Daril. 

Hunza  (also  called  Kunjut)  and  ^aefri,  two  small  Shia  districts, 
adjoining  Gilgit  in  the  north  and  north-east,  and  lying  along  the 
opposite  banks  of  the  Hunza  river,  are  ruled  by  two  different  Chiefs, 
IL&jas  Ghazanfar  and  Zahid  Jafar,  at  variance  with  each  other,  who, 
as  the  following  narrative  will  show,  are  closely  mixed  up  with  the 
question  of  the  Gilgit  frontier.  Hunza  is  supposed  to  contain  1500 
nouses,  and  Nagri  about  4000* : — 

The  country  of  Chitral,  divided  into  Upper  (bala)and  Lower  (payan), 
and  held  by  two  different  branches  of  an  ancient  family  of  rulers,  is 
bounded  on  the  north  and  north-west  by  the  Hindu-kush  range  (con- 
tinuation of  the  Trans-Thibetan  or  Kara  Koram  range),  which  divides 
it  from  the  Pamer  steppes  in  the  north,  and  the  Wakhan,  Zebak,  and 
Sanglich  districts  of  Badakhshan  in  the  north-west ;  west  and  south- 
west by  Kafiristan ;  south  by  the  Pranshi  (Laspur)  range  of  moun- 
tains ;  east  by  Gilgit  and  the  wild  independent  tracts  of  mountainous 
country  known  by  the  provincial  names  of  Shanaki  and  Kohistan — 
the  former  (Shanaki)  comprising  the  districts  of  Hodar,  Dodshal, 
Gibrial,  Daril,  Tandr,  Komi,  Palas,  <S:;c.,  inhabited  by  different  tribes 
of  Dards  speaking  the  Bard  dialect ;  and  the  latter  (Kohistan),  a  part 
of  Yaghistan,  contains  the  districts  of  Khundeyah,  Guryal,  Dothoin, 
Halail,  Dubair,  Samangyal,  Munji,  Bandkhar,  &c.,  peopled  by  Afghans 
who  speak  the  Pashto. 

The  valley  of  Chitral,  running  in  a  south-westerly  direction  through 
the  whole  length  of  the  country  (Upper  and  Lower  included),  and  into 
which  numerous  smaller  valleys  and  defiles  open  out,  is  traversed 
throughout  by  a  river  called  Chitral,  after  the  name  of  the  country, 
and  Khunar,  from  the  circumstance  of  its  joining  the  Kunar  or 
Kama  river  at  Chaghan  Sarai,  aplace  in  Kunar,  whence  the  united 
stream  falls  into  the  Landa  or  KTabul  river  at  Jalalabad,  8  marches 
below. 

The  Chitral  river  takes  its  rise  from  a  lake  called  Chittiboi,  at  the 
foot  of  the  Chitral  Pass,  over  the  Kara-Koram  or  Trans-Thibetan 
range,  between  Chitral  and  the  Pamer  steppes.  This  lake  is  some- 
times closed  with  avalanches  from  the  pass. 

Chitral-bala  lies  along  the  upper  course  of  the  river,  and  Chitral- 
payan  on  the  lower. 

The  chief  places  in  the  former  are — Mistuch,  Yasin  (seats  of  divi- 
sional governments),  Chitarkun,  Payal,  Gaokuch,  Yarsh-gum ;  and  in 
the  latter,  Chitral  or  Kashkaro,  Suget,  Baruz,  Drus,  &c. 

The  population  consists*  of  Musalmans,  both  Sunni  and  Shia»  and 
Kafirs.  The  Sunnis  inhabit  the  southern  portion  of  the  country, 
and  the  Shias  the  northern  and  north-western  tracts,  adjoining  the 

*  The  two  districts  (Hunza  and  Nagri)  have  an  area  of  1672  square  miles. 
(Cunningham's  'Ladakh/  p.  38.) 


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Chitral,  and  Kashmir.  37 

Sbia  districts  of  Wakhan,  Zebak  and  Sanglich  in  Badakhsan,  and 
G-ilgit,  &c.  The  Kafirs  are  confined  to  a  tract  bordering  on  Eiifiris- 
tan,  to  which  it  formerly  belonged,  now  under  Chitral-payan. 

The  rulers,  professing  Stinniism,  have,  ever  since  the  introduction 
of  Islamism  into  Central  Asia,  been  carrying  on  the  singularly  hor- 
rid practice  of  selling  their  own  subjects  into  slavery.  I'ollowin^  a 
doctrine  of  their  own  creation,  that  the  "  Sharah  "  (Muhammacuui 
law)  permits  the  Sunni  to  make  slaves  of  Kafirs  (unbelievers), 
amongst  whom  they  include  the  Shias*,  they  have  been  in  the  habit 
of  capturing  their  Shia  and  Kafir  subjects,  as  well  as  Siahposh  E!afirs 
or  others  kidnapped  or  forcibly  brought  away  from  the  adjacent 
countries  of  Kannstan,  Oilgit,  &c.,  and  sellins  them  into  slavery  to 
slave-dealers  from  Badakhshan,  Kundus,  Turkistan,  Balkh,  Bukhara, 
and  Afghanistan,  &c.,  receiving  their  price  in  cash  and  goods.  Cri- 
minal and  political  offences  amount  the  Shia  and  Kafir  subjects  of 
Chitral  are,  as  a  general  rule,  punished  by  enslavement  of  the  offen- 
ders themselves,  their  children,  or  other  grown-up  relations.  Some- 
times whole  families  are  sold  away  in  groups.  The  Sunni  population, 
professing  the  same  &ith  as  their  rulers,  and  protected  by  the  Sharah, 
are  free  from  all  such  servile  bonda^  and  transfer. 

The  slave  forms  one  of  the  principal  items  of  revenue  of  the  Chi- 
tral rulers.  The  annual  tribute  which  they  pay  to  the  Chief  of  Ba- 
dakhsan,  to  whom  they  owe  a  sort  of  allegiance,  is  made  in  slaves. 

The  Chitral  slave  girls  and  boys  are  the  most  prized  of  all  the  dif- 
ferent descriptions  of  slaves  brought  to  the  Turkistan  market,  ex- 
cepting, perhaps,  the  Irani  (Persian),  for  their  superior  beauty  f, 
docility,  and  fidelitv.  The  Chitrali,  perhaps,  is  equally  faithful  with 
his  brother  slave  of  Africa,  the  negro  (Habashi— Abyssinian),  whose 
devoted  attachment  to  his  master  is  proverbial  in  the  East.  The 
Kafirs,  distin^shed  bv  their  whiter  skins,  redder  complexion,  blue 
eyes,  light  hair,  and  roDuster  form,  are  the  most  untractable  and  re- 
vengeful of  all  the  other  descriptions  of  slaves  in  Central  Asia. 

Combining  great  physical  strength  with  desperate  courage,  inured 
to  chase  and  war,  from  the  nature  of  their  country,  their  social 
habits  and  institutions,  and  the  constitution  of  their  government, 
which  is  purely  patriarchal,  divided  into  numerous  patriarchies,  split 
by  hereditary  feuds  into  factions,  the  Kafirs  have  not  only  success- 
fully repulsed  the  occasional  predatory  incursions  of  their  Musalman 
neighbours,  the  Afghans,  the  Chitralis,  and  the  Badakhshis,  but  con- 
stantly retaliated  by  making  raids  on  all  the  tracts  bordering  on 
their  own.    These  marauding  excursions  have,  of  late  years,  ceased 

*  The  Shia,  though  professing  Islam,  is  looked  upon  by  the  Sunni  in  the 
light  of  a  Kafir,  and  termed  "Rafazi''  (heretic).  Throughout  Turkistan 
(Bukhara  in  particular)  Shias  are  not  tolerated.  Whilst  there,  they  are  con- 
sequently obbged  to  hide  their  belief,  and  conduct  themselves  in  all  outward 
forms  of  religion,  as  well  as  social  intercourse,  like  Sunnis. 

t  The  ChitraUs  bear  a  strong  resemblance,  m  their  physiognomy,  features, 
and  colour,  to  the  hill-neople  of  Chamba  ana  Kangra.  Their  beau^  consists 
in  symmetry  of  form,  olack  eyes,  and  hair.  The  Shias  shave  their  beard, 
and  wear  short  hair,  Uke  natives  of  India. 


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Google 


38    MuNPHooL  Pundit — On  Gilgit,  Chitral,  and  Kashmir, 

in  the  direction  of  Badakhshan  and  Chitral,  since  the  eBtablishment 
of  friendly  relations  between  the  border  Eifirs  and  the  rulers  of 
those  countries ;  but  the  former  stiU  continue  to  infest  and  plunder 
the  caravan  routes  in  the  yicinity,  and  over  the  mountain  passes  of 
Durah  and  Lahauri  *. 

The  mutual  dissensions  amongst  the  Kafirs  drove  the  Kafir  tribes 
now  under  Badakhshan  and  Chitral-pajan  to  submit  to  foreign 
yokes. 

Death  is  the  only  punishment  the  Kafirs  inflict  on  their  Musalmap 
captives.  All  Kafir  slaves  who  manage  to  escape  back  to  their  native 
country  (Kafiristan  Proper)  are  allowed  to  revert  to  their  faith  and 
social  rights  and  privileges  by  their  brethren. 

The  price  of  slaves  throughout  Turkistan  generally  varies  from 
600  to  100  Muhammad  Shahi  rupeest.  It  is  generally  paid  partly 
in  cash  and  partly  in  goods,  and  rarely  wholly  in  cash. 

The  Chitralis  speak  a  peculiar  dialect,  called  Chitrali ;  the  mercan- 
tile and  the  higher  classes  speak  Persian  also. 

The  town  of  Chitral,  called  Kashkaro,  or  Kashkar  by  the  Afghans, 
capital  of  Chitral-payan,  is  the  chief  place  of  commerce  in  the  coun- 
try. It  is  situated  on  the  two  caravan  routes  between  India,  Ba- 
dakhshan, and  Yarkand,  which,  if  cared  for,  can  be  made  to  connect 
more  closely  the  north-western  frontier  of  India  with  Western 
Turkistan  through  Badakhshan,  and  Eastern  Turkistan  through  the 
Pamer  steppes,  by  the  shortest,  the  directest,  and,  perhaps,  the 
easiest  of  all  the  lines  of  communication  now  in  use.  The  only  dan- 
gerous portion  of  the  route  is  the  country  of  Yaghistan  (Bajour  and 
Swat,  including  Dir),  between  Peshawar  and  Chitral. 

Caravans  of  petty  merchants  now  pass  through  Kashkaro  annually, 
between  Peshawar,  Yaghistan,  and  Afghanistan,  on  the  south-east 
and  south  west,  and  Badakhshan,  Kundus,  Balkh,  Turkistan,  and 
Kolab,  a  principality  in  Bukhara,  on  the  north-west,  and  Eastern 
Turkistan  on  the  north-east. 

Mistuch  and  Yasin,  in  Chitral-bala,  are  also  resorted  to  by  traders 
for  the  purchase  of  slaves.  The  former  lies  .on  the  caravan  route 
leading  to  Yarkand,  7  marches  up  the  Chitral  river  from  Kashkaro ; 
the  latter,  lying  between  Mistuch  and  Gilgit,  is  about  15  marches 
from  Kjishkaro,  and  6  or  7. from  Mistuch. 

Trade  in  Chitral  is  chiefly  carried  on  by  means  of  barter  C*  mar- 
chah'*).  The  Peshawaris,  |he  Afghanistanis,  and  the  Yaghistanis, 
both  Hindu  and  Musalman,  exchange  Bahadarkhel  salt},  English 
and  Indian  piece-goods,  grocery,  haberdashery,  Bajour  iron,  for  Har- 
tal (orpiment),  Chitral  woollens  (blankets  and  choghas),  and  falcons. 
The  merchants  irom  the  north-west  bring  horses,  Bukhara  and  Kho- 

*  The  easiest  and  consequentlv  the  most  frequented  passes  on  the  caiavan 
route  from  Peshawar  to  Badakhshan.  The  former  (Durah)  lies  over  the 
Hindu-kush  range,  between  Chitral  and  Badakhshan,  and  the  latter  (Lahauri) 
between  Yaghistan  and  Chitral. 

t  A  Muhanmiad  Shahi  rupee  is  equal  to  1  rupee  and  3  annas  of  English 
money  at  Peshawar. 

X  ux  the  Kohat  district  of  the  Punjab. 

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Sir  George  Grey — On  Quartziie  Implements,  39 

kand  silks,  cloaks  of  Eussiaa  broad-cloth,  and  Badakhsliaa  salt*, 
cotton  cloth,  and  degchoans  (iron  cans,  cast  after  the  Bussian  style), 
&c.,  for  the  purchase  of  slaves  and  Chitral  woollens  (cloaks,  blan- 
kets, and  stockings).  The  trade  between  Yarkand  and  India,  or 
Afghanistan,  through  Chitral,  is  confined  to  certain  adventurous 
Afghans  only :  natives  of  Yarkand  seldom  or  never  take  this  route. 

Chitral,  as  already  stated,  is  held  by  two  different  branches  of  an 
ancient  femily,  descended  from  a  common  ancestor,  "  Kathor."  The 
branch  in  possession  of  Chitral-bala  is  caUed  the  ''  Khushwaktia," 
from  Khushwakt,  an  ancestor  of  the  present  incumbents ;  that  holdinc; 
Chitral-payan  goes  by  the  name  of  the  "  Shahkathoria,"  after  Shah 
Kathor,  grandfather  of  thQ  present  ruler,  Aman-ul-mulk.  The  two 
branches  not  only  rule  over  their  respective  countries,  independently 
of  each  other,  but  are  generally  at  variance  with  one  another. 


Sir  George  Grey^  K.C.B.^  exhibited  a  collection  of  quartzite 
implements  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope^  and  the  honorary 
Secretary  read  the  following  extracts  from  letters  on  the  subject. 

IV.  On  CluARTZiTE  Implements  from  the  Cape  op  Good  Hope. 
By  Sir  George  Grey,  K.C.B. 

Extract  of  letter  from  Thomas  Holdin  Bowker,  Esq. : — 

Tharfield;  near  Bathurst, 
July  8th,  1860. 

"  I  do  not  know  whether  you  are  acquainted  with  any  of  the 
gentlemen  who  have  taken  an  interest  in  our  South-African 
antiquities  (for  we  have  such  things).  In  the  year  1858  I  was 
the  first  to  recognize  the  ancient  stone  arrow-  and  spear-heads, 
since  found  scattered  all  the  way  from  Tharfield  to  East  London, 
the  Bashee,  the  Orange  Free  State,  and  to  the  Cape  Flats  and 
Green  Point.  An  account  of  the  discovery  of  these  implements 
appeared  in  the '  Somerset  and  Bedford  Courant,'  and  was  taken 
over  and  published  by  the  Anglo- African  newspaper  in  Graham's 
Town ;  since  then  I  nave  sent,  through  Mr.  Layard,  a  parcel  of 
them  to  Professor  Owen,  of  the  British  Museimi.  I  also  sent  at 
his  request,  through  Mr.  Commanding-General  Bamet  in  Gra- 
ham's Town,  a  considerable  number  to  General  Lefroy,  who 
received  them  safely.  My  late  mother's  cousin.  Lord  Bedes- 
dale,  at  Vernon  House,  St.  James's  Park,  has  also  a  select  parcel. 
One  curious  fact  concerning  these  rude  weapons,  early  attracted 
my  attention,  which  was  this  :  no  South-African  tribe  has  ever 

*  From  the  mines  of  Ealaogan  in  Mashhad  and  in  Farakhar,  both  districts 
of  BadftkhfthaTi, 


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40  Sir  Oeobge  Grey — On  Quartzite  Implements. 

been  discovered  in  the  use  of  them^  not  even  upon  their  being 
first  visited  by  Europeans^  nor  have  they  been  found  among  any 
tribe  in  the  far  interior^  though  they  may  use  them  (as  do  the 
Hottentots  and  Kaf&rs  of  the  present  day^  together  with  our- 
selves) for  the  purpose  of  striking  fire.  I  always  use  them  for 
striking  fire  when  hunting  or  takuig  wild  boars.  I  am  strongly 
impressed  with  the  idea  that  they  are  the  sole  remnant  or  record- 
ing evidence  in  stone  of  a  race  of  human  beings  that  inhabited 
South  Africa  in  times  far  anterior  to  the  advent  of  either 
Hott«ntots^  Kaffirs^  or  Bushmen.'' 

Extract  of  letter  from  Dr.  W.  G.  Atherstone : — 

Graham's  Town, 
September  14th,  1869. 

"  I  sent  to  you  by  Mr.  Maturin  (Controller  General)  a  small 
box  of  stone  arrow-heads  Sec.,  from  Tharfield,  which  Mr.  Holden 
Bowker  gave  me  for  you,  and  which  I  intended  to  have  enclosed 
with  some  of  my  own  collections ;  but  Maturin  left  before  I  could 
get  mine  ready.  We  found  kitchen-mounds,  with  fragments  of 
pots,  with  the  little  bits  of  quartz  incorporated,  exactly  like  those 
found  in  the  Danish  kitchen-mounds.  I  also  found  parts  of  a 
human  skeleton,  a  sacrum  and  pelvis  (female),  but  so  decomposed 
that  most  of  it  crumbled  to  pieces  in  getting  it  out.  The  bones 
stuck  forcibly  to  the  tongue,  and  must  have  lain  buried  there 
beneath  the  shell-heaps  for  centuries.  I  have  written  an  account 
of  this,  and  of  the  arrow-heads  at  the  Kleenemand  and  Eiet 
rivers." 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATE  L 

Hgs.  1  &  2.  Stone  objects  found  at  Tharfield,  neai  Bathursty  Lower  Albany, 
Gape  of  Good  Hope — "  probably  ear-rings,  or  rather  buttons  for  insertion 
into  the  lobe  of  the  ear.      Natural  size. 

Tig.  8.  Quartzite  Implement,  found  at  Tharfield,  Gape  of  Good  Hope.  Hali"- 
size. 

Discussion. 

Snt  Oeoboe  Gbsy  said  that  he  was  not  aware  of  any  existing 
race  using  or  having  used  stone-implements  in  that  part  of  South 
Africa  from  which  these  stone  implements  came.  Tne  Hottentots 
and  Kaffirs  (of  various  races)  use  iron  implements,  and  are  well  ac- 
quainted with  processes  for  manufacturing  iron.  The  Bushmen  use 
bone-headed  arrows  dipped  in  a  deadly  poison. 

Kthe  stone  implements  laid  before  the  Society  were  manufactured 
by  a  now  extinct  race,  or  by  one  now  amalgamated  with  the  Hotten- 
tots and  Kaffirs,  they  must,  he  thought,  date  back  to  a  distant 
origin ;  for  it  is  probable  that  the  Hottentots,  an  iron-manufacturing 
people,  occupied  the  country  of  the  Kaffirs,  where  these  imple- 
ments are  found,  before  the  Kaffirs  ;  for  mountains  and  rivers  in  that 
country  still  bear  Hottentot  names.    The  Kaffirs  of  that  district 


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Joum.  Et^o.  Soc  PI 


Fx^  1. 


"Na,t.  Size 


Fis    2. 


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STONE   IMPLEMENTS    «e.     FROM       THE      CAPE      OF       GOOD     HOPE. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


Discussion.  41 

hare  also  adopted  into  tHeir  language  two  of  the  Hottentot  clicks, 
which  are  not  found  in  the  Kaflir  class  of  languages. 

The  Kaffirs,  themselves  an  iron-manufacturing  people,  have  occu- 
pied the  country  where  these  implements  are  found  for  many  gene- 
rations— ^at  least  fourteen  (which  they  account  for),  and  may  have  been 
there  for  a  much  longer  time ;  and  as  they  succeeded  the  Hottentots 
in  the  country,  these  stone  implements  apparently  date  from  a 
remote  epoch. 

Col.  Laitb  Fox  said  that  amongst  the  interesting  relics  exhibited 
by  Sir  G-eorse  &rey  he  noticed  one  or  two  types  that  were  new  to 
him ;  one  of  these  was  a  small  disk  about  1^  inch  in  diameter  and  § 
inch  thick  (PI.  I.  fig.  2) ;  it  appeared  to  be  a  water-worn  pebble 
roughly  ground  on  the  circumference.  Such  disks  were  usually 
supposed  to  have  been  used  as  hammer  stones :  he  thought,  however, 
that  this  was  too  small  to  be  used  for  such  a  purpose,  and  that  the 
suggestion  of  Mr.  Bowker,  that  it  may  have  been  used  for  insertion 
into  the  lobe  of  the  ear,  was  a  very  reasonable  one. 

Quartzite  implements  from  the  Cape  have  been  exhibited  and  de- 
scribed to  this  and  other  societies  by  Sir  John  Lubbock  and  Mr.  Busk. 
The  majority  of  those  now  exhibited  are  of  the  same  character  as 
those  already  known  to  us  from  the  same  locality,  and  do  not  call  for 
any  special  notice ;  there  is  one  form,  however,  which  merits  parti- 
cular attention,  from  its  resemblance  to  the  palseolithic  or  drift  type 
of  this  country  (fig.  3)  :  it  is  6  inches  in  length,  4  in  greatest  width, 
and  from  1^  to  2  inches  thick  at  the  large  end,  of  a  pointed  oval  form, 
the  greatest  width  being  at  the  thick  end ;  the  small  end  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  sides  are  trimmed  to  a  cutting  edge ;  the  thick 
end  is  roughly  rounded,  or  the  natural  surface  of  the  stone  at  this  end 
has  been  lefl  untouched.  This  type,  indeed,  is  not  unknown  to  us  as 
occurring  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Blope ;  for  one  other  implement  of  this 
form  was  sent  over  oy  Mr.  Layard  some  time  ago*.  As  we  have  now 
seen  two  implements  of  this  form  amongst  the  comparatively  few 
specimens  that  have  been  sent  from  the  Cape,  it  is  reasonable  to 
assume  that  it  is  typical ;  and  being  identicsu  with  those  from  the 
river-drift  of  this  country,  it  may  have  been  used  in  the  same  manner. 
It  would  be  interesting,  therefore,  if  it  could  be  ascertained  whether 
there  is  a  corresponding  difference  of  age,  and  whether  the  deposits 
in  which  the  drift-type  implements  occur  at  the  Cape  are  older  than 
those  from  which  the  other  implements  are  derived.  Some  of  the 
other  implements  approach  to  the  form  of  arrow-heads,  and  corre- 
spond to  the  "  surface-type  "  of  Europe,  which,  with  the  exception  of 
the  flakes,  never  occur  in  the  same  deposits  as  the  paleolithic  or  drift 
type  implements.  In  India,  Mr.  Bruce  Foote  has  shown  that  imple- 
ments of  the  drift  type  composed  of  quartzite,  and  so  identical  with 
these  implements  from  the  Cape  as  to  be  undistins^uishable  from 
them,  are  found  in  "  Laterite  deposits  "  of  great  antiquity,  overlain 
by  surface-deposits  containing  implements  corresponding  to  the 
•*  surface-types  "  of  Europe.     The  two  cases,  in  India  and  in  Europe, 

*  A  drawing  of  this  was  exhibited,  taken  from  a  cast  in  the  Bntish  Museum ;  the 
original  was  returned  to  the  Cape. 


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42  Sib  George  Geey — On  Quartzite  Implements. 

are  parallel ;  it  is  therefore  of  interest  that  the  Gape  deposits  should 
he  examiued  with  reference  to  this  point,  and  it  is  to  he  hoped  that 
those  gentlemen  who  have  already  done  such  good  service  hy  sending 
us  these  specimens  will,  before  long,  be  able  to  give  the  JSoeiety  some 
more  detailed  geological  evidence  respecting  them. 

As  regards  the  drift-type  implements  of  Europe,  it  has  been  usual 
to  classify  the  larger  forms  under  two  heads — the  long  spear-headed 
form,  and  the  oval  form.  No  doubt,  as  this  classification  has  been 
laid  down  and  accepted  by  high  authority,  it  must  stand  for  the  pre- 
sent. But  the  speaker  cbubted  whether  it  was  the  best  that  could 
be  devised :  the  two  forms  pass  so  imperceptibly  into  each  other  by 
connecting  links,  that  it  is  impossible  to  draw  any  hard  and  fast  line  of 
separation  between ;  and  there  is  evidence  to  show  that  the  form  of 
implements  depended  on  the  form  of  the  flint  stones  out  of  which 
they  were  made.  When  the  fabricator  found  a  long  flint,  he  made  it 
into  a  long  spear-headed  implement ;  and  from  an  oval  stone  he  con- 
structed an  oval  implement :  this  was  shown  to  be  the  case  by  some 
half-finished  implements,  in  which  the  original  shape  of  the  stone  was 
left  untouched  on  one  side,  whilst  the  chipping  process  was  completed 
on  the  other — thus  showing  the  correspondence  between  the  worked 
implement  and  the  unworked  stone*.  He  thought  that  if  a  difference 
in  the  design  of  the  fabricator  could  be  determined,  it  would  aflbrd 
a  better  means  of  classifying  the  implements  than  differences  arising 
from  the  accidental  shapes  of  the  flints ;  such  differences  of  design  he 
thought  might  be  traced.  Some  of  these  implements,  whether  of  the 
long  spear-headed  form,  or  of  the  oval  form,  were  thick  and  rounded  at 
the  large  end,  where  the  natural  surface  of  the  stone  was  often  left 
untouched ;  the  Cape  implement  exhibited  was  of  this  form :  these 
were  well  adapted  to  be  held  in  the  hand.  Others  were  chipped  te  an 
edge  all  round ;  and  these  were  ill-adapted  for  holding  in  the  hand,  as 
the  chipped  edge  would  chafe  the  hand.  He  had  eh^where  given  his 
reasons  for  believing  that  this  form  led  by  degrees  to  the  use  of  the 
celt,  in  which  the  cutting  edge  was  at  the  large  end.  This  type  might 
have  been  used  in  a  handle,  whilst  the  other  might  have  been  held  in 
the  hand.  If  a  different  use  could  be  assigned  to  these  implements,  it 
would  afford  clear  ground  for  a  distinct  classification ;  but  of  course  it 
was  purely  hypothetical  to  speak  of  the  uses  of  these  ancient  weapons. 
Classification  should  be  based  upon  observation,  and  not  upon  conjec- 
ture. In  the  one  case,  an  edge  was  formed  upon  the  sides  and  small 
end  only ;  in  the  other  the  edge  continued  all  round  the  periphery  of 
the  tool ;  and  in  thus  distinguishing  them,  whatever  might  have  been 
the  uses  to  which  they  were  put,  a  distinct  difference  of  design  might 
be  recognized  on  the  part  of  the  fabricator.  He  thought  also  that 
geological  evidence  would  bear  out  this  classification.  The  round- 
ended  types  are  peculiar  to  the  drift ;  it  may  be  said  that  they  never 
occur  in  more  recent  deposits,  although  an  approximation  to  them  is 
occasionally,  though  rarely,  met  with  amongst  surface  implements ; 
but  the  spear-headed  outline  is,  as  the  term  it«elf  implies,  common  to 
ail  periods  in  which  flint  spear-heads  were  used. 

*  [One  of  these  unfinished  implements  was  exhibited  at  the  Meeting. — Sub-Ei>.] 


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F.  AcHESON — On  a  supposed  Stone  Implement  from  Wicklow.  43 

Mr.  BoTD  Dawkins  considered  that  the  implement  referred  by 
CoL  Lane  Fox  to  the  palaBolithic  type  (fig.  3),  was  merely  a  roughly- 
chipped  form  not  necessarily  connected  with  thepalseolithic  implements 
of  Europe.  Such  a  rude  approximation  to  a  dril't-type  is  presented  by 
worked  flints  which  he  found  on  the  South  Downs,  between  Brighton 
and  Lewes,  along  with  polished  stone  axes.  A  somewhat  similar  form 
he  has  also  seen  from  iS^ew  Zealand.  The  implements  at  the  Cape 
occurring  over  so  wide  an  area,  seem  to  have  been  dropped  under  the 
same  conditions  as  those  on  the  present  land-surface  of  Great  Britain 
and  France,  and  cannot  be  referred  to  any  well-defined  European 
standard  of  archeeological  time.  In  his  opiaion,  all  that  can  safely  be 
predicated  about  them  is,  that  they  belong  to  what  Mr.  John  Evans  calls 
"  the  surface-period."  Mr.  Boyd  Dawkins  also  defended  the  present 
classification  of  the  drift-implements,  on  the  ground  that,  although  all 
the  types  had  been  found  in  the  gravels,  with  one  exception  at  the 
Brixham  cave,  none  of  the  spear-heads  of  the  drift  had  been  found  in 
any  palseolithic  cave. 


Ordinary  Meeting^  December  7th^  1869. 
Professor  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Member : — Jonas  Hewitt,  Esq. 

Mr.  F.  AcHEsoN  exhibited  a  supposed  stone  implement  found 
in  the  washings  of  a  gold-bearing  stream  in  Wicklow,  and  the 
honorary  Secretary  reaid  the  following  note : — 

V.  Note  on  a  supposed  Stone  Implement  ^rom  Co.  Wicklow, 
Ireland.     By  F.  Acheson,  Esq. 

In  reply  to  your  request  for  a  description  of  the  supposed  stone 
implement  I  found  in  the  Wicklow  gold-mines  (Fig.  1),  I  beg  to 

Fig.  1. 


say  that  it  was  obtained  at  a  depth  of  about  twenty  feet  below 
the  bed  of  the  gold-mining  river,  near  Wooden  Bridge,  Co.  Wick- 
low, while  sinking  a  shaft  in  search  for  gold. 

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44  Major-Gen.  Lefbx)y — On  the  Stature  of  Chipewyan  Indians. 

The  surface-stratum  of  the  bed  of  the  river  consisted  of  a 
layer  of  slaty  gravel,  about  four  feet  in  thickness,  which  overlay 
a  bed  of  stiff  yellow  clay,  about  twelve  feet  thick,  which 
had  vertical  sedimentary  layers  of  gravel  parallel  to  each  other, 
and  of  a  lunar  shape,  appearing  to  indicate  that  the  clay  had 
been  tilted  up  into  a  vertical  position. 

Below  the  clay  was  a  stratum  of  dirty  slate  gravel,  and  sand, 
from  six  to  eight  feet  in  thickness,  which  lay  upon  the  bed- 
rock of  slate ;  the  lower  portion  of  this  last,  lying  upon  the  rock, 
is  called  the  ^'  washing-sand,''  on  account  of  its  containing  the 
gold. 

While  washing  this  latter  stratum  of  gravel,  between  the  clay 
and  the  rock,  and  testing  it  for  gold,  the  above-mentioned  piece 
of  stone  was  found  in  the  last  washing-box  by  the  man  engaged, 
who  used  it  for  stirring  up  the  auriferous  sand  in  the  washing- 
bowl.  Observing  this,  I  asked  him  where  he  obtained  that 
stone,  as  I  noticed  its  remarkable  shape,  when  he  immediately 
informed  me  that  he  took  it  out  of  the  last  of  the  washing-boxes  j 
and  on  subsequently  questioning  him  he  persisted  in  this  state- 
ment. 

I  need  not  enter  upon  any  description  of  the  stone  and  its 
appearance,  as  it  is  in  your  possession.  I  would  only  add  that 
the  accompanying  gravel  is  very  little  water- worn. 


The  honorary  Secretary  then  read  the  following  note : — 

VI.  Note  on  the  Stature  op  American  Indians  of  the 
Chipewyan  Tribe.    By  Major-General  Lbproy,  E.A. 

The  Hudson's  Bay  station  of  Lake  Athabasca  was  visited  during 
my  residence  there,  in  December,  1843,  by  a  large  party  of 
Chippewyan  Indians,  from  what  are  termed  the  Barren  Lands, 
the  region  lying  to  the  north  and  east  of  that  great  lake.  These 
Indians  are  very  rarely  seen  within  the  precincts  of  the  trading- 
posts;  they  subsist  principally  on  the  reindeer,  of  which  the 
Barren  Lands  are  the  great  breeding-ground,  and  they  represent 
an  uncontaminated  Indian  stock.  Nothing  could  exceed  die  wild 
appearance  of  the  party  now  referred  to,  clothed  as  they  were 
from  head  to  foot  in  reindeer-skin  dresses,  and  with  scarcely  any 
articles  of  European  manufacture  about  them.  I  forget  what 
they  came  for, — ^probably  a  little  scarlet  cloth,  axes,  and  tobacco- 
no/  gunpowder,  as  they  possess  very  few  guns,  and  still  rely 
principaUy  on  that  ancient  instrument  the  bow-and-arrow.  To 
the  great  terror  of  many  of  them,  I  subjected  the  whole  to  the 
mysterious  '^  medicine^'  of  standing  against  a  wall  and  having  their 
stature  recorded  :  this  is  unfortunately  the  sole  physical  datum 

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Lieut.  Oliver — On  Channel-Island  Remains. 


45 


collected^  and  perhaps  the  only  one  they  could  have  been  in- 
duced to  yield.  Having  had  the  note  lying  by  me  for  many 
years,  I  venture  to  submit  it  to  the  Ethnological  Society  as  a 
bare  fact,  worth  recording  for  its  rarity,  perhaps,  and  one  to 
which  the  early  disappearance  which  too  probably  awaits  the 
race  may  give  a  future  interest.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  mean 
height  of  33  adult  males  of  this  subarctic  tribe  was  barelv  under 
5  feet  7  inches,  and  that  the  only  woman  who  could  be  induced 
to  stand  up  was  5  ft.  5*9  in.  Six  growing  lads  of  uncertain 
ages  averaged  5  ft.  2*8  in.  There  were  several  individuals 
who  would  be  called  tall,  even  in  this  land  of  tall  men. 


Height*  cf  Ohipeioyan 

Indiant,  meatured  in 

1843. 

Adult  Male 

TAd*. 

Woman. 

ft.  in. 

ft.  in. 

fl;    in. 

ft.  in. 

1. 

5  111 

18. 

5  6-7 

5    4-7 

6  6-9 

2. 

5  10-4 

19. 

5  6-6 

5    4-6 

3. 

5  10-0 

20. 

5  6-6 

5    4-4 

4. 

5     9-7 

21. 

5  6-5 

5    2-3 

6. 

5    9-2 

22, 

5  6-5 

5    2-2 

6. 

6    90 

23. 

5  6-4 

4  10-4 

7. 

5    8-8 

24. 

5  61 

8. 

5    8-8 

25. 

5  5-8 

9. 

6    8-5 

26. 

5  5-8 

10. 

5    8-0 

27. 

5  5-7 

11. 

5    7-9 

28. 

5  5-0 

12. 

5    7-8 

29. 

5  50 

13. 

5    7-5 

30. 

5  4-5 

14. 

5    7-5 

31. 

5  3-7 

15. 

5    7-2 

32. 

5  2-8 

16. 

6    7-1 

33. 

6  1-5 

17. 

5    7-1 

ATenge. 

5  6-96 

6    2-8 

6  5-9 

Lieutenant  Oliver  II.A.,  then  read  extracts  from  the  following 
Eeport : — 

VII.  Report  on  the  Present  State  and  Condition  of  Prehis- 
toric Remains  in  the  Channel  Islands.  By  Lieut.  S.  P. 
Oliver,  E.A.,  F.R.G.S. 

Introduction. 
It  is  only  lately  that  public  attention  has  been  turned  to  the 
present  unprotected  state  of  our  national  monuments  and  relics 


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46  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

of  past  age8  in  this  country,  and  at  the  request  of  the  Isite  first 
Commissioner  of  Works  (Mr.  Layard)  the  Society  of  Antiqua- 
ries have  akeady  been  preparing  a  list  of  all  historical  and 
regal  monuments,  throughout  the  kingdom,  to  which  the  Impe- 
rial protection  should  be  extended.  Meantime,  in  consequence 
of  Sir  John  Lubbock's  appeal  after  the  late  destruction  of  the 
Great  Tolmaen,  the  Ethnological  Society  appointed,  in  March 
1869,  a  committee  to  investigate  and  inquire  into  the  present  state 
and  condition  of  all  prehistoric  structures  and  remains  in  the 
British  isles,  with  the  view  of  obtaining  the  extension  of  the 
State  guardianship  over  them. 

Being  quartered  in  Guernsey,  I  offered  to  report  upon  the 
existing  prehistoric  structures  in  the  Channel  Islands  (although 
strictly  speaking  this  Anglo-Norman  archipelago  can  hardly  be 
included  among  the  British  isles);  and  my  services  having  been 
accepted  by  the  Committee,  I  give  the  following  as  the  result  of 
my  inquiries. 

A  protective  supervision  of  such  prehistoric  structures  is 
nowhere  more  needed  than  in  the  Channel  Islands,  and  the 
urgent  necessity  for  legislation  on  this  subject  has  long  been 
acknowledged  by  the  most  thoughtful  island-archaeologists,  who 
have  before  attempted  again  and  again,  although  hitherto  in- 
effectually, to  interest  their  fellow-islanders  in  the  preservation 
of  such  relics. 

The  wholesale  destruction  that  has  taken  place  within  the 
last  half-century  in  these  islands  is  beyond  belief.  In  Jersey, 
for  instance,  out  of  fifty  Celtic  stone  structures  mentioned  by 
Poingdestue  but  very  few  remain.  The  finest  cromlech  was 
presented  to  a  popular  governor  on  his  leaving  the  island ;  and 
of  the  four  cromlechs  ruined  vestiges  alone  remain,  two  having 
been  restored  {?)  after  the  ideas  of  a  Reverend  amateur ! 

In  Alderney  the  navvies  employed  on  the  Admiralty  Works 
have  amused  themselves  with  smashing  up  all  the  megaliths  that 
they  could  lay  their  hands  on. 

In  Herm  the  quarrymen  of  a  granite-company  have  in  Eke 
manner  destroyed  most  of  the  cap-stones  of  the  numerous  crom- 
lechs and  circles  which  abound  in  this  small  island. 

In  Serk  but  one  insignificant  portion  of  a  lust  alone  remains 
extant,  where  doubtless  there  were  originally  numbers. 

In  Guernsey  alone,  hitherto,  has  that  watchful  archseologist, 
Mr.  Lukis,  interfered  to  put  a  stop  to  ignorant  and  wanton  de- 
molition, and  even  here  often  without  success. 

Nevertheless,  in  spite  of  all  these  drawbacks,  there  are  few 
localities  (Brittany  excepted)  in  which  the  sepulchral  stone  struc- 
tures of  the  neolithic  period  can  be  studied  with  greater  ad- 
vantage than  in  this  small  archipelago,  and  in  fewer  places  have 

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in  the  Channel  Islands,  47 

these  relics  of  the  Celtic  race  been  more  leisurely  and  systema- 
tically examined  by  such  experienced  archseologists  as  Mr. 
Lukis  and  his  sons :  considering  that  sixty  years  ago  Mr.  Lukis 
commenced  studying  prehistoric  remains,  and  was,  I  believe,  the 
first  exponent  of  their  sepulchral  character,  he  may  be  rightly 
termed  one  of  the  patriarchs  of  the  present  school  of  prehistoric 
archaeology.  The  remains  in  the  Bailliewick  of  Guernsey ^  which 
includes  Aldemey,  Serk,  and  Herm,  have  more  especially  been 
explored  and  minutely  examined  by  the  above-mentioned  gen- 
tlemen, and  the  results  published  ifrom  time  to  time  in  the 
'  Archseologia ; '  whilst  by  the  liberality  of  the  same  veteran  the 
sites  of  various  cromlechs  in  Guernsey  have  been  purchased  to 
ensure  their  protection. 

It  is  also  satisfactory  to  know  that  the  numerous  remains 
which  have  survived  the  onslaught  of  the  quarrymen  in  Herm 
are  for  the  present  safe  in  the  hands  of  one  proprietor,  Major 
Montague  Fielden,  who  undertakes  to  preserve  them.  I  wish  I 
could  report  the  same  of  those  in  Jersey  and  Aldemey,  which,  I 
am  sorry  to  say,  are  in  a  most  precarious  situation. 

In  pointing  out  such  prehistorical  structures  as  stand  in 
need  of  protective  supervision,  it  is  with  the  utmost  diffidence 
(being,  indeed,  beyond  my  province)  that  I  would  venture  to  offer 
any  suggestion  as  to  the  nature  of  the  authority  under  which 
such  supervision  should  be  exercised,  and  more  particularly 
since  the  peculiar  insular  jealousy  of  any  Imperial  interference 
with  the  unique  laws  of  property  extant  in  the  Channel  Islands 
renders  any  such  suggestion  a  matter  of  great  delicacy.  I  trust, 
however,  that  the  results  aimed  at  by  the  present  inquiry  may 
be  sooner  or  later  obtained  through  the  influence  of  the  President 
and  Council  of  this  Society. 

It  is  almost  needless  to  point  out,  although  much  to  be  re- 
gretted, that  the  neolithic  vestiges  now  to  be  protected  are 
more  rare  and  less  perfect  than  they  would  have  been,  could  this 
protection  have  been  afforded  to  them  sooner ;  and  we  now  pay 
severely  the  penalty  for  this  inattention  on  the  part  of  our  fore- 
fathers. Such  few,  indeed,  now  remain  for  examination  as  have 
escaped  the  wreck  and  annihilation  of  ever-extending  agricul- 
tural and  engineering  operations^  whilst  barely  one  exists  which 
has  not  been  more  or  less  pillaged  by  the  mere  treasure-seeker — 
the  excavations  (those  by  Mr.  LuJris  excepted)  having  been 
conducted  carelessly,  unsystematically,  without  care  or  record, 
and  thus  caused  an  irreparable  injury  to  the  cause  of  science. 
Perhaps,  however,  these  monuments  have  still  worse  enemies 
than  the  treasure-seeker  and  navvy,  viz.  those  "  modem  Goths,'' 
as  Earl  Stanhope  rightly  denominates  the  injtuUcious  restorers. 

Still,  even  after  dl  this  great  amount  of  unprincipled  dilapi- 

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48  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

dation  and  so-called  restoration,  there  remain  in  the  Channel 
Islands  many  noble  megalithic  structures  and  other  remains  of 
immense  prehistoric  importance,  for  the  protection  and  care  of 
which  it  is  now  proposed  to  demand  the  guardianship  of  the 
State. 

I  proceed  to  detail  the  various  structures,  commencing  with 
those  in  Guernsey ;  and  I  have  also  drawn  up  a  synoptical  Chart 
or  Table,  arranged  according  to  the  various  parishes,  by  which 
at  a  glance  can  be  seen  those  that  are  in  most  danger  and  their 
relative  importance.  The  classification  and  nomenclature  fol- 
lowed is  that  proposed  by  Dr.  F.  C.  Lukis,  and  to  be  found  in 
vol.  XXXV.  pp.  S32--258  of  the  'Archaeologia.' 

GUEBNSEY* 

Vale  Parish. 

No.  1.  The  large  chambered  cromlech  on  L'Ancresse  Common 
stands  on  the  summit  of  Le  Mont  de  la  Varde,  or  Mont  St. 
Michel*;  and  the  structure  bears  the  name  of  UAutel  des 
Vardes.  It  was  first  discovered  in  August  1811,  when  a  regi- 
ment of  Mostemars  arrived  in  Guernsey  during  the  French 
Revolution  for  protection.  The  regiment  was  stationed  on  this 
hill,  and  raised  a  rampart  around  their  camp  by  using  the  grass- 
turf  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  thus  exposed  the  cap-stones  of 
the  cromlech.  Sir  John  Doyle,  who  was  Governor  at  the  time, 
caused  the  cromlech  to  be  partially  excavated  by  a  party  of 
soldiers,  and  worked  down  to  the  deposit  at  the  western  ex- 
tremity ;  but,  as  some  of  the  stones  appeared  dangerous  to  the 
working-party,  the  excavation  was  discontinued,  and  the  sand 
soon  drifted  in  and  filled  the  interior.  The  same  year  Mr.  F.  C. 
Lukis  made  a  partial  examination  of  the  monument,  but  also 
soon  desisted  in  consequence  of  the  carelessness  of  the  workmen 
employed  by  him.  '^The  employment  of  paid  workmen  to  do 
this  kind  of  work,''  said  the  Rev.  W.  C.  Lukisf,  *'  which  should 
be  done  by  the  archaeologist  himself,  is  always  unsatisfactory ; 
no  one  should  undertake  digging  who  fears  blistering  his  hands, 
whilst  the  eye  of  the  explorer  should  be  directed  to  every  spade- 
full  of  earth.'' 

*  This  hill  is  a  rocky  elevation,  in  great  part  covered  by  the  sand  which 
forms  the  surface  of  the  nlain  or  common  of  L'Ancresse.  By  the  constant 
action  of  the  wind  upon  tne  plain  and  elevated  parts  of  this  neighbourhood, 
by  which  the  silt  is  thrown  up,  this  structure  might  be  again  covered  en- 
tirely with  sand.  It  is  to  this  covering,  indeed,  that  we  owe  the  preserva- 
tion of  this  and  other  Celtic  remains ;  for  no  mode  of  interment,  says  Sir 
Charles  Lyell,  can  be  conceived  more  favourable  to  the  conservation  of  monu- 
ments for  mdefinite  periods  than  their  burial  by  drifting  sand. 

t  At  the  Meeting  of  the  Ripon  Scientific  Society,  January  19, 1865. 


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in  the  Channel  Islands.  49 

In  the  summers  of  1837  and  1838,  however,  a  full  and  systematic 
examination  of  the  interior  of  this  cromlech  was  conducted  by 
Messrs.  F.  C.  Lukis,  sen.,  P.  C.  Lukis,  jun.,  Eev.  W.  C.  Lukis, 
Thomas  Harvey,  and  two  assistants — ^when,  after  considerable 
labour,  the  cromlech  was  emptied  of  its  accumulated  sand,  and 
its  primaeval  contents  exposed.  This  large  cromlech  (see  plan, 
PL  VII.  fig.  1)  is  45  feet  in  length,  at  its  western  extremity 

15  feet  wide,  and  8  feet  high  beneath  the  largest  cap-stone: 
firom  this  point  it  gradually  contracts  on  all  sides  towards  the 
eastern  end,  the  supposed  entrance  being  barely  3  feet  high. 
This  space  was  covei^  by  five  larger  and  two  smaller  blocks 
of  granite  as  cap-stones ;  of  these  the  five  larger  alone  remain 
m  situ.  The  western  stone  is  much  the  largest,  and  is  about 
17  feet  long,  lOJ  feet  wide,  by  4^  feet  in  depth.     The  next  is 

16  feet  long,  the  third  being  smaller,  and  thus  they  gradually 
<iiminish  in  size  to  the  eastern  end.  They  are  not  in  contact ; 
and  the  supporting  side-props,  seventeen*^  on  the  north  and 
fifteen  on  the  south  side,  preserve  different  relative  heights  in 
the  same  proportion. 

It  is  surrounded  by  the  remains  of  a  circular  peristalith  60  feet 
in  diameter,  and  which  probably  marked  the  site  of  a  wall  sur- 
rounding the  tumulus  which  is  supposed  to  have  originally 
covered  this  sepulchral  vault.  Approaching  to  this  circle  from 
the  north  and  north-west  are  traces  of  a  stone  causeway  in  a 
serpentine  form.  One  can  be  traced  from  the  north  240  feet, 
and  from  the  north-west  78  feet. 

On  the  north-west  side,  adjoining  the  large  western  chamber, 
is  a  side-chamber,  where  one  of  the  original  side-  supporting  up- 
rights has  been  moved  back  at  a  later  period  to  form  a  supple- 
mentary kist. 

It  is  needless  to  give  more  than  the  above  outline  of  the 
construction  of  this  cromlech,  as  it  has  been  described  in  the 
'  Archseologia,'  vol.  xvii.p.254,  and  its  contents  fully  detailed  and 
illustrated  by  Dr.  F.  C.  Lukis  in  vol.  xxxv.  of  the '  Archseologia,' 
pp.  232-258.  This  structure  may  be  quoted  as  illustrating  the 
want  of  State  protection.  In  consequence  of  the  seventh  or 
smallest  cap-stone  being  removed,  Mr.  F,  C.  Lukis  obtained 
from  the  Royal  Court  of  Guernsey  a  right  to  prevent  persons 
from  doing  any  more  injury  to  this  noble  cromlech.  This  au- 
thoritative interference  has  thrice  been  exercised  with  effect; 
but,  unfortunately,  only  last  year  the  sixth  cap-stone  was  violently 
thrown  down  and  broken  by  persons  unknown.  At  present  this 
cromlech  is  in  no  immediate  danger,  although  the  inhabitants 
of  the  Clos  du  Y alle  claim  the  right  of  removal  of  stone  from 
the  common.  It  is  possible  that  some  restriction  upon  this 
*  Including  the  large  western  block. 

VOL.  II.  J5^  J 

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50  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

right  might  be  made  by  the  Royal  Court  in  reference  to  this 
and  other  Celtic  structures  in  the  neighbourhood. 

No.  2.  About  the  centre  of  the  common  at  L'Ancresse^  and 
to  the  southward  of  the  last-mentioned  cromlech^  is  a  small 
Kist-vaen  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation  (PI.  III.  fig.  1,  and 
PL  VII.  fig.  5).  It  was  first  discovered^  surveyed,  and  drawn 
in  1811,  by  Mr.  Lukis.  In  1837  this  place  was  cleared  out,  and 
the  brambles  removed,  by  Mr.  Lukis,  when  a  few  pieces  of  well- 
marked  pottery  were  found,  which  differed  from  that  found  at 
the  cromlech  on  the  hiU  {vide  '  Journal  of  Association,'  vol.  iii. 
p.  342) .  In  1838  Mr.  Lukis  made  a  closer  examination  of  this 
kist-vaen,  as  also  of  the  remains  of  a  similar  structure  ten  or 
twelve  yards  to  the  eastward.  The  stones  had  been  greatly  dis- 
turbed, and  the  cap-stone  of  the  latter  removed  a  great  many 
years  back — ^at  least  eighty  years  ago. 

In  1840,  still  farther  search  was  made,  by  Dr.  F.  C.  Lukis  and 
J.  W.  Lukis,  Esq.  The  floor  of  the  kist  near  the  northern  prop 
exposed  two  well- formed  celts,  Nos.  58  and  59  of  Coll.  Antiqua;' 
these  instruments  were  most  perfect  and  beautiAilly  polished, 
the  stone  being  a  fine-grained  diorite  containing  streaks  and 
spots  giving  it  a  porphyritic  character.  One  is  of  a  finer  tex- 
ture, containing  streaks  of  a  darker  colour;  and  about  a  dozen 
celts  similar  to  this  have  been  found  in  Guernsey*:  whence 
these  had  been  imported  it  is  at  present  impossible  to  say.  A 
plan  (PL  VII.  fig.  6)  is  given  of  this  kist-vaen,  drawn  by  J.  W. 
Lukis,  Esq.  The  largest  cap-stone,  which  is  of  a  peculiar  shape, 
and  about  14  feet  long,  is,  happily,  still  in  position,  and  forms  a 
picturesque  object. 

No.  3.  To  the  eastward  of  the  great  cromlech,  and  situate  in 
a  hollow  near  a  pool  called  La  Mare  aux  Mauves,  is  another  Kisty 
on  the  property  of  Mons.  Falla  of  des  Rocques  Barries  (PI.  III. 
fig.2,  andPl.  VIILfig.  1). 

Twenty-four  feet  to  the  westward  is  a  large  stone,  which  per- 
haps may  have  been  the  western  block  of  a  cromlech  to  which 
this  kist  and  adjoining  chambers  were  but  adjuncts  (compare 
plan,  PL  VIII.  fig.  1,  with  that  of  Du  Thus,  PL  VII.  fig.  2) .  Only 
one  cap-stone,  on  six  small  supporting  props,  remains.  This  was 
examined  by  Mr.  F.  C.  Lukis  in  1844,  and  found  to  have  been 
greatly  disturbed.  When  the  neighbouring  Martello  towers  were 
built  the  workmen  are  supposed  to  have  removed  many  stones 
from  this  kist  f. 

No.  4.  About  100  yards  from  the  above-mentioned  kist  to 
the  north-east  are  the  remains  of  another  Kist-vaen,    It  was 

*  Mr.  F.  G.  Lukis  has  found  one  specimen  of  a  similar  celt  at  Bonno,  in 
the  Morbihan,  likewise  imported, 
t  See  '  Aichsdological  Journal,'  vol.  i.  p.  222. 


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in  the  Channel  Islands.  51 

almost  entirely  destroyed  by  the  workmen  at  the  erection  of  the 
Martello  tower  close  by.  Some  flints  and  stone  mailers  were 
found  here. 

No.  5.  Not  far  from  Bordeaux  harbour^  near  the  estate  known 
by  the  name  of  Paradis,  is  a  locality  termed  DuThus  or  De-hus, 
which  was  purchased  of  Jean  Hubert  (as  appears  from  a  deed  in 
the  possession  of  the  heirs  of  Mons.  Jean  De  Havilland)  on  the 
23rd  of  April  1770,  for  the  sum  of  56  livres  16  sous  Toumois, 
or  about  £4  Is.  Here,  close  to  the  road,  is  situate  a  magni- 
ficent cromlech,  which  is  known  by  the  name  of  UAutel  du  Di- 
huSy  or  UAutel  du  Grand  Sarazin.  This  cromlech  is  still  par- 
tially surrounded  by  the  tumulus  which  originally  entirely  co- 
vered it,  round  the  verge  of  which  a  stone  circle  existed  60  feet 
(the  usual  size)  in  diameter,  of  which  circle  but  four  or  five 
stones  remain.  This  cromlech  consists  of  a  large  western 
chamber,  about  15  feet  square,  supporting  three  large  cap-stones, 
the  largest,  at  the  west  end,  being  16  feet  6  inches  long  by  11  feet 
8  inches  broad.  The  second  cap-stone  is  broken,  and  a  prop 
(see  plan,  PI.  YII.  fig.  2)  has  been  added  to  support  it.  There 
are  seven  cap-stones  altogether  to  the  main  avenue,  which  is 
divided  into  three  main  chambers  by  evident  dividing-blocks, 
and  hence  may  be  termed  "  Tripartite  J* 

The  most  interesting  belongings  of  this  cromlech  are  un- 
doubtedly the  unique  side-chambers  marked  A,  B,  C,  D  in 
Mr.  J.  W.  Lukis's  plan  (PL  VII.  fig.  2)  of  which  A  and  B  are 
quite  covered,  and  C  partially,  with  cap-stones.  These  lateral 
chambers,  or  side-kists,  contained,  when  examined,  curious  and 
unique  forms  of  interment*.  Two  of  these  are  to  the  north  of 
the  main  structure,  the  smaller  one  to  the  east,  marked  B,  con- 
taining two  kneeling,  or  crouching,  skeletons.  The  eastern- 
most kist  of  the  two  to  the  south,  marked  D,  contained,  when 
opened,  three  separate  floors  or  layers  of  interment.  These  are 
minutely  described  in  the  '  Archaeologia'  f-  The  central  point 
of  the  peristalith  is  in  the  main  western  chamber.  The  eastern 
extremity  of  this  cromlech  is  closed  by  a  large  stone  on  the  edge 
of  the  road  which  runs  by  it.  This  cromlech  is  safely  protected 
by  the  proprietors. 

No.  6.  Le  Tombeau  du  Grand  Sarazin  (PI.  VIII.  fig.  2). 
Once  a  simple  kist  in  the  centre  of  a  fiirze-field  belonging  to  the 
estate  called  Paradis,  proprietor  Mr.  J.  Collas.  It  was  most  un- 
happily damaged  by  workmen  who  wanted  stone  for  repairing  the 
bam  of  the  proprietor,  and,  unknown  to  him,  partly  destroyed,  in 
1810.  In  1838  it  was  examined  by  Mr.  Lukis,  and  human  bones 
were  found  under  the  remains  of  the  cap-stone.     From  the  in- 

*  See  '  Archseologiay'  vol.  xzxv.  p.  232,  &c. 
t  Association  Journal,  voL  iv.  p.  323. 

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52  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

terior  nearly  twenty  jars  and  vessek  were  removed.  These  urns 
have  invariably  the  base  rounded.  No  change  in  the  state  in 
which  it  which  it  was  left  by  Mr.  Lukis  has  taken  place^  and  the 
proprietor  is  willing  to  preserve  it. 

The  urns  and  jars  are  in  Mr.  Lukis's  Museum;  they  are 
tolerably  perfect.  One  rude  celt  was  founds  and  a  piece  of 
opalized  sponge. 

No.  7.  La  Roche  qui  sonne  (PL  V.  fig.  1 ;  PI.  VIII.  fig.  3). 
The  remains  of  this  cromlech  are  to  be  found  nearly  buried  be- 
neath the  rubbish  of  a  quarry  which  has  been  opened  near  it 
since  its  examination  by  Mr.  Lukis.  Many  stones  are  extant 
in  this  neighbourhood  which  originally  belonged  to  this  crom- 
lech. It  is'  said  to  have  been  the  largest  in  the  island^  consist- 
ing of  five  or  six  cap-stones  evidently  lying,  in  conformity  with 
others  in  this  parish,  east  and  west.  The  remains  were  dis- 
covered by  Mr.  Lukis  and  his  sons  in  1837,  nearly  covered 
by  a  large  hedge,  which  had  been  planted  over  the  only  re- 
maining cap-stone  of  this  once  celebrated  cromlech.  By  per- 
mission of  Mr.  Jean  Henri,  the  thornbushes  and  hedge  were 
removed;  and  a  fine  cap-stone  about  14  feet  in  length  was 
discovered  resting  on  two  props  on  the  south  side  (see  PI.  VIII. 
fig.  3).  Several  urns  and  vessels  were  removed  from  beneath 
it,  as  also  a  bracelet  of  silver  and  brass,  and  another  of  jet*, 
together  with  many  good  polished  muUers  and  grinding-stones 
and  fragments  of  pottery.  The  ground  on  the  western  side  of 
this  stone  was  explored,  and  found  to  consist  of  broken  granite 
(or  '^  spalls,"  as  they  are  named  by  quarrymen),  being  the  evi- 
dent signs  of  the  destroyed  portions  of  the  cromlech,  said  to 
have  been  broken  up  for  building  the  farm-house  called  Belval^ 
which  stands  in  front  of  this  structure  on  the  south  side  of  the 
highroad.  It  should  be  remarked  that  this  building,  shortly 
after  completion,  caught  fire  by  some  mysterious  means  and  was 
burnt  down — a  sure  judgment,  as  it  is  thought,  for  the  de- 
secration which  had  been  committed  by  the  destruction  of  the 
cromlech ;  this  event,  however,  ensured  the  preservation  of  the 
remaining  portion  of  this  once  magnificent  cromlech.  Among 
the  Mbris  of  the  western  portion  the  fragments  of  pottery  dis- 
played superior  workmanship  in  pattern  and  material.  The 
above  feelings  on  the  sacrilege  committed  by  the  proprietor  still 
act  on  the  minds  of  the  superstitious  peasants  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, the  more  so  since  a  ship  laden  with  stones  from  this 
cromlech  was  wrecked  and  all  hands  lost.  This  monument  still 
belongs  to  the  Henri  family,  and  is  in  imminent  danger  of  being 

*  After  writing  the  above  we  found  a  small  celt  of  fibrolite  in  possession 
of  a  cottag^er  near  the  Roche  qui  sonne,  where  he  dug  it  up  two  years  since. 
It  is  now  m  liLr.  Lukis^s  possession. 

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in  the  Channel  Islands.  53 

entirely  destroyed  by  the  quarrymen  who  are  at  work  close  by 
the  spot;  but  Mr.  Henri^  the  proprietor^  is  disposed  to  pre- 
serve it  if  possible.  This  is  the  last  of  the  Celtic  structures 
to  be  described  in  the  Vale  Parish. 

St.  Sampson^s  Parish. 

No.  8.  On  the  Hougue^  or  hill^  to  the  rear  of  the  Parsonage^ 
several  stone  graves  have  been  destroyed.  Hand-bricks  and 
glass  amulets  of  the  Romano-Gallic  (?)  period  were  found. 

No.  9.  On  the  Vieille  Hougue  in  the  same  parish^  a  demi- 
dolmen  was  discovered  and  preserved  for  some  years.  Bones 
and  pottery  were  found  beneath,  and  several  stone  celts  in  its 
neighbourhood.  The  stone  itself  was  broken  up  by  the  quarry- 
men*  in  1860,  after  the  death  of  the  proprietor,  Mr.  Isemonger, 
who  had  preserved  it  during  his  lifetime. 

No.  10.  A  Menhir  called  La  Chaise  au  Pritre  and  La  Chaise 
de  St.  Bonix,  near  the  above-mentioned  demi-dolmen,  has  re« 
centlv  been  destroyed  f.  Two  fine  celts  were  at  its  base.  The 
vicimty  of  these  monuments,  where  several  stone  instruments 
have  been  obtained,  bears  the  name  of  "  Les  terres  du  Dis  "  J. 

No.  11.  On  the  hill  called  Les  Monts,  or  at  present  De 
Lancey  Hill,  formerly  stood  a  Menhir  nearly  due  south  of  the 
afore-mentioned  Chaise  de  St.  Bonix,  and  in  sight  of  it,  which 
was  known  as  La  Pierre  pointue.  When  the  chevauchi  went 
through  the  island,  with  the  authorities  of  the  ancient  Court  de 
TAbbaye  de  St.  Michel,  the  cavalcade  and  the  pions  were  enter- 
tained, and  dances  were  performed  around  this  menhir.  The 
proprietor,  Mons.  Blampied,  regretted  the  destruction  of  the 
menhir,  which,  however,  interfered  with  buildings  then  being 
erected  on  the  site. 

No.  12.  On  L'ilet,  opposite  to  Vale  Church,  there  still  exists 
the  hollow  space  where  a  kist  once  stood.  It  is  supposed  to 
have  been  destroyed  in  1801> — ^when  the  embankment  called 
Arnold's  Bridge  was  built,  and  the  Braye  du  Valle  was  recovered 
from  the  sea.  Several  stone  celts  have  been  obtained  in  this 
vicinity. 

No.  13.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Bonceval  several  stone 
troughs,  rubbers,  and  stone  celts  have  been  discovered;  and 
there  was  a  small  religious  house  (now  destroyed)  on  the  spot 

*  Nearly  a  dozen  celts  found  in  this  neigbourhood  are  in  Mr.  LuIob's  pos- 
seesion. 

t  Destroyed  in  1864  byDymond,  the  quarryman^  after  he  had  engaged  to 
preserve  it 

X  The  word  Dw  is  interesting  to  the  archfleolosist,  and  is  here  found  in  its 
proper  place,  on  Celtic  ground.  The  Gauls  and  Britons  believed  that  they 
were  descended  from  "  i>M,"  t.  e.  from  the  earth.  The  Qermans  believed 
themselves  to  have  sprung  from  '*  Tuesco,^^  or  '^  Thiu,*^ 

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54  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

known  as  Pulias^  where  still  a  wall  of  some  building  may  be 
seen.  The  lands  are  situate  on  La  Yingtaine  de  L'Epine^  to 
the  north-west  of  the  hill  called  Les  Vardes^  and  not  far  from 
highwater-mark.  A  considerable  quantity  of  hand-bricks  and 
pottery  has  been  found,  particularly  on  a  small  hougue  known 
as  '^  Le  camp  sauvage/'  belonging  to  St.  Laine  du  Yangrat. 

No.  14.  The  singular  rock-pillar  known  as  La  Rocque  Magii^ 
was  destroyed  three  years  ago  by  quarrymen.  This  is  the  more 
to  be  regretted,  as  geologically  it  was  evidently  connected  with 
the  raised  beach  in  this  part  of  the  parish. 

No.  15.  Near  Grand-Bock  Battery  some  pottery  and  stone 
rubbers  have  been  found. 

Catel  Parish. 

No.  16.  Near  the  Houmet  Battery  the  small  sea  cavern  called 
the  Creux  des  F6es  has  nothing,  so  to  speak,  of  human  work 
about  it,  although  often  spoken  of  by  the  country-folk  as  con- 
nected with  other  ancient  remains. 

No.  17.  Yazon  Bay  produces,  like  the  Bay  of  Cabo,  consi- 
derable beds  of  submarine  peat,  in  which  pottery,  stone  celts, 
and  one  portion  of  a  stone  bangle  have  been  found. 

St.  Saviour^s  Parish. 

No.  18.  Richmond  Point  and  Le  Crocq.  This  hill,  originally 
known  as  Le  Mont  nouvS,  has  still  a  menhir  in  good  order, 
and  the  debris  of  a  stone  kist  on  the  point  of  Le  Crocq.  Several 
stone  celts,  pottery,  and  clay  beads  have  been  found.  On  the 
coast  here  broken  vessels  and  handbricks  are  frequently  dis- 
covered. This  menhir  is  about  10  feet  in  height  (PI.  YI.  fig.  3) . 
One  fine  celt,  with  a  button-head,  was  found  near  it  by  Le  Sieur 
Le  Breton  of  the  Jennies,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  F.  C. 
Lukis. 

No.  19.  Le  Tripled  Cromlech  stands  on  a  hill  known  by  the 
name  of  Catioroc,  probably  a  corruption  of  "  Quoit  en  rocq.'' 
This  was  examined  by  Mr.  Lukis  in  1839-40,  and  described  by 
him  in  the  '  Archaeological  Journal,'  vol.  i.  p.  222. 

This  cromlech  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Bonamy  Maingy 
(PL  lY.  fig.  1;  PI.  YII.  fig.  4).  There  are  three  cap-stones :  the 
westernmost  one  has  slipped  firom  its  position ;  and  underneath 
this  undoubtedly  some  relics  may  yet  be  obtained.  The  second 
cap-stone  is  in  situ  on  its  props,  whilst  the  third  cap-stone  is 
partly  broken,  and  a  large  fragment  lies  underneath  it.  There 
are  six  stone  side-props  on  both  the  north  and  side-stones, 
besides  the  western  slab.  It  is  doubtful  if  the  stones  shown  in 
the  plan  formed  part  of  a  peristalith ;  but  there  are  evidences 


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in  the  Channel  Islands.  55 

of  a  side-chamber  on  the  south  side.  It  is  proposed  to  further 
explore  this  structure. 

No.  20.  About  two  hundred  yards  to  the  eastward  of  the 
above-mentioned  cromlech^  under  a  watch-tower^  there  were 
formerly  four  stone  ffraoes.  These  were  explored  by  Mr.  Lukis 
in  1840^.  They  were  found  to  contain  iron  knives^  swords^  and 
daggers^  as  well  as  fictile  vessels. 

No.  21.  On  the  promontory  of  I/E£e  another  cromlech  has 
been  left^  bappily  without  sharing  any  of  the  ravages  caused  by 
the  hand  of  man.  It  stands  near  the  road  which  leads  to  the 
small  island  of  Lihou  (PL  YII.  fig.  3).  At  present  it  consists 
of  two  large  cap-stones^  which  measure  about  20feet  across;  these 
cover  a  considerable  chamber  supported  by  fifteen  side-props. 
At  the  eastern  entrance  are  five  side-props  uncovered,  but  an 
apparent  cap-stone  lies  partially  covered  with  turf  on  the  south 
side  of  the  entrance.  Like  all  the  others  in  Guernsey,  this 
structure  is  orientated,  and  is  nearly  covered  by  the  original 
tumulus ;  hence  the  interior  presents  the  appearance  of  a  dark 
and  gloomy  cavern,  and  is  used  as  a  stable  for  cattle.  The 
popular  name  is  the  Oreiuc  des  Fees. 

Seven  of  the  stones  forming  the  original  peristalith  yet  remain. 

In  1840  a  regular  examination  of  this  cromlech  took  place  by 
Mr.  F.  C.  Lukis  and  his  sons.  They  found  that  this  structure 
had  been  filled  with  stones  and  rubbish  by  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  soldiers  at  L'Er^e  Barracks,  to  prevent  his  men 
from  hiding  themselves  within ;  and  the  whole  of  this  rubble 
had  to  be  removed. 

The  late  Mr.  Bonamy  Maingy  made  an  agreement  to  pur- 
chase the  Creux  des  Fees,  as  the  cromlech  formed  part  of  the 
line  of  demarcation  between  two  proprietors.  Mr.  Corbin  of 
Les  Adams  claimed  a  share  of  the  cromlech  on  the  side  of  his 
field.  At  a  meeting  of  the  parties  on  the  field  it  was  agreed 
that  compensation  should  be  granted  to  Mr.  Corbin;  and  £7 
was  paid  by  Mr.  Lukis,  and  a  new  Hue  or  limit  was  accordingly 
laid  out.  This  property  of  the  cromlech  was  then  formally  made 
over  to  the  Boyal  States  of  Guernsey,  as  shown  by  the  records. 

No.  22.  On  a  neighbouring  point,  where  a  battery  was  built 
many  years  since,  a  kist  or  cromlech  was  destroyed.  The  name 
De  JTntset,  or  TussitSy  sufficiently  designates  some  ancient  re- 
mains having  existed  there. 

St  Peter" sAn-the-Wood  Parish. 
No.  23.  On  the  road  towards  the  menhir  which  is  next  men- 
tioned, near  the  estate  of  Les  Paysans,  a  tumulus  once  existed 

*  'AichaDological  Joamal,'  vol.  i.  (Association),  p.  905;  ibid.  vol.  viii. 
(Association),  p.  64. 


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56  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

over  a  stone  structure^  and  was  known  by  the  name  of  Creux 
des  Faias.  Mr.  Lukis  obtained  leave  to  excavate  this,  but^  on 
his  arrival  at  the  spot^  found  that  the  proprietor  had  been  b^ore 
him  and  entirely  emptied  the  kist  in  search  of  tresor  trouvS. 

No.  24.  A  fine  menhir,  called  La  Longue  Pierre  (PI.  VI. 
fig.  1.),  stands  on  the  estate  of  Les  Paysans.  Mr.  Mansell  will 
preserve  it. 

St.  Andreufs  Parish, 

No.  25.  A  tumulus,  named  La  Houffue  Fauque,  in  this  parish 
is  being  gradually  removed  by  the  proprietors  when  they  re- 
quire earth.  Here  portions  of  several  celts  and  rubbers  have 
been  picked  up  by  Mr.  Lukis,  and  on  the  tumulus  an  iron  qpur 
was  found.  The  name  is  a  corruption  of  ^'  humus/'  earth,  and 
"foctis/'  a  hearth.  This  and  the  following  have  generally  been 
considered  to  have  served  as  watch-stations. 

St.  Martin's  Parish. 
No.  26.  A  tumulus  similar  to  the  above  has  qIso  been  nearly 
destroyed.  Its  name  is  La  Houffue  Hatenai.  The  proprietor 
informed  Mr.  Lukis  that,  when  a  lad,  he  remembers  his  father 
digging  out  some  urns  firom  this  mound.  Hatenai  is  an  Arabic 
term  for ''  knoll ; "  but  how  it  became  incorporated  into  the  old 
Guernsey  dialect  it  is  impossible  to  determine. 

Torteval  Parish. 

No.  27.  Tumulus  or  cairn  near  Pleinmont  Point.  A  low 
cairn  on  the  summit  of  the  highland,  supposed  to  have  been 
destroyed  when  a  flag-staff  was  required  to  be  erected  on  that 
point.  Several  celts  and  stone  instruments  have  been  found 
here. 

No.  28.  In  Rocquaine  bay  is  a  small  island  known  as  Le 
Chateau  de  Rocquaine,  or  Fort  Grey.  In  the  foundations  of 
this  fort  numerous  urns  and  other  vessels  were  found ;  but  no 
account  remains  of  its  antecedents. 

St.  Martin's  Parish. 

No.  29.  At  Jerbourg  Point,  pottery  has  been  found  in  vari- 
ous parts.  Stone  instruments,  flint  knives  and  arrow-heads, 
have  been  discovered  in  the  earthworks,  which  extend  from  Bay 
Portelet  on  the  west  to  La  Baie  des  Murs  near  Le  Bee  du  Nez 
on  the  eastern  shore,  and  are  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Lukis. 

In  Jacob's  '  Annals  of  the  Norman  Isles,'  it  is  stated  (p.  47y) 
that  there  is  a  smaller  Druids'  altar  in  the  Yale  Churchyard. 
This  must  be  an  error,  as  there  is  nothing  of  the  kind ;  but  a 
large  boulder  near  the  west  end  of  the  church  has  been  thought 


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in  the  Channel  Islands.  57 

by  the  vulgar  to  bear  a  resemblance  to  an  altar.  In  the  parish 
of  St.  Peter  Port,  no  stone  remains  are  to  be  now  found, 
although  the  names  of  several  places  near  the  town,  stiU  retained, 
are  sufficiently  significant,  and  above  a  dozen  celts  and  stone 
instruments  have  been  found  in  the  parish  within  the  last  fifty 
vears.  The  following  are  some  of  the  old  names  still  revered 
by  an  ancient  and  rude  people : — 

1.  La  Pocquelaye. 


1.  La  Longue  Pierre. 

2.  La  Petite  Longue  Pierre. 


2.  La  Pocquelaye  du  has. 

8.  La  Grande  Pocquelaye. 

4.  La  Pocquelaye  Normanville. 

Les  Bocquettes,  on  which  a  windmill  existed  in  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth.  It  fell  into  bad  repair;  and  application  was  made 
for  its  reconstruction  on  La  Pierre  de  Uhyvreusey  probably  a 
menhir.  This  mill  stood  where  Victoria  Tower  now  stands. 
Near  De  Havilland  Hall  is  an  estate  called  Les  Grands  Cour- 
tils ;  and  on  part  of  it,  overlooking  La  Grande  Pocquelaye  and 
Le  Longue  Bocque  and  Rocquettes,  is  a  spot  to  which  the  term 
Le  Trifled  is  still  attached.  In  this  neighbourhood  indications 
of  some  structures  have  been  observed ;  and  three  or  four  celts 
and  an  amulet  from  this  locality  are  in  the  museum  of  Mr. 
Lukis.  There  are  also  traces  of  small  props  or  menhirs  in  the 
direction  of  this  Trepied ;  and  it  appears  as  if  there  were  some 
connexion  between  this  spot  and  La  Tintel-lais  field,  where  two 
stone  axe-heads  were  found.  This  spot,  Le  Trepied,  can  be 
seen  from  the  opposite  hill,  called  La  Rocque  a  Vor,  where  four 
fine  axe-heads  were  discovered.  Several  stone  graves  were 
opened  by  Mr.  Isemonger  in  the  parishes  of  St.  Sampson  and 
the  Yale,  about  the  year  1842 ;  but  no  account  of  them  or  their 
locality  exists.  Several  of  the  stone-mills,  or  querns  and  mul- 
lers,  firom  them  are  in  Mr.  Lukis's  Museum. 

Herm. 

Before  the  year  1838,  the  island  of  Herm  was  not  known 
to  possess  any  ancient  remains.  In  that  year,  however,  Mr. 
Lukis  paid  a  sketching  visit  to  the  little-frequented  spot ;  and 
his  experienced  eyes  immediately  detected  indications  of  stone 
structures,  of  which  the  cap-stones  had  been  removed^  by  the 
quarrymen  then  engaged  upon  the  spot.  Five  or  six  sites  were 
noted  by  him  at  the  time ;  and  as  soon  as  leisure  permitted,  he 
set  to  work  to  explore  these  localities.  It  was  not  until  1841 
that  he  was  able  to  commence  this  examination,  when  he  ob- 
tained a  portion  of  the  farmhouse,  through  the  kindness  of  Mr. 
P.  Falla,  then  proprietor. 

The  principad  sites  are  mostly  in  the  north  half  of  the  island. 

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58  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

on  three  hills^  called  respectively  Le  Monceau,  Le  Grand  Monceau, 
and  Le  Petit  Monceau,  and  on  the  sandy  plain  at  their  foot. 

On  the  10th  August^  1841^  Mr.  Lukis  and  his  party  com- 
menced exploring  the  kist  on  the  Petit  Moncean,  not  far  from 
the  stone  circle  (PL  X.  fig.  3).  The  numerons  masses  of  bones 
discovered  in  this  kist  appear  to  have  been  brought  thither  and 
deposited  within  it^  after  the  maceration  of  the  bodies  dse- 
where.  This  likewise  appears  to  have  been  the  case  in  another 
kist,  where,  under  one  of  the  large  stones  lying  within  the  area 
of  a  small  peristalith,  or  circle,  were  found  dry  sand,  limpet- 
shells,  and  ten  adult  skulls,  arranged  in  two  sets  of  five  at  either 
end,  and  disposed  in  an  accurately  quincuncial  order.  During 
Mr.  Lukis's  absence,  these  skulls  were  despoiled  of  their  teeth 
by  an  enterprising  dentist  who  happened  to  be  a  guest  of  the 
proprietor.  He  found  the  enamel  to  be  of  such  superior  quality 
that  he  thought  they  would  make  excellent  false  teeth ;  and  it  is 
therefore  not  improbable  that,  after  having  done  their  duty  in  a 
Celtic  skull,  they  may  have  performed  a  second  tour  of  duty  in 
an  Anglo-Saxon  one. 

The  two  cromlechs  on  the  sandy  plain  were  soon  after  un- 
covered, in  which  bones  and  pottery,  in  fragments,  with  several 
urns  in  excellent  order,  were  discovered.  The  circle  or  peristalith 
on  the  western  side  of  Le  Petit  Monceau,  with  the  cromlech  on 
Le  Monceau,  and  several  others  on  the  Mielles,  or  sandy  plain, 
were  likewise  examined,  and  planned  out,  and  described  in 
Mr.  Lukis's  '  Collectanea  Antiqua,'  under  the  article  "  Herm.'' 
In  all  twelve  localities  sepulchral  remains  were  discovered. 
Over  many  of  these  the  sand  has  again  drifted,  obliterating  all 
but  the  bare  tracings  of  them.  Amongst  others  remaining 
visible  is  a  portion  of  a  large  circle  tolerably  defined,  with 
approaches  to  it  somewhat  similar  to  the  one  at  L'Ancresse, 
Guernsey ;  within  its  perimeter,  to  the  N.E.,  is  the  kist  (PI.  V. 
fig.  2,  and  PI.  X.  fig.  6).  It  would  occupy  too  much  space  in 
this  report  to  describe  each  structure  separately  and  minutely. 
A  list  of  them  is  therefore  given  in  the  synoptical  chart  {vide 
also  plans  in  PI.  X.) . 

There  is  a  large  kitchen-midden,  portions  of  which  are  being 
continually  washed  away  by  the  tide ;  and  this  has  lately  been 
described  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Flower,  F.G.S. 

Two  smaller  specimens  of  these  middens  are  to  be  fotmd  in 
Jedthou,  also  on  the  coast,  but  at  a  higher  elevation. 

Serk. 
In  Serk  there  remains  only  a  small  portion  of  what  was  onoe 
apparently  a  kist.     Situate  in  Little  Serk,  i.  e.  the  southern- 
most portion  of  the  island,  almost  cut  off  by  the  Coup^  from 


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in  the  Channel  Islands.  59 

the  mam  island^  these  few  stones  still  exist  near  some  old  tin- 
and  copper-mines  now  abandoned.  In  digging  near  an  old  em- 
bankment— ^perhaps  an  ancient  fortification — several  celts,  mul- 
lets, &c.  of  rude  type  have  been  found.  They  are  mostly  in 
the  possession  of  Mr.  W.  Collings,  the  present  Seigneur  of  the 
island^  who  takes  the  greatest  interest  in  archaeology. 

Jersey. 
St  Martin's  Parish. 

No.  1.  Cromlech  at  AnnevUIe  (PI.  II.,  and  PL  VIII.  fig.  4). 
Up  to  the  year  1848,  the  only  visible  portion  of  this  megalithic 
structure  was  a  single  huge  flat  block  of  granite,  measuring  15 
feet  long,  10  ft.  wide,  and  3  ft.  in  thick,  situated  apparently  on  a 
heap  of  rubbish,  and  known  to  the  country-people  under  the  name 
of  the  Pocquelaye  or  "fairy  stone."  During  the  year  1848,  how- 
ever, Mr.  Fauvel,  at  that  time  the  proprietor,  commenced  exca- 
vations around  and  under  this  stone,  removing  the  accumulated 
earth  and  soil  of  what  perhaps  had  formed  an  artificial  tumulus. 
This  large  block  of  stone  was  then  found  to  be  a  cap-stone, 
resting  upon  five  large  side-blocks  (only  four  of  which,  however, 
it  actually  touched)  arranged  in  a  semicircular  position,  whilst 
four  other  similar  blocks  almost  completed  the  circle,  forming 
the  large  western  chamber  of  a  cromlech*. 

Adjoining  the  large  chamber,  there  now  remain  vestiges  of 
two  secondary  chambers  which  were  at  the  same  time  uncovered, 
whilst  a  smaller  cap-stone  was  thrown  down  and  other  blocks 
of  stone  displaced  by  the  ruthless  searchers  for  treasure-trove. 
What  vessels  or  instruments  were  found  during  this  search,  I 
have  been  unable  to  discover ;  but  I  believe  I  am  right  in  stating 
that  the  majority  of  relics  found  were  sold  to  the  British  Mu- 
seum ;  whether  they  can  be  identified  there,  or  not^  I  cannot  say. 

Things  remained  in  this  state  until  last  year,  when  the  Vicar 
of  Yeddingham  (Yorkshire),  with  the  assistance  of  labour  from 
the  neighbouring  Naval  School,  proceeded  to  further  excavate 
the  mound  still  surrounding  the  cromlech^  and  proceeding  east- 
ward uncovered  several  more  chambers,  with  an  avenue  of 
smaller  stones,  apparently  leading  to  the  large  western  chamber. 
In  common  with  all  the  Channel-Island  cromlechs,  this  structure 
exhibits  intentional  orientation.  The  general  features  of  this 
monument  are  readily  comprehended  from  the  accompanying 
plan  and  elevation,  and  will  be  seen  to  correspond  closely  in  form 
and  dimensions  with  the  neighbouring  cromlech  at  Mont  Vh6 
in  the  adjoining  parish  (PI.  VIII.  fig.  5).    The  dimensions  of 

*  Is  it  not  possible  that  originally  this  circle,  11  feet  in  diameter,  was 
eomplete,  with  a  second  cap-stone  similar  in  proportions  to  the  one  above 
mentioned  to  cover  it  in  ? 


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60  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

the  cromlech  are  as  follow  : — Extreme  length  44  feet^  diameter 
of  western  chamber  11  feet,  breadth  of  eastern  avenue  8  feet, 
height  of  side  blocks  at  west  end  5  feet  6  inches,  diminishing 
gradually  at  east  end  to  4  feet  and  3  feet  6  inches.  The  origincd 
walls  of  the  central  portion  of  this  cromlech  (which  I  take  origi- 
nally to  have  been  of  a  bottle-shape,  like  that  at  Mont  UbS) 
have  apparently  been  disturbed  by  subsequent  comers,  who  have 
made  side-kists  from  the  blocks  which  formerly  were  part  of  the 
main  body  of  the  structure.  In  some  of  these  side-kists  parts 
of  human  skeletons  were  found.  The  Rev.  G.  F.  Porter,  not 
satisfied  with  the  simple  exposure  of  the  stones  of  which  this 
elaborate  structure  consists,  judged  it  necessary  to  restore  the 
dilapidated  ruin,  and  the  small  cap-stone  was  replaced  as  nearly 
as  possible  in  its  original  position.  One  stone  was  lying  pro- 
strate some  feet  away  from  where  it  now  stands.  The  Messrs. 
Fauvel,  who  were  present  when  it  was  thrown  down,  differed  as 
to  the  spot  on  which  it  originally  stood ;  but  ultimately  it  was 
resolved  to  re-erect  this  stone  in  the  position  where  it  now  rests^ 
in  accordance  with  the  views  of  the  younger  Fauvel. 

At  the  narrow  eastern  entrance  to  the  cromlech  were  found 
portions  of  two  exterior  circular  walls  (shown  in  PL  II.  and 
PI.  VIII.  fig.  4),  the  inner  one  arranged  so  as  to  allow  an 
entrance  to  the  eastern  avenue.  Both  these  walls  were  mostly 
pulled  down  and  built  up  again  under  the  direction  of  Mr. 
Porter ;  and  four  small  vertical  stones  were  found  on  the  southern 
side  of  the  inner  wall,  probably  part  of  it.  Only  a  small  por- 
tion of  the  inner  wall,  where  it  joins  the  eastern  entrance  to  the 
cromlech  on  the  north  side,  is  left  intact ;  the  outer  wall  has, 
unfortunately,  been  broken  so  as  to  break  the  circle,  and  the 
two  ends  (if  I  may  so  express  it)  turned  inwards,  so  as  to  allow 
of  easy  entrance  by  visitors  {ladies  I  presume),  who  otherwise 
must  have  had  to  climb  over  this  wall  of  loose  stones.  For- 
merly, no  doubt,  there  were  two  circles,  but  whether  concentric 
or  excentric  it  does  not  appear  easy  to  decide ;  at  present  the 
larger  portions  of  them  are  still  covered  over  with  soU. 

No.  2.  In  the  same  parish,  is  the  small  cromlech  Le  Coupe- 
ron,  which  stands  on  a  small  promontory  between  Douet  de  la 
mer  and  Saie  harbour.  Close  to  it  is  a  small  battery  and  maga- 
zine, built  during  the  French  war,  and  in  the  construction  of 
which  it  is  to  be  feared  that  many  of  the  stones  then  composing 
the  cromlech  were  broken  and  used.  It  is  described  in  Falle's 
'  History  of  Jersey,'  as  follows  : — ^^  It  consists  of  twenty-one 
stones,  set  on  end  in  the  form  of  an  oval.  Within  this  oval 
are  fourteen  others,  in  two  straight  rows,  seven  of  a  side,  which 
sustain  three  large  flags,  lying  close  and  touching  one  another, 
and  may  be  supposed  to  have  made  one  altar  18  feet  in  length.'' 


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61 


The  next  record  I  find  of  this  cromlech  is  a  drawing  by  Mr. 
Lukis,  made  about  1848,  with  marginal  notes  (PL  IX.  fig.  3), 
when  it  apparently  consisted  of  an  outer  circle,  10  paces  long  by 
4  broad,  containing  twenty-two  stones ;  the  cromlech  itself  had 
then  eleyen  props  supporting  three  cap-stones,  and  two  other 
stones,  whether  cap-stones  or  not  was  doubtful.  Mention  is  made 
also  of  two  stones  at  the  south,  and  one  at  the  north  end ;  but 
what  portion  of  the  cromlech  these  formed  seems  undecided. 

Last  year  this  cromlech  was  examined,  cleared,  and  restored 
through  the  exertions  of  the  Rev.  G.  F.  Porter*.  The  follow- 
ing comparative  Table  shows  the  diflferent  states  of  the  cromlech 
as  described  by  Falle,  Lukis,  and  Porter : — 


Enumaration   of  stones  composing  tho  i 
cromle<^,  according  to    | 

Falle, 
1820? 

Lukisy 
1848. 

Porter, 
1869. 

Number  of  cap-stones    j^^S^' •;;;;;  [ 
\  north  side 

3 

"¥ 

7 

*2i" 

8 
2 

ii  " 

22"' 
3 

7 

10 
9 

1 
18 

Number  of  props  <  south  side 

( west  side    

Outer  circle    

Other  fltones.  doubtful 

Total    

38 

41 

45 

Mr.  Liukis  has  drawn  my  attention  to  the  cap-stone,  as  now 

Kg.  2. 


Original  side-prop,  now  fifth  cap-itonef  of  Le  Coiiperon  cromlecb,  Jenej. 
placed  fifth  from  the  western  end.     His  son  has  observed,  on 

♦  See  Appendix,  p.  08.  rf^n^n]o 

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62  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

examination,  that  this  atone  (see  woodcut,  fig.  2,  and  plan,  PI. 
IX.  fig.  2)  has  been  carefully  hollowed  out  by  the  hand  of  man, 
and  in  every  way  resembles  similar  stones  which  have  formed 
props  or  dividing-stones  of  chambers  in  the  Brittany  cromlechs 
— two  stones,  each  with  a  semicircular  aperture,  forming  an 
entrance  through  which  it  would  be  possible  to  crawl.  If  this 
theory  be  true,  which  I  doubt  not,  then  this  stone,  which  is  now 
a  cap-stone,  could  not  originally  have  been  a  cap-stone.  Whe- 
ther the  restored  cromlech  (PL  IX.  fig.  2)  is  a  good  represen- 
tation of  the  original,  it  is  not  for  me  to  judge. 

St.  demenfs  Parish. 

No.  8.  Cromlech  at  Mont  Ub6  (PI.  V.  fig.  4;  PL  VIII. 
fig.  5) .  The  side-props  and  partition-stones  of  this  cromlech,  for 
years  past,  have  alone  survived  the  general  demolition  of  such 
structures ;  nor  can  I  find  any  record  of  the  cap-stones  being 
recognized  as  such.  It  is  probable  that  they  were  regarded  as 
natural  boulders,  and  broken  up  by  the  successive  proprietors, 
ignorant  of  the  irreparable  damage  they  were  committing.  Mr. 
Rami^,  the  present  proprietor,  however,  caused  excavations  to 
be  made  in  1848,  by  which  the  original  plan  of  this  Celtic 
sepulchre  was  clearly  defined*  (PL  VIII.  fig.  5).  This  monu- 
ment stands  on  the  side  of  a  gently  sloping  hill,  at  present  cul- 
tivated as  a  market-garden — greatly  to  the  disgust  of  the  tenant, 
whose  potato-plants  are  trodden  down  by  the  tourists  who  visit 
the  cromlech. 

On  comparing  the  plan  taken  this  year  with  the  one  drawn 
by  Mr.  Lukis  when  first  denuded,  the  absence  of  several  stones 
(shaded  on  the  plan)  is  at  once  observable,  and  serves  as  an 
additional  illustration  to  show  how  these  ancient  remains,  unless 
carefully  watched,  are  liable,  as  it  were,  to  melt  away  impercep- 
tibly and  by  degrees. .  Indeed  it  is  wonderful,  considering  that 
twenty  years  have  elapsed  since  these  stones  were  uncovered, 
that  so  many  remain ;  for  it  is  manifestly  the  interest  of  the 
market-gardener  to  have  these  huge  stones  removed;  and,  no 
doubt,  ^m  time  to. time  he  and  his  predecessors  have  gradu- 
ally destroyed  them,  one  by  one,  in  hopes  of  ultimately  demo- 
lishing the  entire  structure. 

Of  the  four  chambers,  which  (when  first  discovered)  were  well 
defined,  it  will  be  seen  that  only  one  remains  intact.  Another 
is  indicated  by  two  pillars,  whilst  the  stones  which  marked  out 

*  Of  the  same  type  as  the  cromlech  called  the  Pocqnelaje  at  Anneville. 
The  dimensions  of  this  cromlech  are  as  follow :—  Extreme  length  42  feet, 
i.e,  2  feet  shorter  than  the  one  at  Anneville;  hreadth  of  western  chamber 
lOi  feet;  eastern  avenue  4  feet ;  height  of  pillars  6  feet  at  west  end,  at  east 
end  5  feet,  and  4  feet  6  inches. 


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lit  the  Channel  Islands.  63 

tbe  remainder  have  totally  disappeared.  The  lower  half  only  of 
an  upright  pillar  remains^  the  workmen  having  already  com- 
mence breaking  this  pillar  when  Mr.  Lukis  was  fortunately 
enabled  to  put  a  stop  to  the  proceeding. 

The  stones  at  the  eastern  chamber  have  been  removed^  and 
others  substituted^  probably  from  one  of  the  western  chambers^ 
so  as  to  block  the  entrance  at  the  time  when  this  cromlech  was 
used  as  a  pig-stye. 

From  an  inspection  of  the  original  plan,  there  appear  to  have 
been  several  side-kists,  similar  to  those  existing  on  either  side  of 
the  cromlech  of  Du  Thus  in  Guernsey. 

Mr.  Lukis  has  drawn  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  the 
summits  of  the  stone  pillars  have  been  undoubtedly  worked 
and  shaped  by  hand,  probably  to  adapt  them  to  the  proper 
height  for  the  superincumbent  cap-stone.  I  cannot  but  regard 
the  exterior  slab  on  the  south  side  as  a  stone  to  block  up  the 
entrance  into  the  tomb,  through  which  subsequent  interments 
may  have  been  made,  or  periodical  visits  effected  for  the  purpose 
of  replenishing  the  offerings  of  food  to  the  dead*. 

I  am  informed  that  there  were,  and  most  likely  still  are, 
traces  of  a  peristalith;  but  there  were  no  signs  of  it  when  I 
visited  the  spot,  and  the  ground  being  under  cultivation  pre- 
vented verification  of  the  fact.  The  proprietor,  Mr.  C.  W. 
Bamie,  will  certainly  preserve  these  interesting  remains  during 
his  lifetime. 

No.  4.  In  an  orchard  belonging  to  Mr.  Le  Jeune,  dose  by 
the  above-mentioned  cromlech,  there  is  a  small  menhir,  known 
to  the  neighbourhood  under  the  name  of  La  Pierre  Blanche, 
which  calls  for  no  especial  notice. 

St.  Heller's  Parish. 

No.  5.  Ville-Nouaux  Cromlech. — Close  by  the  much-fre- 
quented thoroughfare  of  St.  Aubin's  Road,  on  the  right-hand 
side  on  leaving  St.  Heller's,  after  passing  the  first  martello 
tower,  is  the  locality  known  by  the  name  of  Ville  Nouaux. 

Here,  in  a  piece  of  waste  land,  over  which  the  sea-sand  has 
drifted  in  heaps,  here  and  there  covered  with  sparse  vegetation, 
a  ballast-hole  was  formed ;  and  as  the  sand  was  carted  away  to 
the  shipping,  some  large  granite  stones  were  half  exposed,  two 
of  them  being  dragged  away  from  their  positions  and  **  cracked 
up''  as  road-metal  for  the  adjoining  highway.  Fortunately  the 
ballast-hole  fell  into  disuse  some  three  years  since,  and  the  other 
stones  remained  unnoticed. 

In  May  1869  these  stones  were  examined,  and  found  to  form 

*  Compare  similar  apertures  at  Le  Couperon,  Ville  Nouaux,  Jersey  (PI.  IX. 
fig.  1),  Herm  (PI.  X.  fig.  1),  &c 


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6  A  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

a  portion  of  a  megalithic  structure^  from  the  interior  of  which 
the  accumulated  sand  and  soil  were  carefully  removed,  by  leave 
of  M.  de  Quetteville,  the  proprietor. 

As  now  exposed  to  view,  this  cromlech  appears  to  be  an  elon- 
gated alUe  couverte,  nearly  due  east  and  west,  measuring  35  feet 
in  length.  Its  sides,  about  4  feet  apart,  are  as  nearly  as  possi- 
ble parallel,  although  there  are  indications  of  the  avenue  being 
narrowed  towards  its  eastern  extremity,  as  we  should  expect  to 
find.  The  side-blocks  of  stone  average  from  4  to  5  feet  in 
height,  and  number  eleven  on  the  northern,  and  seven  on  the 
southern  side,  the  western  end  being  closed  by  a  fine  single  slab. 
The  interstices  between  these  blocks  are  roughly  filled  up  with 
irregularly-shaped  smaller  stones,  evidently  built  in  to  prevent  the 
exterior  earth  and  soil  of  the  superimposed  tumulus  from  falling 
into  the  sepulchral  grotto  (PL  V.  fig.  3;  PL  IX.  fig.  1). 

There  must  have  been  formerly  at  least  nine  cap-stones ;  of 
these,  two  have  been  removed,  as  observed  above,  whilst  the 
whole  fabric  appears  to  have  been  tilted,  with  an  inclination 
to  the  south,  probably  caused  either  by  the  unequal  pressure  of 
the  accumulated  sand-drift  on  the  northern  side,  or  by  the 
removal  of  the  ballast  from  its  southern  supports.  It  is  diffi- 
cult to  determine  whether  all  the  cap-stones  are  in  their  original 
positions,  or  whether  some  of  them  have  not  slipped  between 
the  side  blocks  from  their  summits. 

On  the  south,  side,  under  the  second  cap-stone,  between  two 
props  is  an  aperture  which  I  consider  to  indicate  a  similar  in- 
tention as  the  one  mentioned  in  the  account  of  the  Mont-Ub£ 
cromlech.  The  sixth  cap-stone  has  evidently  slipped  down,  so 
as  to  form  a  partition-wall  between  the  eastern  and  western 
portions — ^indeed,  so  much  so  as  to  make  it  almost  doubtful 
whether  it  is  a  cap-stone  or  really  a  dividing-block.  I  think  the 
supposition  that  it  is  a  cap-stone,  however,  the  more  likely.  On 
removing  the  sand-drift,  at  a  depth  of  2  feet  a  fine  black  soil  was 
reached,  and  this  was  removed  carefully ;  but  the  usual  layer  of 
limpet-shells  (so  universally  met  with  in  the  cromlechs  through- 
out the  Channel  Islands)  was  wanting,  indicating,  according  to 
Mr.  Lukis,  that  the  interments  are  of  a  secondary  period. 

At  a  depth  of  4  feet,  in  the  north-west  comer,  fragments  of 
pottery  were  first  found,  red  and  black,  and  a  pavement  of  flat 
sea- worn  pebbles  apparently  indicated  the  bottom  of  the  vault. 
As  Mr.  Lukis  has  found  several  layers  of  interments  with  simi- 
lar pavements  in  the  Guernsey  cromlechs,  it  is  not  improbable 
that  lower  layers  and  remains  may  yet  be  found  on  further  search 
being  made.  As  the  work  proceeded,  groups  of  urns,  in  sets 
of  three,  were  discovered ;  along  the  north  side  nine  of  these 
were  preserved  more  or  less  perfect;  in  one  case  a  smaller  urn 

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in  the  Channel  Islands.  65 

was  enclosed  within  a  larger  one.  Some  of  these  urns  were  in 
a  fine  state  of  preseryation ;  and,  with  the  exception  of  two*,  they 
are  all  in  the  possession  of  the  owner.  It  must  be  observed  that 
all  these  nms,  when  discovered,  were  surrounded  hj  flat  stones 
placed  vertically  around  them,  and  above  them,  so  as  to  form 
small  kists;  but  they  were  so  disarranged  that  it  was  almost  im- 
possible to  determine  the  exact  way  in  which  they  had  been 
placed.  Some  of  the  jars  seemed  purposely  inserted  in  the 
intervals  between  the  side-blocks. 

Nearly  in  the  centre  of  the  cromlech  was  a  flat  stone  in  a  ver- 
tical position,  and  close  to  it  was  found  a  small  stone  amulet 
with  two  holes  drilled  through  it.  Here  and  there  the  earth 
about  it  was  discoloured,  as  if  with  decomposed  bone ;  but  there 
were  no  very  significant  traces  of  osseous  interment.  No  marks 
or  holes  have  been  found  on  any  of  the  stones  composing  this 
cromlech.  Much  yet  remains  for  examination  concerning  this 
structure,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  exterior  chambers 
may  be  found ;  for  the  eastern  extremity  is  still  covered  with 
sand. 

No.  6.  The  celebrated  cromlech  which  formerly  stood  on 
the  present  site  of  Fort  Regent  was  removed  to  Henley-on- 
Thames,  and  needs  no  further  allusion  here. 

St.  Brelade's  Parish. 

No.  7.  On  a  farm  belonging  to  Mr.  Ramie,  in  the  wild 
part  of  the  island  known  as  Vingtaine  de  la  Moye,  is  a  fine 
menhir  which  goes  by  the  name  of  Le  Quesnel.  A  curious  fact 
may  be  noticed  relative  to  this  monolith,  viz.  that  it  is  so  neatly 
balanced  that  when  the  wind  blows  high  it  shakes  distinctly,  so 
that  an  iron  ring  was  driven  into  the  top  in  order  to  make  fast 
a  guy,  to  steady  it,  when  a  small  windmill  used  to  be  fixed  to 
the  top.  By  scraping  away  the  earth  accumulated  at  its  base 
the  flat  edge  of  a  spade  can  be  passed  underneath  the  centre  of 
this  monument,  between  it  and  the  flat  rock  on  which  it  stands. 

Although  Mr.  Rami6  is  willing  to  preserve  this  monolith,  if 
possible,  yet  the  ground  within  a  few  feet  is  being  quarried,  and 
so  little  control  apparently  can  be  exercised  over  the  quarrymen 
that  any  day  Mr.  Ramie  may  find  this  fine  landmark  destroyed. 

No.  8.  About  half  a  mUe  from  Le  Quesnel,  and  directly 
above  La  Corbiere  Point,  is  a  fine  single  stone  Dolmen,  called 
the  Table  des  Marthes.  It  measures  12  feet  by  6  feet  by  3  feet. 
It  is  supported  on  two  small  cairns,  and  Mr.  Ahier  found  some 
bronze  instruments  beneath  it:  he  does  not  say  what;  but 
probably  they  were  wedges.     A  great  deal  of  the  granite  on  the 

•  Two  urns  were  given  by  Mr.  Quetteville  to  the  Rev. F.Porter,  who  was 
present  at  the  exhumation. 

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66  Lieut.  Oliver — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

surface  of  the  ground  about  here  is  being  broken  up,  and  at 
any  time  this  dolmen  may  disappear. 

Besides  these,  there  are  several  more  obscure  remains  which 
may  here  be  briefly  alluded  to,  such  as  indications  of  tumuli, 
viz. : — Le  Bequi  near  Plemont,  in  St.  Ouen ;  the  mound  under  the 
tower  called  La  Hougue  Bie,  in  St.  Saviour's ;  and  another,  also 
in  St.  Saviour's,  near  the  highroad,  not  far  from  the  church. 
Again^  there  is  another  conspicuous  rock,  falsely  called  a  menhir, 
on  the  Quenvais. 

There  is  some  rumour  of  a  trilithon  called  the  PrS  des  irois 
roches  having  existed  close  to  the  sea  at  St.  Ouen ;  but  I  could 
find  no  trace  of  it,  nor  could  I  find  any  one  who  knew  of  an 
alignment  said  to  be  extant  some  years  ago  at  Vinchelez  de  Bos, 
So  also  I  am  informed  that  a  dolmen  was  discovered  at  St.  Ouen 
in  1839,  on  les  Monts  Orantez,  in  a  field  called  la  Grande  Place. 

There  now  exists  a  doubtful  demi-dolmen  in  the  northern  part 
of  Trinity  parish,  called  the  Roche  h  la  F6e,  close  to  the  sea,  east 
of  Petit  Port  ^  but  I  was  unable  to  visit  it.  The  name  certainly 
indicates  a  Celtic  monument. 

At  Dicq,  Havre  de  Pas,  it  is  said  that  a  circle  and  cromlech 
formerly  existed ;  but  this  is  all  built  over.  So  also  the  name  of 
La  Pocquelaye,  at  Bouge  Bouillon,  indicates  the  existence  of  a 
cromlech  in  by-gone  days. 

A  rocking-stone  is  stated  to  have  formerly  stood  at  Les  Landes 
Pallot,  in  St.  Saviour's  Parish ;  and  there  is  a  stone  worth  exa- 
mining on  Mr.  T.  Lerrier's  farm  at  Grouville. 

The  Rocque  Berg,  or  ^'  Witches'  rock,"  is  simply  a  rock  on 
which  are  said  to  be  the  marks  of  cloven  hoofs ;  they  are  merely 
the  holes  caused  by  the  decomposition  of  the  softer  portions  of 
the  granite. 

I  ought  not,  perhaps,  to  omit  mention  of  certain  caves  said  to 
exist  in  the  hill  over  the  Couperon  cromlech.  They  are  noticed 
by  Falle  as  follows : — '^  In  the  side  of  the  same  hill  are  caverns 
wrought  leading  into  one  another,  the  entrance  3  feet  high  and 
2  wide;  but  for  what  use  intended  I  am  imable  to  say."  From 
this  accoimt  it  appears  as  if  they  were  artificial ;  but  no  one  in 
their  neighbourhood  appeared  to  know  of  their  locality,  and  my 
own  visit  was  too  brief  to  allow  of  a  systematic  search;  they 
may  be  worth  examining. 

Alderney. 

Aldemey  has  suffered  almost  more  than  the  neighbouring 

islands  as  to  the  destruction  of  its  megalithic  structures.     Mr. 

May,  who  has  for  many  years  been  in  charge  of  the  Admiralty 

works  in  connexion  with  the  breakwater  in  this  island,  writes  to 


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in  the  Channel  Islands,  67 

me^  "  For  many  years  past  this  island  has  been  infested  with 
the  genus  homo,  species  ^  navvy/  who  make  it  their  business 
on  Sundays  to  destroy  all  such  landmarks  as  those  you  are  look- 
ing for/' 

And  he  is  quite  right ;  for  hardly  any  remain^  with  the  excep- 
tion of  part  of  a  cromlech^  near  Fort  Tourgie,  called  the  "  Druids' 
altar/'  and  two  dilapidated  cromlechs  by  Corblets  Ray.  At 
least  fivQ  cromlechs  and  six  tumuli  (chambered)  are  described  as 
existing  in  1847  by  Mr.  Lukis*.  But  since  that  account  was 
written^  the  island  has  been  covered  with  modem  fortifications^ 
and  almost  all  vestiges  have  been  removed.  I  have  given  a  list  of 
such  remains,  but  I  am  sorry  not  to  be  able  to  report  more  fully 
on  them,  from  the  fact  that  during  my  brief  visits  to  this  island 
I  was  more  or  less  employed  on  military  duty,  and  was  unable  to 
afford  the  time  necessary  to  make  a  more  careful  search  to  iden- 
tify the  few  remains  existing.  Many  of  the  instruments  found 
in  Aldemey  are  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Lukis ;  and  I  picked  up 
a  portion  of  a  celt  myself  in  a  ploughed  field  near  the  nunnery. 

Conclusion. 

There  are  numberless  points  of  interest  connected  with  these 
megaUthic  remains,  which  are,  however,  beyond  the  province  of 
the  present  paper ;  but  perhaps  I  may  be  allowed  to  observe 
how  much  I  was  slruck,  during  my  examination  of  these  monu- 
ments, by  the  remarkable  resemblance  they  bear  to  the  mono- 
liths and  stone  tombs  which  I  had  seen  in  Madagascar,  and  which 
are  erected  by  the  hill-tribes  of  Hovas  even  at  this  very  day. 
Choosing  the  natural  cleavage  of  the  rock  (generally  granite), 
where  adapted  for  their  purpose,  they  light  fires  of  dung 
along  the  line  indicated,  and  then  dash  water  onto  the  heated 
stone,  which  is  thus  split,  and  a  huge  mass  detached.  By  means 
of  strong  levers,  and  on  rollers  of  hard  wood,  with  the  help  of 
ropes  made  from  the  rofia  and  other  palm-fibres,  they  manage 
to  move  these  rocks  over  diflScult  ground  to  their  position.  A 
whole  tribe  of  some  five  hundred  men  will,  perhaps,  be  engaged 
in  moving  one  such  stone.  Similarly  I  have  recognized  an 
affinity  with  the  aboriginal  Indian  tombs  in  Central  America. 
Figs.  2  &  3,  PI.  VI.,  represent  a  rudely  carved  stone  now  forming 
a  gate-post  in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Martinis  Parish,  Guernsey, 
which  reminded  me  irresistibly  of  the  stone  idols  which  I  had 
seen  on  the  island  of  Momotombita  in  the  Lake  of  Managua — 
the  head,  shoulders,  and  arms  alone  being  represented,  the  re- 
maining portion  being  unhewn  and  rough. 

In  conclusion,  however,  my  sole  object  has  been  to  give  as 

•  See  ArcbjBologia,  Journal  of  Association^  April  1847,  *'  Antiquities  of 
Aldemey." 

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68  Lieut.  Olivbr — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

faithful  an  epitome  as  possible  of  all  the  information  I  have  been 
able  to  collect  as  to  the  present  state  and  condition  of  the  pre- 
historic remains  in  the  Channel  Islands ;  nor  at  present  do  I 
offer  any  suggestions  as  to  the  means  to  be  employed  to  preserve 
those  that  remain  intact.  But  I  cannot  conclude  without  men- 
tioning that  this  Report  ought  rightly  to  be  considered  rather  as 
Mr.  Lukis's  than  my  own ;  for  it  is  to  Mr.  Lukis  that  I  owe  the 
majority  of  notes^  plans^  drawings^  &c.^  in  fact^  the  whole  materiel 
for  this  paper^  which  has  mostly  even  been  put  together  under 
his  personal  superintendence.  Any  credit^  therefore^  that  it  may 
deserve  is  attributable  to  him^  whilst  I  must  blame  myself  alone 
for  the  shortcomings  and  faults — ^which  I  trust  will  be  dealt 
with  leniently,  in  consideration  of  my  inexperience. 

APPENDIX. 

The  Opening  and  Restoration  of  the  Cromlech  of  Le  Couperon. 

^'The  Rev.  P.  Porter,  vicar  of  Yeddingham,  Yorkshire,  a 
gentleman  who  has  given  much  attention  to  the  sepulture  of  the 
aborigines  of  various  countries,  and  who,  with  the  Rev.  Canon 
Greenwell,  of  Durham,  has  opened  and  examined  many  of  the 
tumuli  which  abound  on  the  moors  and  wolds  of  Yorkshire,  is 
now  a  temporary  sojourner  in  the  Isle  of  Jersey.  This  gentle- 
man, true  to  his  instincts  as  an  antiquary,  was  readily  attracted 
to  the  cromlechs  still  extant  in  this  island.  A  very  cursory 
view  of  these  satisfied  him  that  they  had  been  opened,  but,  ap- 
parently, unskilftilly  explored.  One  was  said  to  remain  intact. 
Mr.  Porter  thought  otherwise,  but  resolved  to  reopen  it.  This 
cromlech  is  situated  on  the  north-east  part  of  the  island,  on  a 
promontory  called  or  known  as  Le  Couperon.  The  promontory 
projects  considerably  into  the  sea,  and  has  perhaps  an  altitude  of 
some  70  or  80  feet  from  the  level  of  high  water.  The  locality 
here  chosen  as  the  last  resting-place  of  our  unknown  friends  is 
a  proof  of  good  taste,  and  shows  a  degree  of  refinement  for 
which  we  are  scarcely  prepared  to  give  them  credit.  From  the 
east  end  of  the  cromlech  is  seen  the  bold  headland  of  La  Coup^, 
and  there  the  eye  passing  over  the  sea  rests  on  the  coast  line  of 
Normandy.  The  sim  gives  to  the  cromlech  his  first  radiance, 
the  western  slope  again  admits  his  rays  as  he  goes  down ;  and 
here  warmth  and  light  and  cheerfulness  pervade  the  tomb,  and 
take  from  it  much  of  that  sadness  we  are  so  prone  to  associate 
with  death.  Let  us  now  give  a  concise  account  of  Mr.  Porter  s 
operations.  In  July  last  he  assembled  a  party  of  friends,  in- 
cluding the  Rev.  W.  Ick,  Col.  Rynd,  Capt.  Evison,  R.  N.,  Capt. 
P.  Gaudin,  Mr.  W.G.  F.  Porter,  &c.,  with  the  proprietor  of  the 
soil,  and  proceeded  to  an  examination  of  the  ancient  monument. 


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in  the  Channel  Islands,  69 

It  was  found  in  a  state  of  great  dilapidation ;  some  of  the  up- 
right stones  had  fallen  and  thrown  off  the  transverse  blocks, 
briers,  ivy,  and  the  rankest  vegetation  had  taken  possession  of 
the  whole  exterior,  and  the  monument  had  become,  to  the  casual 
observer,  a  mere  mass  of  confusion.  When  cleared  externally,  it 
was  found  to  be  surrounded  by  an  oval  peristalith.  The  reve- 
rend gentleman  having  gained  access  into  the  interior  of  the 
cromlech,  saw  at  once  that  it  had  been  previously  despoiled. 
He,  however,  carefully  removed  and  sifted  the  earth,  and  was 
rewarded  by  finding  a  few  flint  flakes  and  the  bottom  portion  of 
a  rude  urn  in  small  fragments.  The  reverend  gentleman  having 
satisfied  himself  as  to  the  previous  opening,  set  about  restoring 
it  to  its  pristine  condition.  The  space  within  the  peristalith  he 
did  not  examine,  fearing  his  newly-executed  work  might  fall  in. 
We  give  its  dimensions  as  measured  by  Mr.  Porter.  The  crom- 
lech of  '  Le  Couperon'  lies  within  a  peristalith,  and  is  the  only 
instance  in  the  island.  The  circumference  of  the  peristalith  is 
100  feet,  composed  of  rough  blocks  of  stone  about  four  feet  long 
by  two  feet  thick,  standing  about  two  feet  above  the  soil :  they 
are  not  in  contact,  and  eighteen  only  remain.  The  position  of 
the  cromlech  is  (by  compass)  due  east  and  west.  It  is  26  feet 
9  inches  long ;  width  at  east  end  2  feet  3  inches,  centre  3  feet 
6  inches,  increasing  at  west  end  to  4  feet  4  inches.  The  crom- 
lech consists  of  nine  vertical  or  supporting -stones  on  the  south 
side,  and  eleven  on  the  north,  which  are  about  3  feet  6  inches 
high  at  the  west  end,  gradually  decreasing  to  about  2  feet  at  the 
east  end;  these  uprights  support  seven  covering -stones,  the  three 
largest  being  at  the  west  end,  measuring : — No.  1, 5  feet  6  inches 
long,  5  feet  6  inches  wide,  2  feet  thick  ,*  No.  2,  5  feet  10  inches 
long,  5  feet  6  inches  wide,  2  feet  thick ;  No.  3,  6  feet  7  inches 
long,  5  feet  wide,  2  feet  thick.  The  height  at  west  end  from 
covering-stone  to  present  floor  is  about  3^  feet.  The  space  be- 
tween the  peristalith  and  outside  of  the  vertical  stone  of  the 
cromlech  is  about  3^  feet.  Many  of  the  vertical  stones  had 
been  displaced,  and  two  only  of  the  transverse  or  covering  stones 
out  of  seven  were  found  in  position.  The  cromlech  as  it  now 
stands  is  worthy  of  a  visit  from  the  antiquarian  tourisf  *. 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES  n.-X. 

Platb  IL 
Pocquelaye  Cromlech,  Anneville,  Jersey.  (See  plan,  PI.  Vm.  fig.  4.) 

*  Two  beautifully-executed  photomphs  have  been  taken  of  it,  and  may 
be  obtained  at  the  establishment  of  Messrs.  Asplett  and  Green,  18^  Beresfora 
Street. 


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70         Lieut.  Oliver — On  the  Channel-Island  Remains. 

Plate  III. 
Fig.  1.  Kiflt-vaen  at  L'Ancresae,  Guernsey.     (See  plan,  PI.  VII.  fig.  6.) 
2. J  La  Mare  aux  Mauves,  Guernsey.     (See  plan,  PI.  VIII.  ^g.  1.) 

Plate  IV. 
Fig.  1.  Cromlech,  Le  Tr^pied,  Guernsey,     ^ee  plan,  PL  VII.  fig.  4.) 
2.  ,  Le  Grand  Monceau,  Herm.     (See  plan,  PI.  X.  fig.  2.) 

Plate  V. 
Fig.  I.  Remains  of  a  Cromlech,  La  Roche  qui  sonne,  Guernsey.     (See  plan, 
PL  \TII.  fig.  3.) 

2.  Eist-vaen  at  Les  Mielles,  Herm.     (See  plan,  PI.  X.  fig.  6.) 

3.  Cromlech  at  Ville  Nouaux,  Jersey.     (See  plan,  PL  IX.  fig.  I.) 

4.  at  Mont  Uh^,  Jersey.    (See  plan,  PL  VIIL  fig.  6.) 

Plate  VI. 
Fig.  I.  Menhir,  La  Longue  Pierre,  Les  Paysans,  Guernsey. 

2.  Rudely  carved  stone  now  forming  a  gate-post  in  the  chiirchyard  of 

St  Martin's  Parish,  Guernsey.    Side  view. 

3.  The  same,  front  view. 

4.  Menhir,  Le  Crocq,  Guernsey. 

Plate  VH. 
Fig.  1.  Plan  of  cromlech  at  L'Ancresse,  Guernsey. 

2.  Plan  of  cromlech,  D^hus,  Guernsey. 

3.  Plan  of  cromlech,  Le  Creux  des  F^es,  Guernsey. 

4.  Plan  of  cromlech,  Le  Tr^pied,  Guernsey. 

5.  Plan  of  kist-vaen  at  L'Ancresse,  Guernsey. 

Plate  VIII. 
Fig.  I.  Plan  of  Idst-vaen.  La  Mare  aux  Mauves,  Guernsey. 

2.  Plan  of  kist,  Tomoeau  du  Grand  Sarazin,  Guernsey. 

3.  Plan  of  remains  of  cromlech,  La  Roche  qui  sonne,  Guernsey. 

4.  Plan  of  Pocquelaye  cromlech,  Jersey. 

5.  Plan  of  cromlech  at  Mont  Ub6,  Jersey. 

Plate  IX. 
Fig.  1.  Plan  of  cromlech  at  Ville  Nouaux,  Jersey. 

2.  Plan  of  Le  Couperon  cromlech,  Jersey,  restored. 

3.  Le  Couperon  as  it  appeared  in  1848. 

Plate  X. 
Fig.  1.  Plan  of  cromlech  at  Le  Grand  Monceau,  Herm. 

2.  Plan  of  another  cromlech  at  Le  Graiid  Monceau,  Herm. 

3.  Plan  of  stone  circle  at  Le  Petit  Monceau,  Herm. 

4.  Plan  of  stone  circle  and  kist  at  Le  Monceau,  Herm. 

5.  Plan  of  stone  circle  at  Le  Petit  Monceau.  HemL 

6.  Plan  of  stone  circle  and  kist  on  Les  Mielles,  Heim. 

N.B. — ^The  scale  of  the  plans  in  Plates  VII.  and  X.  is  ^if,  and  that  of  those 
in  Plates  VHI.  and  IX.  is  j^j. 

The  plans  of  the  cap-stones  are  shown  in  dotted  lines,  and  those  of  the 
side-stones  in  continued  lines.  The  stones  shaded  have  been  removed  since 
1848. 

These  plates  represent  only  a  portion  of  the  large  collection  of  plans  and 
drawings  which  accompanic({  the  report. 


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[Journ.  Ethnol.  Soc.,  Vol.  H.,  to  f%ce  p.  70.] 
PRESENT    STATE    AND    CONDITION   OF   THOSE    STILL   EXTANT. 


>r  exeatrated  ;  when,  and  by  whom. 


ed  or  uncovered  a  century  ago ; 
by  M.  Fauvel  (1848).  who  sold 
and  within  to  the  British  Ma- 
British  CJollection,  cases  34,  36) ; 
uncovered  by  the  Rer.  F.  Porter, 
Kldinghain,  in  1868-419. 
he  Kev.  F.  Porter,  1868. 


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ly  I860,  by  Lieut.  Oliver,  R.A. 
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Examined  by  F.  ? 


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DisctiSsUm,  71 

Discussion. 

The  Honorary  Secretary  read  the  following  letter  from  the 
Rev.  F.  Porter  in  justification  of  his  attempts  at  restoration : — 

"  What  I  did  with  regard  to  the  Couperon  cromlech  was  this : — 1 
cleared  away  the  briers  &c.  with  which  it  was  overgrown,  and  found 
that  all  the  cap-stones,  save  two,  had  been  displaced,  some  being  on 
the  north,  others  on  the  south  side,  but  all  within  the  peristalith. 

"  In  clearing  out  the  interior  I  found  the  vertical  stones,  which  had 
been  thrust  inward;  I  had  merely  to  raise  them  upright, and  thej  were 
as  nearly  as  possible  in  their  true  position ;  I  think  it  was  almost 
impossible  for  me  to  make  a  mistake  nere.  The  cap-stones  were  then 
placed  on  their  supports,  exactly  in  the  order  in  which  I  found  them, 
I  did  not  pick  one  here  and  another  there,  because  it  would  fit  and 
look  better,  but  replaced  them  in  the  order  in  which  they  lay,  thinking, 
from  their  large  size,  that  they  could  not  have  been  moved  since  the 
time  of  their  overthrow. 

^  I  did  bring  one  stone  which  had  been  taken  a  few  yards  from  the 
place,  and  put  it  as  one  of  the  block  stones  at  the  west  end  of  the 
cromlech.  Many  of  the  stones  of  the  peristalith  have  been  taken 
away,  and  used  tor  building-  or  road-purposes;  not  one  of  those  re- 
maining was  in  any  way  removed  or  replaced  by  me. 

"  And  now  for  a  word  respecting  the  *  Anneville  cromlech.'  With 
the  one  or  two  exceptions  I  will  name,  I  left  every  thing  as  I  found  it. 
I  again  distinctly  deny  the  charge  of  replacing  the  scattered  stones  in 
an  arbitrary  manner. 

'*  The  walls  surrounding  this  cromlech  I  was  obliged  to  break 
through,  in  order  to  remove  the  interior  of  the  mound.  Much,  how- 
ever, of  the  original  walls  was  untouched ;  to  these  portions  I  built  up 
(according  to  measure  taken  before  their  removal)  those  portions 
which  the  necessity  of  the  case  obliged  me  to  remove. 

**  I  replaced  a  cover-stone  over  one  of  the  kists  on  the  north  side, 
raised  upright  one  of  the  stones  of  a  kist  on  the  south  side,  which  had 
given  way  from  the  removal  of  the  soil  at  the  back,  and  brought  in, 
from  the  base  of  the  moimd,  a  stone  which  had  formed  part  of  a  kist 
on  the  south  side,  and  replaced  it  in  the  position  it  formerly  occupied, 
being  assured  as  to  this  fact,  as  also  in  the  case  of  the  cover-stone  on 
the  north,  by  the  person  who  some  thirty  years  back  opened  part  of 
this  cromlech. 

"  As  many  of  the  stones  had  been  destroyed  and  taken  away,  I 
thought,  by  showing  the  nature  of  the  monument,  this  might  for  the 
future  be  prevented ;  my  object  was  to  preserve,  not  destroy,  or  to 
make  a  *  cooked-up '  structure  to  please  my  own  taste  or  fancy." 

Mr.  J.  W.  Flower  remarked  that,  if  there  was  any  thing  to  regret 
in  Lieut.  Oliver's  able  Beport,  it  was  that  it  was  not  made  a  little  more 
full  by  adding  further  particulars  of  the  objects  found  in  the  dolmens. 
All  these  me^ithic  structures  seem  to  be  more  or  less  alike  as  regards 
their  extemad  forms ;  and  it  was  therefore  chiefiy  to  the  implements, 
weapons,  and  pottery  found  in  them  that  we  must  look  for  indications 
of  the  conditions  and  modes  of  life  of  those  who  built  them. 


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72         Lieut.  Oliver — On  the  Channel-Island  Remains, 

Mr.  Flower  exhibited  the  cast  of  a  very  beautiful  implement  in 
green  jade,  being  one  of  seven  or  eight  which  Mr.  Lukis,  sen.,  had  pro- 
cured from  the  Gruenisey  dolmens,  and  which,  he  observed,  indicated  a 
perfection  in  this  art  of  which  no  traces  had  been  elsewhere  found. 
This  implement  is  eleven  inches  long,  and  seven  in  circumference  in 
the  centre.  At  one  end  it  forms  a  sharp  hatchet ;  and  the  other  is 
rounded  to  a  point,  and  forms  a  pick-axe,  the  centre  being  pierced 
to  admit  a  handle,  and  the  sides  of  this  opening  being  strengthened 
by  two  bands  or  ribs  lefb  when  the  stone  was  carved.  Mr.  Flower  also 
exhibited  some  small  polished  implements  of  granite,  brought  to  an 
edge  of  two  facets,  and  some  hand-made  bricks  or  trivets,  of  a  peculiar 
form,  which  he  had  lately  found  in  examining  a  kjokken-modding  in 
the  Island  of  Herm,  containing  a  prodigious  quantity  of  limpet  and 
other  shells.  Precisely  similar  objects  had  been  found  by  Mr.  Lukis 
in  several  of  the  Channel  Islands ;  and  although  it  by  no  means 
followed  that,  because  these  things  were  found  so  near  to  each 
other,  the  dolmen-builders  must  also  have  been  the  people  of  the 
kjokken-moddings,  still  it  seemed  possible,  if  not  probable.  Mr. 
Lukis  had  ascertained  that  trivets  or  bricks  of  the  same  form  were 
even  now  in  use  by  the  potters  of  Allahabad,  in  order  to  support  their 
pottery  when  placed  in  the  kilns.  The  kjokken-modding  also  con- 
tained several  fragments  of  undoubted  Samian  ware ;  and  it  would 
seem  therefore  not  only  that  the  builders  of  the  dolmens  were  probably 
identical  with  the  kjokken-modding  people,  but  that  they  also  had 
some  intercourse  with  the  Bomans;  and,  further,  the  samd  method 
of  preparing  pottery  for  burning  which  was  in  use  in  Europe  at  this 
remote  period  was  still  practised  by  the  potters  of  India. 

Mr.  f,  W.  LrKis,  referring  to  the  Eev.  F.  Porter's  letter  which  had 
been  read  in  justification  of  his  so-called  reconstruction  of  some  of  the 
cromlechs  in  Jersev,  remarked  that  he  was  sorry  that  the  Sev.  gentle- 
man had  made  such  an  egregious  mistake  as  to  replace,  in  lieu  of  the 
missing  cap-stone  No.  5  of  the  Couperon  cromlech,  a  stone  (fig.  2, 
p.  61)  which  had  been  hollowed  out  on  one  side,  and  had  origi- 
nally formed,  with  a  similarlv  hollowed  block,  an  entrance-hole  into 
the  chamber.  Examples  oi  such  entrances  are  to  be  seen  in  the 
cromlechs  at  Avening,  at  Bodmarton,  &c.,  and  also  in  two  places  in 
the  chambered  barrow  of  Eerlescant,  Brittany. 

This  hollowed  stone  which,  is  the  only,  example  of  the  kind 
hitherto  discovered  in  the  Channel  Islands,  had  passed  totally  unob- 
served until  Mr.  J.  W.  Lukis  visited  that  island  in  July  last. 

In  corroboration  of  Mr.  J.  "W.  Flower's  remarks  relative  to  finding 
Samian  ware  in  the  kitchen-midden  in  the  Island  of  Herm,  Mr. 
Lukis  mentioned  that,  in  examining  the  *'  Autel  des  Yardes,"  L'An- 
oresse,  Guernsey,  in  1848,  several  pieces  of  Samian  ware  were  dis- 
covered, one  of  which  had  been  worked  in  a  circular  form  and  per- 
forated in  the  centre,  probably  to  be  used  as  a  charm ;  of  course  this 
pottery  was  found  at  the  surface,  and  not  immediately  connected  with 
the  earliest  deposits.  In  1847,  Mr.  Lukis  found  in  a  cromlech  near 
Hennebont,  Brittany,  three  Boman  coins  of  the  Lower  Empire.  It 
it  more  than  probable  that  many  of  these  localities  were  not  only 
held  sacred  by  subsequent  races,  but  made  use  of  by  t  hem^^  , 

.gitizedbyCOOgle 


G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvariajrom  China.  73 

Mr.  Hyde  Clabks  said,  with  reference  to  the  age  of  the  kitchen- 
midden  in  Guernsey,  that  it  did  not  follow,  because  the  pottery  was 
of  the  class  called  by  us  Samian,  that  the  period  was  Roman.  Re 
had  found  the  like  pottery  in  the  kitchen-midden  pointed  out  by 
him  on  Mount  Fagus,  at  Smyrna.  It  was  possible  tuat  the  pottery 
might  haye  been  imported  earlier  than  the  Boman  period.  He  tnought 
it  very  desirable  that  the  theoretical  matter  in  the  paper  should 
be  turned  to  account.  He  considered  the  Council  might  endeavour 
to  get  the  States  of  the  Islands  to  extend  their  protection  to  public 
objects,  and  to  give  greater  facilities  for  the  conversion  of  these 
monuments  into  heirlooms.  With  regard  to  the  favourite  assign- 
ment of  these  megalithic  remains  to  the  Celts,  he  knew  of  no  justi- 
fication for  it.  Their  distribution  is  not  conformable  to  the  Celtic 
area,  and  the  Celtic  nomenclature  is  not  distinctive  or  historical, 
but  meaning  only  **  long  stones,"  **  great  stones,*'  &c.,  which  forms 
usuaUy  imply  that  the  monuments  belonged  to  a  much  earlier  popu- 
lation. 

Col.  A.  Lane  Fox  observed  that  he  had  found  hand-bricks  of  the 
same  kind  as  those  mentioned  by  Mr.  Elower  in  a  pit  near  St.  Peters, 
Broadstairs,  associated  with  Boman  pottery  and  with  evidence  of  the 
fabrication  of  flint  implements :  the  contents  of  this  pit  had  been 
described  in  the  first  number  of  the  Society's  Journal  for  the  year 
1869.  He  did  not  concur  with  Mr.  Hyde  Clarke  in  thinking  that 
Samian  pottery,  in  this  country,  could  be  attributed  to  pre-Koman 
times.  He  thought  that  the  occurrence  of  Samian  ware,  wherever 
found,  might  be  regarded  as  a  proof  of  Boman  occupation.  It  was 
not,  however,  to  be  inferred  from  the  presence  of  this  class  of  pottery 
in  the  kitchen-middens  referred  to  by  Mr.  Flower,  that  other  lutchen- 
middens  were  Boman,  but  only  those  in  which  the  Boman  pottery 
occurred.  A  kitchen-midden  might  be  of  any  date ;  the  period  could 
only  be  determined  by  the  characters  of  the  associated  remains ;  and 
many  were  proved  to  belong  to  the  early  stone  age.  At  Bichborough, 
in  Kent,  examples  of  kitchen-middens  might  be  seen  belonging  ex- 
clusively to  the  Boman  age. 


Ordinary  Meeting^  December  218t^  1869. 

Pbofbssor  Huxlet,  LL.D.,  F.B.S.,  FreHdent,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Members. — Bev.  James  Simpson  ;   George  Campbell^ 
Esq. ;  Dr.  Thomas  Nicholas,  M.A.,  P.G.S. 

The  following  paper  was  read  by  the  author  : — 

VIII.  Description  of  and  Bemarks  upon  an  Ancient  Calvaria 

from  China,  which  has  been  supposed  to  be  that  o/ Confucius. 

By  George  Bcsk,  Esq.,  F.B.S. 

Amongst  the  various  curiosities  of  the  Great  Exhibition  of  1862, 

there  was  scarcely  any  more  striking  and  interesting,  of  its  kind. 


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74  G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvariafrom  China. 

than  an  object  in  the  "  Department  of  Goldsmiths'  Work  and 
Jewellery/'  in  the  Chinese  Court.  This  consisted  of  the  upper 
portion  of  a  human  skull^  richly  mounted  in  gold  and  jewels. 

The  object  is  briefly  described  and  figured  in  Mr.  Waring's 
'  Masterpieces  of  Industrial  Art '  (vol.  iii.  pi.  291).  "  The  skull 
is  placed  on  a  triangular  stand  of  pure  gold^  and  rests  on  three 
very  roughly  shaped  gold  heads ;  the  cover,  also  of  pure  gold, 
is  richly  ornamented  with  minute  patterns  in  low  relief,  and  is 
studded  with  small  precious  stones.  The  ornament  [ornamen- 
tation ?]  itself  presents  nothing  peculiar,  the  principal  portion 
of  it  being  formed  by  the  usual  conventional  mode  of  represent- 
ing clouds  or  sky,  typical  perhaps  of  the  region  to  which  the 
soul  of  the  deceased  had  flown.'' 

In  the  same  work  it  is  also  stated  that  the  object  was  taken 
from  the  Summer  Palace  of  the  Emperor  by  one  of  Fane's 
Cavalry,  and  at  the  time  of  the  Exhibition  was  the  property  of 
P.  M.  Tait,  Esq. 

Of  this  extraordinary  and  beautiful  piece  of  Chinese  work- 
manship nothing  now  remains  except  the  portion  of  skull  upon 
whose  preservation  and  adornment  such  great  pains  and  art  had 
been  bestowed.  With  the  most  astounding  stupidity  the  gold 
has  been  melted  down  for  its  mere  weight  as  bullion,  and  one  of 
the  most  interesting  and  curious  relics  of  Chinese  art  and  history 
has  thus  been  irretrievably  lost. 

The  remaining  relic  has  lately  come  into  the  hands  of  my 
friend  Mr.  Mummery,  with  whose  permission  it  is  now  laid 
before  the  Society. 

From  such  a  small  portion  of  course  little  can  be  deduced  as 
to  the  general  characters  of  the  entire  calvaria.  But  it  is  suffi- 
cient to  show  that  the  individual  to  whom  it  belonged  was  a  man 
probably  advanced  in  life,  and,  so  far  as  his  bones  were  con- 
cerned, of  delicate  make.  The  cranial  bone  generally  is  thin ; 
and  scarcely  any  appearance  of  a  diploe  remains.  The  sutures, 
though  distinct  enough,  are  closed,  and  the  lower  portions  of 
the  coronal  on  either  side  completely  obliterated. 

1.  Norma  lateralis  (PI.  XI.  fig.  1) . — On  the  side  view  the  skull 
presents  an  elevated  vertex,  the  summit  of  which  corresponds  to 
about  the  middle  of  the  sagittal  suture.  The  upper  part  of  the 
frontal  bone  is  somewhat  depressed. 

2.  Norma  verticalis  (Fig.  2). — ^The  vertical  aspect  presents  an 
oval  outline,  slightly  compressed  at  the  situation  of  the  coronal 
suture. 

3.  Norma  frontalis  (Fig,  3). — In  the  front  view  the  outline 
is  somewhat  pyramidal,  a  form  that  is  still  more  manifest  in 
the 

4.  Norma  occipitalis  (Fig.  4)  or  occipital  aspect. 


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G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  Jram  China.  75 

The  dimensions  of  the  calvaria  are  as  under : — 

Length 6"-8 

Breadth 5"'8 

Height 8"0 

Least  frontal  width     .     .     .  S^-G 

Greatest  frontal  width     .     .  4"-5 

As  the  skull  has  been  sawn  across  in  a  plane  running  above 
the  glabella  and  through  the  upper  part  of  the  squamous  bones 
and  of  the  supraoccipital^  something  should  be  added  to  the 
above  length  for  that  of  the  entire  skuU^  which  I  conse- 
quently estimate  at  about  7".  This  would  give  a  latitudinal  or 
cephalic  index  of  '757.  Comparing  this  and  the  other  measure* 
ments  above  given  with  those  taken  from  nine  Chinese  skulls^ 
I  find  some  important  differences. 

For  instance^  the  mean  cephalic  index  of  the  Chinese  skulls 
is  '807 ;  the  maximum  being  -868^  and  the  minimum  '746.  The 
iqean  width  of  the  nine  Chinese  skulls  is  5^*71 ;  the  greatest 
being  5"'8^  and  the  least  5"'4.  The  mean  anterior  or  least 
frontal  width  in  the  Chinese  is  8"'72.  the  greatest  being  4"'0^ 
and  the  least  8"'5  ;  whilst  the  mean  of  the  posterior  or  greatest 
frontal  width  is  4^''7,  the  widest  measuring  4"'8,  and  the  nar- 
rowest 4"*6. 

The  present  calvaria  therefore  would  seem  to  differ  very  con- 
siderably from  the  average  or  typical  Chinese  skull^  although 
it  may  in  all  respects  but  one^  perhaps^  be  comprehended  within 
the  limits  of  variation  of  that  form. 

It  is^  in  the  first  place^  dolichocephalic^  whilst^  with  one  excep- 
tion out  of  nine^  the  Chinese  skuUs  may  be  termed  brachyce- 
phalic^  the  only  other  exception  being  that  of  a  Chinese  pirate^ 
whose  cephalic  index  is  '770,  and  who  may  not  improbably  have 
been  of  a  more  mixed  race  than  the  inhabitants  of  the  interior. 

It  will  also  be  observed  that  in  the  frontal  transverse  dia- 
meters the  calvaria  only  equals  the  narrowest  among  the  Chinese, 
and  is  notably  less  than  the  mean  of  them.  In  its  extreme 
or  parietal  width,  again,  it  is  absolutely  narrower  than  any  of 
the  Chinese  skulls. 

On  the  whole,  therefore,  it  appears  to  me,  if  any  reliance  can 
be  placed  on  such  scanty  data,  that  the  so-called  skull  of  Con- 
fucius must  have  differed  considerably  from  that  of  his  fellow- 
countrymen,  and  that  it  is  not  improbably  of  foreign  origin. 

But  besides  the  craniological  characters  there  are  some  other 
points  in  the  specimen  which  appear  to  me  worthy  of  remark 
in  an  archaeological  or  antiquarian  sense,  and  which  may  even- 
tually perhaps  be  found  to  lead  to  its  identification. 

The  interior  offers  nothing  of  remark,  except  that  it  exhibits 

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76  6.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvariajrom  China. 

here  and  there  small  thin  patches  of  what  appears  to  be  wax, 
or  some  similar  substance,  by  which,  doubtless,  the  gold  with 
which  it  is  said  to  have  been  lined  was  cemented  to  the  bone. 

The  outer  surface  is  everywhere  highly  polished ;  and  to  effect 
this,  some  thickness  of  the  outer  table  of  the  bone  has  apparently 
been  removed.  The  skull  seems  to  have  been  very  carefully 
sawn,  in  the  plane  above  described. 

The  sawn  edge,  also,  has  afterwards  been  ground,  as  it  would 
seem,  on  a  flat  surface,  so  as  to  be  quite  true.  This  was  doubt- 
less done  to  ensure  the  close  fitting  of  the  gold  did. 

But  the  most  remarkable  circumstance,  as  regards  the  outer 
surface,  remains  to  be  described,  and  which,  so  far  as  I  am 
aware,  appears  to  have  been  hitherto  overlooked.  It  consists 
in  the  existence,  in  three  places,  of  figures  in  faint  relief,  which, 
though  easily  escaping  observation  on  the  bone  itself,  are  very 
distinctly  seen  in  a  plaster-cast  of  it,  upon  which,  indeed,  I  first 
noticed  them.  One  of  the  figures  is  placed  at  about  the  middle 
of  the  frontal  bone,  and  the  others  on  either  side,  just  behimd 
the  parietal  eminences. 

The  frontal  figure  (PI.  XI.  fig.  5)  is  obviously  a  written  cha- 
racter of  some  kind,  whilst  the  others  can  only,  I  should  ima- 
gine, be  regarded  as  ornaments.  That  on  the  left  side  (fig.  6)  is 
very  distinct,  and  of  a  trefoil  shape  ;  and  that  on  the  right  side, 
though  nearly  obliterated,  is  seen  on  close  inspection  in  a 
plaster-cast  Ito  have  been  of  the  same  form.  There  also  appear 
to  be  traces  of  a  figure  (fig.  7)  of  some  kind  on  the  back  of  the 
skull,  just  above  the  termination  of  the  sagittal  suture.  These 
are  so  faint,  however,  that  it  can  only  be  doubtfully  surmised 
that  the  figure  was  originally  of  a  horse-shoe  shape,  with  the 
points  of  the  crescent  expanded  into  more  or  less  circular  disks. 

These  figures,  as  before  said,  are  in  slight  relief;  but  whilst 
that  on  the  forehead  is  apparently  altogether  raised  above  the 
general  surface-level,  the  others  seem  to  have  been  produced  by 
a  mere  local  excavation  of  the  immediately  surrounding  surface. 

As  the  chief  interest  of  the  relic  in  its  present  condition  ap- 
pears to  lie  in  these  curious  markings  upon  it,  I  had  recourse 
to  my  friend  Mr.  J.  Fergusson  for  an  explanation  of  their  mean- 
ing. He  took  much  interest  in  the  matter,  and  has  kindly 
bestowed  considerable  pains  in  its  elucidation.  But  although 
he  at  once  recognized  the  Sanskrit  character  of  the  frontal  in- 
scription, and  was  assured  that  it  was  not  of  a  Chinese  type,  he 
was  unable  to  define  its  exact  significance.  He  thereupon  con- 
sulted two  distinguished  oriental  scholars,  who  are  especially 
skilled  in  the  interpretation  of  ancient  inscriptions — Mr.  £. 
Thomas  and  General  Cunningham, — ^who  both  agree  in  regard- 
ing the  frontal  monogram  as  representing  an  initial  A  of  the 

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G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvariafrom  China.  77 

Tibetan  form  of  Sanskrit  in  use  about  the  seventh  and  eighth 
centuries  of  the  present  era.     The  correctness  of  this  determi- 
nation will  at  once  be  obvious  to  any  one  who  regards  the  cha- 
racter placed  above  fig.  5,  and  which  is  copied  fix)m  General 
Cunningham^s  letter  to  Mr.  Feipisson.     And  I  may  remark 
that  the  letter  appears  in  precisely  the  same  form  in  plate  xxxix. 
vol.  ii.  of  Mr.  Thomases  edition  of  *  Prinsep's  Essays  on  Indian 
Antiquities ; '  and  from  another  plate  in  that  volume  it  would 
seem  that  the  same  letter^  or  one  scarcely  distinguishable  from 
it^  is  in  use  in  Tibet  at  the  present  time.     Mr.  Thomas  has 
ako  pointed  out  that  a  similar  form  of  A  occurs  in  an  ancient 
Mongol  inscription^  of  which  an  account  is  given  under  the 
title  of  "  Versuch  iiber  eine  alte  Mongolische  Inschrift/'  by 
V.  H.  C.  V.  d,  Gabelentz^  in  the  '  Zeitschrift  fur  die  Kunde  des 
Morgenlandes/  vol.  ii.  p.  1^  and  plates  I  &  2^  where  it  is  stated 
that  the  inscription  in  question  was  discovered^  with  several  others 
of  the  same  kind,  in  China  in  the  year  1618 ;  and  it  was  assigned, 
by  the  Chinese  antiquary  who  attempted  to  decipher  it,  to  the 
age  of  the  Mongol  Emperor  Youan,  who  reigned  from  1260  to 
1294,  and  who  appears  to  have  been  the  first  to  provide  an 
alphabet  for  the  Mongolian  language.     In  order  to  carry  out 
this  object  the  Emperor,  it  is  stated,  applied  to  the  Pag-pa  Lama 
of  Tibet  to  furnish  him  with  suitable  characters,  who  complied 
with  the  request  by  sending  the  Tibetan  alphabet  then  in  use. 
It  is  to  be  presiimed,  therefore,  that  the  inscription  in  question 
was  rendered  in  these  characters ;  and  we  are  thus  enabled  to 
trace  the  direct  connexion  of  the  frt)ntal  monogram  with  a 
Tibetan  origin. 

Presuming  therefore  that  the  significance  and  origin  of  the 
letter  is  placed  beyond  all  reasonable  doubt,  the  next  question 
arises  as  to  what  it  means.  But  as  to  this  I  fear  we  are  at  pre- 
sent much  in  the  dark. 

General  Cimningham  has  suggested  that  it  might  probably 
be  intended  for  the  initial  letter  of  the  name  of  Ananda,  who  is 
said  to  have  been  the  nephew  and  devoted  disciple  of  Buddha 
(Gk>tama),  and  to  have  been  with  him  at  the  time  of  his  decease. 
And,  in  support  of  this  surmise.  General  Cmmingham  adds  the 
interesting  remark  that  the  relic-bones  of  S&riputa  and  Maga- 
l&na,  found  at  Bhilsa,  were  similarly  inscribed  with  the  initials 
of  their  names ;  and  he  goes  on  to  observe  that  it  would  be  in- 
teresting to  find  that  any  relic  of  Ananda  had  been  taken  to 
China,  as  he  does  not  remember  the  notice  of  any  relics  except 
those  of  Buddha  himself,  although  statues  of  several  disciples 
are  recorded.  He  has  no  doubt,  however,  that  many  relics  of 
the  principal  disciples  must  have  found  their  way  to  China  at  the 
time  of  the  persecution  and  final  dispersion  of  the  Buddhists. 

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78  G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  from  China, 

"  The  Tibetan  letter/^  he  adds^  "  cannot  be  older  than  a.d.  GOO- 
ZOO,  and  is  probably  later/' 

With  the  utmost  deference  to  any  hint  from  so  weighty  an 
authority,  it  seems  to  me  that  a  great  difficulty  lies  in  the  way 
of  the  above  supposition,  from  the  circumstance  that  Buddha, 
or  the  Buddha  with  whom  Ananda  was  connected,  died  at  the 
latest  between  five  and  six  hundred  years  before  Christ ;  and 
consequently  the  inscription  must  have  been  placed  on  the  skull 
eleven  or  twelve  hundred  years  after  the  death  of  its  owner, — 
a  circumstance  that,  of  itself,  woald  tend  to  cast  great  doubt 
upon  its  authenticity,  although,  as  we  know  from  evidence  much 
nearer  home,  doubts  of  this  kind,  as  regards  relics,  do  not 
weigh  much  in  the  theological  mind. 

Mr.  E.  Thomas,  on  the  other  hand,  has  thrown  out  the  sug- 
gestion that  the  letter  might  have  been  intended  for  the  initial 
of  the  word  Atmi  or  Om,  which,  as  Mr.  Fergusson  informs  me, 
though  sometimes  used  to  express  the  Deity,  is  also  equivalent 
to  the  exclamation  Ave  !  or  Hail !  But  as  an  objection  to  this 
interpretation  it  might  perhaps  be  urged  that  the  same  Tibetan 
alphabet  in  which  this  form  of  A  occurs  contains  also  a  slight 
modification  of  the  same  character,  answering  to  au  or  o,  as  well 
as  one  signifying  am,  and  it  might  reasonably  have  been  thought 
that  one  or  the  other  of  these  two  characters  would  have  been 
employed  to  represent  om  rather  than  the  simple  A.  But  on  the 
present  occasion  it  would  be  useless  for  me  to  speculate  further 
on  a  matter  upon  which  I  cannot  pretend  to  give  any  opinion. 

A  second  interesting  subject  of  inquiry  is  that  of  the  probable 
object  or  purpose  of  the  specimen  when  entire.  With  respect 
to  this,  however,  I  am  unable  to  offer  anything  beyond  the 
vaguest  conjectures. 

We  may  regard  it  either  as  a  simple  monument  of  piety  or 
veneration  (without  any  special  use  or  purpose),  as  a  dnnking- 
vessel,  or  as  a  sort  of  mortuary  coffer  or  reliquary. 

Of  these,  the  supposition  that  it  was  intended  to  be  used  as  a 
drinking-vessel,  or  perhaps  as  a  libation-chalice,  though  at  first 
sight  not  very  probable  when  we  regard  the  weight  and  form  of 
the  setting,  becomes  less  improbable  when  we  consider  that  the 
skull  itself  does  not  appear  to  have  been  in  any  way  fixed  upon 
its  stand,  but  simply  to  have  rested  on  the  three  golden  heads, 
from  which  it  could,  consequently,  be  readily  lift^  to  the  lips. 
On  the  other  hand,  that  its  destination  might  have  been  for  some 
such  purpose  is  rendered  still  more  probable  by  what  we  know 
of  the  very  general  prevalence,  throughout  the  ancient  world 
and  amongst  the  most  widely  separated  peoples,  of  the  custom 
of  using  the  skulls  of  their  enemies,  or  of  their  friends  and  re- 
latives, as  drinking-vessels,  on  high  and  solemn  occasions.     The 


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G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvariafrom  China,  79 

custom^  in  fact,  has  survived,  it  may  be  said,  to  our  own  day  in 
Australia*. 

But  as  regards  ancient  times,  to  pass  over  the  mythical  ac- 
counts of  the  banquets  of  the  gods  in  the  Scandinavian  Valhalla, 
which  nevertheless  in  all  probability  represented  the  actual  prac- 
tice of  the  warriors,  whose  valour  was  stimulated  by  the  prospect 
of  joining  at  some  Aiture  day  in  the  sacred  feasts,  I  would  briefly 
refer  to  some  of  the  more  definite  accounts  given  by  ancient 
writers  of  the  use  of  skulls,  artificially  prepared  as  drinking- 
vessels  t.  Amongst  the  first  of  these  is  Herodotus,  for  a  reference 
to  whose  '  History '  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Fergusson.  And 
since  the  passages  therein  contained  relate  to  Asiatic  tribes 
whose  descendants  are  more  immediately  involved  in  the  present 
inquiry,  they  seem  to  me  of  very  considerable  interest. 

The  Father  of  History  mentions  two  nations  or  tribes  amongst 
whom  the  custom  in  question  obtained. 

In  his  ^History'  (book  iv.  chapter  26)  we  read,  in  Mr.  G. 
Rawlinson's  translation,  that  the  '^  Issedonians  are  said  to  have 
the  following  customs.  When  a  man^s  father  dies,  all  the  near 
relations  bring  sheep  to  the  house,  which  are  sacrificed,  and  their 
flesh  cut  into  pieces,  whilst  at  the  same  time  the  dead  body  un- 
dergoes the  like  treatment.  The  two  sorts  of  flesh  are  after- 
wards mixed  together,  and  the  whole  is  served  up  at  a  banquet. 
The  head  of  the  dead  man  is  treated  difierently ;  it  is  stripped 
bare,  cleansed,  and  set  in  gold.  It  then  becomes  an  ornament 
on  which  they  pride  themselves,  and  is  brought  out  year  by  year 
at  the  great  festival  which  sons  keep  in  honour  of  their  father's 
death,  just  as  the  Greeks  keep  their  '  genesia.' '' 

The  second  place  in  which  Herodotus  refers  to  the  custom  is 
in  the  same  book  (chap.  65),  where,  in  speaking  of  the  Scythians, 
he  says : — "  The  skulls  of  their  enemies — not,  indeed,  of  all,  but 
of  those  whom  they  most  detest — they  treat  as  follows : — Having 
sawn  ofi^  the  portion  below  the  eyebrows,  and  cleaned  out  the 
inside,  they  cover  the  outside  with  leather  (ox-hide) .  When  a  man 
is  poor,  this  is  all  that  he  does ;  but  if  he  is  rich,  he  also  fines 
the  iwAde  with  gold;  in  either  case  the  skull  is  used  as  a  drink- 
ing-cup.  They  do  the  same  with  the  skulls  of  their  own  kith 
and  kin  if  they  have  been  at  feud  with  them,  and  have  vanquished 
them  in  the  presence  of  the  king.  When  strangers  whom  they 
deem  of  any  account  come  to  visit  them,  these  skulls  are  handed 

*  [At  the  following  Meeting,  Col.  Lane  Fox  exhibited  two  Australian 
skulls  which  had  been  used  as  drinking-vessels  in  the  manner  described  by 
the  author. — SuBrEo.] 

t  The  Scandinavian  custom  appears  to  have  extended  into  Thrace,  as  Am- 
mianus  MarceUinus  relates  that  the  Scordisci,  who  are  supposed  to  have  been 
of  Teutonic  origin,  "  Hostiis  captivorum  Bellonse  litant  et  Marti,  huma- 
numque  sanguinem  in  ossibus  capitum  cavis  bibunt  avidius." 

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80  G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  from  China, 

rounds  and  the  host  tells  how  that  these  were  his  relations^  who 
made  war  upon  him^  and  how  that  he  got  the  better  of  them^ 
all  this  being  looked  upon  as  a  proof  of  bravery*'*. 

Mr.  Rawlinson  seems  to  be  of  opinion  that  the  above-men- 
tioned Issedonians  inhabited  a  coimtry  west  of  the  Ural  chain^  in 
N.  lat.  54°  to  56°;  but  Major  KenneU^  whose  opinion  I  presume 
must  be  regarded  as  of  great  weight  on  such  a  pointy  places  them 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bootan^  which  brings  them  not  far 
from  the  Tibetan  frontierf.  And  he  states  that  he  "  has  seen, 
brought  from  Bootan,  skulls  that  were  taken  out  of  temples  or 
places  of  worship ;  but  it  is  not  known  whether  the  motive  to 
their  preservation  was  friendship  or  enmity.  It  might  very  pro- 
bably be  the  former.  They  were  formed  into  dnnking-bowls 
in  the  manner  descrilied  by  Herodotus^  by  cutting  them  off  below 
the  eyebrows;  and  they  were  neatly  varnished  all  over  J*  It  is 
curious  to  remark  that  the  lining  with  gold  and  the  polishing 
of  the  exterior,  which  is  perhaps  what  Major  Rennell  terms 
varnishing,  are  both  exhibited  in  the  present  skull. 

It  is,  moreover,  worthy  of  note  that,  in  Major  Rennell's 
opinion,  the  modern  descendants  of  the  Issedones  are  represented 
by  a  Mongol  tribe,  the  Oigurs  or  Elutfis,  a  people  occupying  a 
tract  in  the  centre  of  Asia,  who  were  conquered  in  the  last  cen- 
tury by  the  Chinese.  And  he  says  that  it  seems  to  be  under- 
stood in  Asia  that  these  Oigurs  furnished  the  Mongols  with  their 
alphabet;  while  M.  Souciet,  who  is  quoted  by  Major  Rennell, 
says  that  no  Tatar  nation  besides  them  had  the  use  of  letters 
in  the  time  of  Jinghis  Khan  (13th  century),  and  also  remarks 
that  the  characters  used  by  the  Eluths  were  the  same  with  those 
in  use  in  Tibet.  This  latter  statement,  though  not  admitted 
by  other  writers,  appears  to  be  in  accord  with  what  is  above  re- 
lated concerning  the  Mongol  inscription  found  in  China. 

As  an  instance  of  the  same  mode  of  using  the  human  skull, 
in  a  widely  remote  region,  may  be  cited  the  accoimt  given  by 
Livy]:  of  the  defeat,  by  means  of  a  very  ingenious  stratagem, 
of  a  large  Roman  force  imder  L.  Postumius  by  the  Boii,  a  tribe 
of  Gauls,  where  we  find  that  '^  spolia  corporis  caputque  ducis 
praecisum  ....  templo  quod  sanctissimum  est  apud  eos  intul^re : 
purgato  inde  capite,  ut  mos  iis  est,  calvam  §  auro  cselavSre.   Idque 

*  The  OeltiB,  according  to  Strabo  (iv.  65),  were  also  in  the  habit  of  em- 
balming with  resinous  substances  the  heads  of  distinguished  enemies,  which 
they  euiibited,  as  marks  of  prowess^  to  visitors.  These  heads  were  kept  in 
wooden  coffers. 

t  G^ffraphical  System  of  Herodotus,  p.  144. 

I  Book  xziii. 

$  I  do  not  know  when  the  word  "  cranium  "  was  first  employed  as  a  Latin 
term  for  a  skull.  Though  so  universally  admitted  it  is  not  to  be  found,  so  far 
as  I  can  discover,  in  any  Latin  author  or  dictionary.  The  earliest  citation  of  its 


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6.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  from  China.  81 

sacrum  vas  iis  erat  quo  solennibus  libarent ;  poculumque  idem 
sacerdoti  esse  ac  templi  antistitibus/'  Here  we  are  left  to  con- 
jecture as  to  the  form  or  mode  in  which  the  embossing  with  gold 
was  carried  out ;  but  the  instance  shows  that  the  same  vessel 
might  be  used  both  as  a  sacrificial  chalice^  and  as  a  drinking- 
bowl  for  the  priests  and  their  assistants.  But  there  is  still 
another  point  which  may  be  adverted  to.  It  would  seem  from 
the  worn  condition  of  the  exterior  surface^  as  shown  in  the 
nearly  complete  obliteration  of  the  embossed  figures  on  the 
occiput  and  right  parietal  region^  that  the  skull  had  been  sub- 
jected to  frequent  handlings  and  perhaps  for  a  long  period  an- 
terior to  its  being  so  carefully  encompassed  with  gold  and^  as  it 
was  supposed^  securely  lodged  amongst  the  treasures  of  the  Im- 
perial Palace.  With  reference  to  this  subject  it  is  interesting 
to  leam^  as  I  have  from  Dr.  Hooker,  that  the  Tibetans  at  the 
present  day  use  human  skulls  divided  as  the  present  one  is^  and 
having  membrane  or  skin  stretched  across  them,  as  a  sort  of 
drum  or  timbrel  in  certain  religious  ceremonies ;  and  it  seems  by 
no  means  improbable  that  the  present  calva  was  originally  ap- 
plied to  that  purpose. 

From  the  above  it  will  be  seen  that  it  would  at  present  be 
premature  to  regard  the  skull  as  having  any  direct  connexion 
with  Buddhism  or  any  other  form  of  religious  faith.  It  might 
quite  as  probably^  perhaps,  be  related  to  some  of  the  more 
ancient  legendary  customs  above  alluded  to. 

There  is  no  reason  whatever,  but  quite  the  contrary,  for  be- 
lieving that  it  has  any  thing  whatever  to  do  with  Confricius'^. 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATE  XI. 

Fig.  1.  Lateral  aspect  of  a  calvaria  from  China,  which  has  been  supposed  to 
be  that  of  Confucius. 

2.  Vertical  aspect  of  the  same. 

3.  Frontal  aspect  of  the  same. 

4.  Occipital  aspect  of  the  9ame. 

6.  Figure  in  faint  relief  on  the  frontal  bone. 

6.  Trefoil  figure  on  the  left  side  of  the  skuU. 

7.  Traces  of  figure  on  the  back  of  the  skull. 

use,  in '  Ducange*8  Olossarium/  is  in  a  barber-surgeon's  report  of  a  case  in  1880 ; 
and  here  it  is  spelt "  craneum,"  evidently  a  latinization  of  the  French  cratie. 
The  proper  Latin  term  for  the  naked  skull  is  calvaria  (in  one  instance 
ealvarittm).  In  the  above  passage  from  Livy  it  seems  that  the  classical  term 
for  the  upper  portion  of  tne  fmvaria  is  calva^  a  term  which  it  may,  on 
occasion,  perhaps  be  useful  to  retain. 

*  Since  this  paper  was  read,  Mr.  Mummerv  has  informed  me  that  Mr. 
Lockhart  has  suggested  to  him  that  the  skull  may  Ix?  that  of  a  revolted 
Mongol  prince,  not  improbably  Ichangir. 

VOL.  II.  ^i^^^^T^ 

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82  G.  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Calvaria  from  China. 

Discussion. 

Mr.  Feboussoit  said  that  he  remembered  this  skull  and  stand  in 
the  Great  Exhibition  of  1862,  when  it  belonged  to  Mr.  Tait.  The 
speaker  had  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  it  was  the  most  exquisitely 
beautiful  specimen  in  oriental  goldsmith's  work  which  he  had  ever 
seen.     The  price  then  put  upon  it  was  one  thousand  guineas. 

Mr.Fergusson  was  afraid  that  the  Buddhist  theory  must  be  entirely 
abandoned.  We  are  too  familiar,  both  from  description  and  expe- 
rience, with  the  mode  in  which  Buddhist  relics  were  preserved,  to  be 
mistaken  on  this  point.  They  were  preserved  either  in  miniature 
dagobies  or  caskets  like  bon-bon  boxes,  or  in  metal  cases  ;  had  this 
skull  been  a  relic,  it  would  have  been  turned  upwards,  fastened  to  its 
stand,  provided  certainly  with  a  covering  of  some  sort,  and  placed  so 
as  to  be  admired  and  worshipped.  On  the  contrary,  il;  was  lined  with 
gold,  fitted  with  a  jewelled  lid,  and  laid  loosely  on  its  tripod  so  as  to 
DO  easily  removed  and  handled ;  and  its  worn  and  poHshed  appear- 
ance shows  how  frequently  this  was  done. 

It  seemed  to  him,  on  the  other  hand,  very  clear,  that  the  passages 
which  Mr.  Busk  had  just  quoted  from  Herodotus  and  Livy  contained 
the  true  explanation  of  its  history.  It  must  have  been  the  skull  of 
some  revered  ancestor  or  dreaded  foe  of  the  present  Tatar  dynasty  of 
China,  and  was  consequently  honoured,  and  used  (as  we  find  it  was) 
in  the  summer  palace  at  Peking. 

Mr.  MuMHEBT,  the  owner,  of  the  calvaria,  said  that  it  had  been 
given  to  him  by  a  medical  friend.  Dr.  Millar,  who  saw  it  lying,  un- 
cared  for,  at  the  house  of  a  Jewish  gold-dealer  in  Houndsditch. 

The  speaker  had  received  a  letter  from  Dr.  Lockhart,  founder  of 
the  Hospital  at  Peking,  who  expressed  his  decided  opinion  that  the 
skull  was  never  supposed  by  the  educated  Chinese  to  have  been 
that  of  Confucius,  although  it  has  usually  been  assigned  to  that 
philosopher  by  Europeans.  He  believes  that  the  skull  belonged  to 
some  Tatar  prince  who  was  a  tributary  to  the  empire,  and  who  had 
rebelled — his  overthrow  and  death  having  been  commemorated  by  this 
costly  work  of  art  and  an  ancient  Mongolian  initial  engraved  on  the 
frontal  bone.  He  adds  that  the  trefoil  is  probably  the  emblem  of 
the  Buddhist  trinity. 

Dr.  A.  Campbell  said,  with  reference  to  Professor  Busk's  remarks 
on  the  objects  for  preserving  this  skull,  that  Buddhists  made  some 
strange  uses  of  human  bones  in  religious  observances.  The  thigh- 
bone was  used  as  a  trumpet  for  calling  to  prayers  ;  and  Dr.  Campj^ll 
had  a  lama*s  rosary  which  was  composed  of  circular  pieces  cut  out 
of  a  human  skull. 

Dr.  Donovan  observed  that  this  could  not  be  the  skull  of  a  man  of 
note  in  any  civilized  country,  or  even  of  a  man  at  all.  It  was  far  too 
small  for  an  ordinary  male  skull.  The  sutures  showed  that  it  could 
hardly  be  the  skidl  of  an  educated  person ;  for  they  were  very  simple 
and  not  at  all  serrated. 

Dr.  Oppebt  stated  that  skulls  were  used  both  as  drinking-vessels 
and  for  religious  purposes  in  much  later  tipies  than  had  been  men* 
tioned. 


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Ho  WORTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades,  ^c.    83 

In  A.B.  574,  Alboin,  the  King  of  the  Longobards,  was  killed  at  the 
instigation  of  his  wife,  Eosamunde,  the  daughter  of  Kunimund,  the 
last  king  of  the  G^pidae,  who  had  been  beaten  and  slain  in  battle 
against  Alboin.  Out  of  the  skull  of  Kunimund  a  drinking-vessel  had 
been  made,  and  used  as  such  at  the  great  festivals  of  the  Court.  At 
one  of  these  feasts  the  intoxicated  king  compelled  his  wife  to  drink 
out  of  the  skull  of  her  father,  which  atrocity  enraged  her  so  much 
that  she  assassinated  him*. 

But  as  the  skull  in  question  is  brought  into  connexion  with  East- 
Asiatic  customs,  an  interesting  instance  may  be  cited  from  oriental 
writers.  When  Ong-khan,  the  chief  of  the  Keraites,  had  been  slain, 
in  Mie  year  1203,  Tayanuk-khan,  the  chief  of  the  Naymans,  ordered 
the  head  of  his  late  friend  to  be  enchased  in  gold  and  silver.  When, 
on  one  occasion,  the  head  moved,  as  Tayanuk-khan  addressed  it  io  a 
jesting  manner,  this  was  regarded  by  the  Tatars  as  a  bad  omen ;  and 
soon  afterwards  the  Nayman  chief  was  slain.  The  Persiaa  chronicler 
Mirkhond  says  that  the  Nayman  chief  was  a  Butperest,  or  heathen, 
which  word  But  is,  without  doubt,  derived  from  Buddha  f* 


Major  P.  MiLLiNGEK,  P.E.Q-.S.,  then  read  a  paper  "  On  the  Koords 
and  Armenians." 


IX.  On  the  Westerly  Driptino  of  Pomades,  from  the  Fifth  to 
the  Nineteenth  Century.  By  H.  H.  Howorth,  Esq. — Part 
III.  The  Comans  and  Petchenegs. 

(Part  XL  was  published  in  Vol.  I.  pp.  37a-587.) 

I  SHALL  now  return  to  the  consideration  of  an  area  much  more 
connected  with  European  ethnology.  Here  we  shall  meet  with 
greater  difficulties  and  complications.  South  of  the  Jaxartes 
we  can  with  some  approximation  discriminate  Turkish  invaders 
from  Persian  settlers.  They  belong  to  two  separate  divisions  of 
the  human  race  in  the  classiiication  of  modem  science.  Reli- 
gion, manners  and  customs,  physique  and  language,  all  present 
features  assisting  the  division.  North  of  the  Jaxartes,  in  the 
great  deserts  of  the  Khirgises,  and  in  the  steppes  of  Little 
Tatary  and  of  Siberia,  we  meet  with  much  more  complicating 
circumstances.  There  the  difference  is  one  of  degree  rather  than 
of  kind,  and  we  only  multiply  difficulties  in  multiplying  dif* 

•  [These  "Longobards"  may  very  well  have  been  the  descendants  of  the 
JBcii  above  noticed,  to  whom  the  foundation  of  Bologna,  Parma,  Reggio,  Mo- 
dena,  &c.  ia  assigned. — G.  B.] 

t  [M  the  Meeting  of  the  Society  on  the  22nd  February,  1870,  Mr.  Busk 
exhibited  a  second  calvCf  lined  with  copper,  which  had  been  kindly  forwarded 
to  him  by  Mr.  W.  Lockhart ;  and  at  the  same  time  read  some  additional 
remarks  on  the  subject,  the  substance  of  which  was  derived  from  communi- 
cations ^m  Mr.  Lockhart,  Mr.  Wylie,  and  Mr.  R.  Swinhoe.  These  will 
appear  in  the  next  Number  of  the  Journal.] 

o  2 

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84        HowoRTH — On  the  Westerly  Drafting  of  Nomades, 

ferences.  Turan,  the  complement  of  Iran,  is  used  as  the  collec- 
tive name  of  a  congery  of  clans  and  families  rather  than  of  races 
or  states^  all  nearly  related^  and  having  common  traditions. 
They  all  speak  languages  of  the  agglutinative  type,  and  as  we 
recede  from  our  own  times  they  approximate  more  closely  to  one 
another,  and  it  becomes  impossible  to  classify  them  rigidly. 

Greatly  as  I  respect  the  name  of  Latham  (and  I  have  some 
occasion  to  respect  it),  I  cannot  believe  in  the  artificial  weight 
he  attaches  to  names  and  distinctions,  nor  in  the  sharply 
defined  races  which  his  arguments  require.  I  believe  Ugrian, 
Turk,  and  Mongol  to  be  of  much  more  geographical  than  etlftiic 
value.  If  by  Ugrian  be  meant  those  tribes  living  under  hard 
conditions  along  the  borders  of  the  Frozen  Sea,  and  having  their 
typical  idiosyncrasies  in  Lapland,  and  by  Turk  those  prouder 
races  which,  having  been  frontagers  of  a  series  of  civilizations  in 
the  plains  of  Great  Tatary  and  Turkestan,  have  received  from 
them  grafts  of  a  more  energetic  blood,  and  have  had  their  lan- 
guage, manners,  and  appearance  altered,  and  of  whom  the  tvpe 
is  the  Turkish  race  of  the  Ouigours,  I  am  content  with  the  cuw- 
sification ;  but  between  these  extreme  types  almost  every  pos- 
sible intermediate  form  exists,  having  more  or  less  common  fea- 
tures, as,  for  instance,  the  Bashkirs,  who,  in  their  indigenous 
name  and  their  physical  forms,  are  very  Ugrian,  while  their  lan- 
guage is  very  Turk,  &c.  Bearing  this  in  mind,  every  one  can 
appreciate  the  almost  superhuman  difficulty  of  reconciling  the 
thousand  contradictory  statements  of  the  Byzantine,  and  the 
often  empirical  nomenclature  of  the  Arabian  geographers,  and 
may  also  find  ample  reason  for  the  confusion  which  still  reigns 
in  this  somewhat  repulsive  and  uninviting  field  of  ethnological 
inquiry.  Few  have  traversed  it  with  even  moderate  success,  nor 
do  I  claim  to  be  better  than  my  neighbours.  I  have  had  the 
assistance  of  their  ingenuity,  and  I  have  consulted  every  autho- 
rity within  my  reach,  among  whom  let  me  especially  name  the 
often-forgotten  Strahlenberg,  the  plodding  Zeuss,  whose  great 
work  on  ethnology  this  Society  ought  to  translate,  and  the  ubi- 
quitous Klaproth ;  with  these  materials  I  have  endeavoured  to 
give  a  connected  theory,  on  which  I  humbly  invite  criticism. 

First  I  must  say  a  few  words  about  the  Mongols.  As  is  well 
known,  they  are  divided  by  geographers  into  two  great  branches, 
the  Mongols  proper  in  the  east  and  the  Kalmucks  in  the  west 
of  Mongolistan.  I  have  already  given  an  account  of  the  sepa- 
ration, about  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  of  the 
European  Kalmucks  from  their  mother  race  in  the  little  Altai, 
when  they  drove  many  of  the  Nogay  hordes  fix)m  between  the 
Tobol  and  the  Jaik  before  them.  The  Kalmucks  of  the  Altaic 
known  as  Olot,  derive  their  origin  from  Tangout,  the  country 

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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  85 

lying  between  the  Kokonoor  or  Blue  Lake  and  Tiljet ;  nor  do 
I  see  any  reason  to  quarrel  with  this  tradition.  The  date  of 
their  settlement  about  Lake  Balkash  and  in  Soongaria  I  cannot 
believe  to  have  been  much  before  the  time  of  Zenghiz,  and  I 
believe  them  to  have  drifted  hither  gradually  during  tlie  supre- 
macy of  the  Great  Mogul  Khanate  of  Karakorum ;  for  in  the 
earlier  wars  of  Zenghiz  their  present  area  was  occupied  by  the 
Naymans^  whose  name  still  survives  in  one  of  the  clans  of  the 
Usbegs  and  among  the  Khirgises,  and  who  may  therefore  be 
considered  to  have  been  Turks. 

If  the  Olot  are  to  be  traced  to  the  Keraites,  as  D'Ohnson 
asserts,  we  have  another  confirmation  of  this  position.  Before 
the  time  of  Zenghiz,  then,  I  hold  that  the  Mongols  were  limited 
on  the  west  by  the  present  boundaries  of  what  are  known  as  the 
Mongols  proper,  the  hordes  of  the  forty-nine  banners  of  the 
Chinese  writers — ^that  is,  roughly,  by  the  eastern  frontiers  of 
the  great  provinces  of  Chinese  Turkestan,  known  as  Thian  Shan 
Nanloo  or  Little  Bukharia,  and  Thian  Shan  Peloo  or  Soongaria — 
that  they  occupied  all  the  country  from  the  Chinese  Wall  in  the 
south  to  the  province  of  Irkutsk  in  the  north,  roaming  over  the 
great  desert  of  Gobi,  and  having  their  chief  focus  in  the  regions 
around  Lake  Baikal.  Hence  they  crept  westward.  Bar  He- 
bneus,  who  wrote  in  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
who  lived  among  them,  places  their  western  limit  at  the  country 
of  the  Igurri  Turcse,  and  says  the  same  Mongols  conquered  the 
Igurri  and  took  tribute  from  them :  these  Igurri  are  the  Oui- 
gours  of  Bishbalig  &c.  Later  on  they  gradually  infiltered  the 
Khirgis  deserts  with  their  blood,  and  imparted  the  same  in  a 
smaller  measure  to  the  Nogay  Tatars. 

If  I  were  asked  for  an  opinion  as  to  the  ethnic  aflBnities  of  the 
Mongols,  I  should  say  that  they  are  merely  the  result  of  a  mix- 
ture of  Tongus  with  Turks,  their  neighbours  on  either  hand — 
that  on  the  west  they  fade  almost  insensibly  by  such  transition 
tribes  as  the  Kalmucks  and  the  Buriats  into  Turkish  forms, 
while  on  the  other  hand  they  do  the  same  even  more  insensibly 
into  Tongus  through  those  tribes  of  the  Baikal  to  whom  the 
name  Tatar  was  originally  applied,  the  greatest  aflSnity,  no 
doubt,  being  with  the  latter,  whose  religious  and  social  condi- 
tions they  most  affect. 

The  great  provinces  of  Chinese  Turkestan,  from  which  we 
have  succeeded  in  eliminating  the  Kalmucks,  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  little  Altai,  on  the  south  by  Tibet,  on  the  east  by 
the  desert  of  Gobi,  and  on  the  west  by  Great  Bukharia,  were 
known  to  the  Arabs  as  Kara  Kathay,  or  Black  Kathay,  either 
frdm  their  inferior  position  to  Great  Kathay,  or  China,  or  from 
their  sterile  aspect. 

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86        HowoETH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades, 

The  name  Kathay  is  derived  from  the  Kitans  or  Khitans^  who 
were  known  to  the  Chinese  writers  as  Leao.  The  Kitans  had 
been  masters  of  Northern  China  from  the  year  907.  In  the 
year  1125  the  Nin  Tche,  a  Mantchu  race,  broke  the  power  of 
the  Kitans,  and  a  body  of  them  invaded  Kaschgar  and  settled 
there.  These  were  known  to  the  Chinese  as  western  Leao,  and 
were  the  Kitans  who  gave  their  name  to  Kara  Kathay.  Their 
leaders  only  were  Kitans,  the  soldiery  was  composed,  like  the 
army  of  Zenghiz,  of  Turks.  They  repeatedly  invaded  Trans- 
oxiana,  and  in  1171  defeated  the  Charizmians.  Their  most 
renowned  exploit,  however,  if  it  be  possible  to  credit  the  story, 
is  their  invasion  of  Georgia.  A  race  still  remains  there  (called 
the  Chaitaki,  their  land  Khaita  or  Cara  Khaita)  who  claim  descent 
from,  these  Kitans.  I  do  not  see  how  the  story  is  to  be  under- 
mined, and  should  be  thankful  for  some  more  information  on  the 
subject  of  this  obscure  tribe.  As  far  as  we  know,  they  are  Turks, 
and  allied  in  race  to  the  Basians. 

Before  the  arrival  of  the  Kitans,  Chinese  Turkestan  was  the 
seat  of  a  renowned  power  known  to  the  Chinese  as  that  of  the 
Hoe-tche,  originally  a  clan  of  the  horde  Kao-tche,  settled  south 
of  the  Selinga.  In  742  their  Khan  was  acknowledged  as  Grand 
Khan  by  the  Chinese  emperor.  In  745  his  empire  reached  the 
Altai  and  the  Irtysch  in  the  west  and  the  country  of  the  Tun- 
guses  in  the  east.  In  758,  the  same  year  in  which  the  Arabs 
burnt  Canton,  there  was  a  quarrel  at  the  Chinese  court  about 
precedence  between  the  embassy  of  this  Grand  Khan  and  that 
of  Aboudjiasar  al  Mansor,  second  Khalif  of  the  Abassides  (De 
Guignes) .  At  the  end  of  the  eighth  century  the  empire  of  the 
Hoeitche  was  one  of  the  most  important  in  Asia.  Among  others^ 
the  Khirghises  were  subject  to  it. 

These  Hoeitche,  or  Goeitche,  as  they  are  also  called,  were,  as 
we  have  seen,  in  contact  with  the  Arab  conquests  of  the  Sama- 
nides;  and  many  of  them,  on  the  frontiers  of  l^ansoxiana,  adopted 
Mahommedanism.  They  are,  in  fact,  the  Turkish  race  known  to 
the  Nubian  geographer  as  Odhkos,  and  to  the  various  Arabians 
as  the  Gusses,  of  whom  we  have  already  written  at  length,  and 
from  whom  were  derived  the  Turkish  invaders  of  southern  Asia, 
the  Ghaznevides,  the  Seljuks,  &c.  Their  history  is  mixed  up 
with  that  of  the  Ouigoui*s  or  Kaotchary  Turks,  called  by  De 
Guignes  the  Cba-to,  Tagazgaz  by  Majoudi,  and  Bagargar  by 
other  Arabs.  The  Turkish  chroniclers  divide  their  own  race 
into  two  sections,  the  northern  and  the  southern,  each  with  an 
eponymous  hero  as  its  ancestor :  these  sections  are  the  Oghuz 
and  the  Ouigour.  I  have  more  faith  in  such  traditions  among 
the  Turks  than  among  any  other  race.  In  this  case  it  is  con- 
firmed by  many  facts ;  the  language  of  the  Uzbeks  and  that  of 

*  Digitized  by  CjOOQIC 


fnm  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  87 

the  Ouigonrs  is  almost  identical^  and  is  the  purest  Turkish  idiom 
known,  while  their  habits  and  traditions  are  the  same. 

I  am  awaiting  impatiently  the  results  of  M.  Vambery's  exami- 
nation of  the  remains  of  the  Ouigour  literature.  At  present, 
while  we  associate  with  the  name  Ouigour  the  typical  home- 
grown civilization  of  Asia,  which  Zenghiz  made  its  cultivators 
teach  his  people — ^while  we  are  joined  closer  in  sympathy  with 
the  same  cultivators  by  the  extraordinary  labours  among  them 
of  the  early  Nestorian  missionaries,  and  by  the  fact  of  their  land, 
and  especially  its  town  Konam-tcheou,  having  been  the  entrepdt 
where  the  Arab  traders  exchanged  the  products  of  Spain  and 
Arabia  for  those  of  Siberia  and  China — while  we  assign  to  the 
Ouigours  these  glories,  we  must  on  this  occasion  follow  them 
to  the  west  in  company  with  and  in  subordination  to  their 
more  enterprising  brothers  the  Hoeitche.  Let  us  resume  our 
story. 

The  Hoeitche  or  Ousses,  although  continually  drifting  west- 
wards, still  kept  up  connexions  with  China,  and  about  890  the 
Chinese  received  tribute  from  them.  They  now  become  cele- 
brated in  the  civil  strifes  of  the  Samanides.  Under  Bograh 
Khan,  in  992,  they  took  Bokhara ;  he  also  possessed  Kaschgar, 
Balasgoum,  Khotcn,  Earas,  and  the  country  as  far  as  China. 
He  advanced  as  far  as  Georgia,  and  his  successor  Illih  II  Khan 
was  master  of  both  Samarcand  and  Bokhara.  In  999  the 
Hoeitche  overturned  the  dynasty  of  the  Samanides.  They  still 
paid  tribute  to  China.  We  now  hear  of  their  struggles  with  the 
Khitans,  and  of  their  power  crumbling  away  before  those  eastern 
invaders.  I  have  already  given  some  account  of  their  swarm- 
ing into  Persia;  but  this  was  only  the  history  of  one  portion. 
Another  took  the  way  of  the  Kirghis  desert  towards  the  Volga. 
A  third  stayed  at  home,  and  became,  as  I  believe,  the  ancestors 
of  the  Naymans,  whom  I  have  referred  to,  and  of  the  numerous 
Turkish  races  still  found  in  Western  Chinese  Turkestan.  The 
Jeteh  or  Geteh,  of  the  annals  of  Timour  and  of  other  writers, 
who  are  placed  south  of  the  river  Khujend,  and  in  the  deserts  of 
the  Khirgises,  from  them  caDed  Desht  Jeteh,  I  believe  with 
some  authorities  to  have  been  merely  such  Turks  as  still  re- 
mained pagans  and  did  not  submit  to  Islamism.  Timour  calls 
them  his  countrymen.  Whether  this  opprobrious  designation  of 
heretics  be  the  origin  of  the  term  Jut  and  Get  in  the  Sikh  annals 
I  know  not. 

I  have  said  that  the  Khitan  invasion  drove  some  of  the 
Hoeitche  to  the  west :  these  would  not  be  likely  to  stay  in  the 
sandy  wilderness  of  the  Khirgises ;  and  we  accordingly  find  it 
recorded  by  the  Arab  Ma90udi  that,  about  the  beginning  of  the 
tenth  century,  hordes  of  the  Gusses,  a  Turkish  folk,  wintered 

Digitized  by  L:*OOQ IC 


88        Ho  WORTH — Oa,the  Westerly  Drifting  o/Nomades, 

on  the  east  of  the  Volga  (called  by  him  the  Nites)^  and  when  it 
froze  over  invaded  on  horseback  the  land  of  the  Chazars. 

The  Volga^  the  eastern  limit  of  Europe^  was  near  enough  to 
the  Greeks  and  Russians  to  lead  us  to  expect  to  find  such  an 
invasion  (especially  as  it  was  not  likely  to  be  a  mere  isolated 
raid)  mentioned  in  their  annals ;  and  on  turning  to  them  we  find 
ourselves  among  a  long  series  of  such  notices.  Wherever  we 
find  the  term  Ousses  or  Gozz  in  the  accoimts  of  the  Arabs,  we 
have  the  names  Uzes  or  Comani  used  by  the  Byzantines,  the 
former  term  used  with  great  laxity,  aud  sometimes  made  to 
include  the  Petchenegs.  Anna  Comnena,  in  1070,  first  uses  the 
name  Comani.  De  Guignes  makes  Comani  to  be  a  mere  dimi- 
nutive of  Turcoman!, — ^a  very  wild  etymology.  It  is  clearly 
derived  from  the  river  Eouma  or  Kuma,  the  country  about 
which  was  known  to  the  Persians  as  Kumestan,  and  which  the 
Arabian  Edrissi,  who  wrote  about  the  end  of  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, distinctly  calls  Al  Ckomania,  and  adds,  which  gives  name 
to  the  Ckomanians  (Klaproth,  Travels  in  the  Caucasus,  155). 

The  name  Comanians  is  therefore  of  small  value  in  tracing 
the  history  of  the  Gusses ;  it  is  merely  the  appellative  they 
derived  from  their  situation.  Nikon,  the  Russian  chronicler,  in 
speaking  of  them,  says,  the  "  Cumani,  more  properly  Polowtzy.'* 
Another  writer,  quoted  by  Schlozer,  says,  "  the  Cumani,  that  is 
the  Polowtzi.'^  Nestor,  in  describing  one  of  their  invasions  of 
the  Greek  empire,  says  Polowtzi  where  the  Greek  writers  say 
(/umani.  We  thus  identify  the  Cumani  of  the  Greeks  with  the 
Polowtzki  so  celebrated  in  the  Russian  annals  of  the  eleventh 
and  twelfth  centuries.  Polowtzki  merely  means  steppe-men. 
Rubruquis,  who  wrote  about  1253,  says,  "  Here  [i.  e.  in  the  pre- 
sent Nogay  steppe]  the  Comani  live  and  feed  their  flocks ;  they 
call  themselves  Capchat;  to  the  Germans  they  are  known  as 
Walani,  and  their  country  as  Walania."  Here,  then,  we  have 
the  indigenous  name  of  the  Comans,  the  name  adopted  by  the 
Mogul  khanate  of  Baton  Khan,  to  which  we  have  previously 
referred — a  name  still  borne  by  Uzbek  and  Nogay  tribes,  and 
by  a  tribe  of  the  middle  horde  of  the  Khirgises,  in  whose  terri- 
tory is  a  town  Kaptchak  and  a  lake  Kaptchi,  a  distinctly  Turk 
name,  being  adopted,  there  can  be  little  doubt,  from  some  noted 
leader ;  for  we  find  Kaptchak  mentioned  on  three  or  four  occa- 
sions in  Uzbeg  history  as  the  proper  name  of  a  chieftain.  The 
plain  between  the  Volga  and  Ural  was  known,  from  such  a  one, 
as  Desht  Kaptchak  (the  desert  of  Kaptchak),  just  as  it  was  sub- 
sequently known  as  Desht  Bereke,  from  Bereke  the  Nogay 
leader.  Here  we  have  another  proof,  if  such  were  needed,  of 
our  being  right  in  tracing  the  Comans  to  the  same  parentage  as 
the  Uzbegs.     The  German  appellative  by  which  the  Comans 

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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  89 

were  known  is  not  so  easy  to  explain.  The  province  of  Vol- 
hynia  took  its  name  firom  them^  according  to  Latham.  But 
this  can  hardly  be  so^  as  the  name  occurs  much  earlier  than 
their  inyasion.  Zeuss  gives  the  form  Falawa^  and  says  it  is  the 
literal  rendering  of  Polouci  (t.  e.  Steppe-men).  He  also  adds  the 
forms  Falon^  Valni,  Valewe,  Valwen,  and  Walmoen.  There  can 
be  little  doubt  that  Zeuss  is  right. 

The  Comans  are  described  by  various  authors  as  a  savage  race, 
living  on  flesh  and  drinking  mare^s  milk  and  blood — ^the  typical 
food  of  the  Turkish  hordes.     , 

To  this  accumulated  evidence  we  may  add  the  best  of  all  tests^ 
namely,  that  of  language.  Rubruquis  tells  us  that  the  language 
of  the  Jugurri  (t.  e.  the  Ouigours)  is  the  original  and  root  of  the 
Turkish  and  Comanian  languages.  The  Genoese  called  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Turks  of  the  Black  Sea  (i.  e,  of  the  Comans) 
Ugaresca  [i.e,  Ouigour).  When  many  of  the  Comans  were 
driven  out  of  their  quarters  by  the  Mongols,  they  fled,  as  we 
shall  see,  into  Hungary.  Here  their  descendants  still  remain  : 
although  they  have  forgotten  their  tongue  and  adopted  Hun- 
garian, this  is  only  very  recently ;  several  copies  of  the  Lord^s 
Prayer  in  their  language  have  been  preserved.  Lastly,  Elaproth 
has  published  a  very  elaborate  analysis  of  a  Persian  and  Coma- 
nian vocabulary  he  discovered  in  the  library  of  St.  Mark  at 
Venice.    These  remains  are  all  of  them  purelv  Turkish. 

The  Byzantines  place  the  flrst  arrival  of  tne  Comani  or  Kip- 
tchaks  about  the  years  894r-899,  when  they  drove  the  Petchenegs 
&om  between  the  Ural  or  Jaik  and  the  Volga.  The  Russians 
first  speak  of  the  Polowzi  in  996,  during  the  reign  of  Wladimir, 
when  their  prince,  Wolodar,  invaded  Russia.  They  were  then 
defeated  and  their  king  killed.  From  this  date  to  the  year  1229, 
when  they  occur  for  the  last  time  in  the  Russian  chronicles,  the 
history  of  Russia  is  little  more  than  the  account  of  their  fearful 
devastEitions,  invited  and  assisted  by  the  miserable  squabbles  of 
the  various  Russian  princes.  In  their  earlier  struggles  with  the 
Petchenegs  we  find  the  Kiptchaks  in  alliance  with  the  ELhazars ; 
and  with  them  they  first  drove  the  Petchenegs  across  the  Don. 
A  portion  of  the  latter,  however,  survived  in  the  deserts  between 
the  Ural  and  the  Volga ;  the  remainder  were  gradually  pressed 
westward  into  Hungary  and  on  to  the  weak  defences  of  the  Greek 
empire ;  and  the  Comans  gradually  occupied  the  country  north  of 
the  Euxine  and  the  Caucasus,  where  they  are  placed  by  Rubru- 
quis and  De  Piano  Carpino.  Describing  the  Nogay  steppe  north 
of  the  Crimea,  the  former  writer  says,  "  This  whole  level  was, 
previously  to  the  irruption  of  the  Tartars,  inhabited  by  the  Co- 
manians.  .  .  .-  .  On  the  invasion  of  the  Tartars  a  great  multitude 
of  Comanians  fled  to  the  sea-shore  ....  The  whole  country 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


90        HowoRTH — On  ike  Westerly  Drifting  ofNomades, 

from  the  Danube  to  the  Tanais  is  more  than  two  months'  journey 
across^  even  for  such  swift  riders  as  the  Tartars,  and  is  entirely  in- 
habited by  Comanians,  who  extend  even  beyond  the  Tanais  to  the 
Edil  (Volga),  a  tract  of  ten  long  days'  journey  between  the  two 
rivers/'  In  an  old  map  of  the  year  1318,  in  the  Imperial  Library 
at  Vienna,  Comania  or  Chumania  is  the  tract  north  of  the  Sea 
of  Azof.  In  this  tract  Rubruquis  mentions  passing  the  tombs  of 
the  Comani — stately  erections,  pyramids  and  pillars,  upon  each 
of  which  was  placed  a  rude  figure  holding  a  drinking-cup. 
Klaproth,  who  describes  them  as  they  still  remain,  doubts  their 
having  been  made  by  the  Comani.  Similar  erections  in  the 
same  area  are  undoubtedly  described  by  the  Romans  as  having 
been  put  up  by  the  Huns.  The  arrival  of  the  Mongols  broke  up 
the  Comanian  power.  When  the  former  had  forced  their  way 
through  the  Caucasus,  they  were  opposed  by  an  allied  army  of 
Comans  and  Alans.  Commencing  the  struggle,  as  they  inva- 
riably did,  with  intrigues,  they  detached  the  Comans  from  their 
alliance  by  claiming  them  as  brothers  and  of  the  same  kin,  which 
they  denied  to  the  Alans.  This  is  another  proof  of  the  ethnic 
affinities  of  the  Comans ;  for  we  know  that  the  army  of  Baton 
Khan  was  almost  entirely  composed  of  Turks.  Having  defeated 
the  Alans  separately,  the  Mongols,  with  consistent  treachery, 
turned  their  arms  upon  the  Comans.  On  another  occasion, 
when  Comans  and  Russians  were  allied,  they  attempted,  but 
unsuccessfully,  the  same  policy  in  more  flattering  terms,  saying 
the  Comans  were  their  ancient  slaves  while  the  Russians  were  a 
noble,  independent  people.  The  various  alliances  of  Comans, 
Russians,  and  Alans,  however,  were  of  little  avail.  The  Mongol 
tide  swept  on,  and  the  Comanians,  as  a  separate  nation  (their 
capital  was  Soldaya),  were  heard  of  no  more  in  the  Nogay  steppe. 
Many  of  them  were  sold  by  the  Mongols  to  the  family  of  Saladin, 
and  became  the  nucleus  of  the  Mamelukes,  one  of  whom,  called 
Bibars  or  Biberdi  (a  Turk  name)  became  sultan  of  Egypt  and 
concluded  a  treaty  with  the  Greek  emperor  in  1261.  Many  of 
the  Comans,  however,  followed  in  the  steps  of  previous  unfor- 
timate  nomades  and  made  their  way  towards  the  Hungarian 
plains,  with  whose  inhabitants  they  had  had  many  conflicts,  in 
two  of  which,  in  1070  and  1089,  they  had  been  severely  defeated 
by  the  Hungarians  Salomo  andLadislav  (see  Zeuss,^Die  Deutschen 
und  die  Nachbarstamme').  In  Hungary  numbers  of  them  settled. 
On  the  middle  Theiss  still  remains  a  country  called  Kunsag, 
and  people  known  as  great  and  little  Kumans — ^the  former  on 
the  right,  the  latter  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  In  1410  they 
were  converted  to  Christianity,  and  in  the  same  century  fol- 
lowed the  trades  of  masons  and  archers  (in  Hungarian  Jazok). 
They  still  exist  to  the  number  of  112,000  free  persons,  but  have 

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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  91 

entirely  forgotten  their  language.  According  to  Klaproth,  the 
last  who  understood  it  was  a  man  named  Varro,  who  died  in  1 770. 
Remains  of  it,  as  I  have  said,  have  been  preserved  and  proved  to 
be  clearly  Turkish. 

The  establishment  of  the  Mongol  empire  of  the  Kaptchak  on 
the  ruins  of  the  Comanian  power  did  not  eradicate  that  race 
altogether;  although  the  name  Coman  disappears^  the  name 
Kaptchak  was  adopted  by  the  conquerors,  and  a  vast  number  of 
the  original  Kaptchaks  or  Comans  remained  behind  in  the 
steppes,  under  the  rule  of  the  Mongols^  and  became  the  nucleus 
of  the  various  Nogay  hordes,  the  most  important  of  whose  tribes 
is  known  as  Kaptchak.  The  name  Nogay  is  applied  to  most  of 
the  wandering  tribes  from  Bessarabia  to  the  Kuma.  Most  of 
these  have,  as  I  believe,  their  genealogies  rooted  among  the 
Comani,  mixed,  unquestionably,  with  a  tinge  of  Mongol  blood, 
and  in  a  greater  degree  with  the  blood  of  earlier  occupiers  of 
the  same  steppes.  Their  main  element  is  the  same  as  that  of 
the  earlier  Turcoman  invaders  of  Persia,  namely,  that  of  the 
Gusses,  the  western  wave  of  the  same  flood  of  which  the  Tur- 
comans formed  the  southern  wave — a  flood  caused  by  the  dis- 
persion of  the  empire  of  the  Hoeitche  in  Turkestan. 

Having  cleared  up  the  ethnology  of  the  Comans,  we  are  in  a 
position  to  examine  that  of  the  Petchenegs,  whom  the  former 
drove  out. 

Before  the  Coman  invasion  the  country  west  of  the  Volga 
was  occupied  by  the  Khazars  and  the  Petchenegs,  the  former  a 
great  and  most  interesting  race,  who  long  gave  their  names  to  a 
very  wide  territory — the  land  of  Khazaria,  as  it  is  called  by 
Ma90udi.  Tlie  Petchenegs  were  a  body  of  but  recent  origin,  who 
were  constantly  flghting  with  the  Khazars.  In  the  earlier  Co- 
man  invasions  we  generally  find  the  Comans  in  alliance  with  the 
Khazars  against  the  Petchenegs.  Who,  then,  were  the  Petche- 
negs ?  Zeuss  gives  their  various  synonyms  thus : — they  were 
known  as  Patzinakitai  to  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus,  Pece- 
natici,  Pizenaci,  Pincenates,  Pecinei,  Petinei,  and  Postinagi,  to 
the  western  writers,  Peczenjezi  to  the  western  Slaves,  Bisscui  to 
the  Hungarians.  Behnakyeis  their  name  in  Ibn  el  Wardi,  and 
Drewenses  («.  e.  woodmen,  from  drew  or  derew,  a  wood)  in  the 
Russian  chronicles. 

Strahlenberg  has  the  ingenious  suggestion  that  Petscheneg  is 
derived  from  Petsch  or  Pietsch,  which  he  says  is  the  literal 
translation  of  ^  Hund,'  a  dog,  and  connects  them  with  the  Huns. 
Latham  suggests  that  the  name  may  be  the  same  as  Peucini,  so 
called  from  the  island  Peuke  in  the  Danube, — not  that  the 
Petchenegs  were  in  any  way  connected  in  blood  with  the  Peu- 
cini of  the  Romans,  but  that  the  name  was  adopted  by  the 
invaders  as  Briton  has  been  adopted  by  an  Anglo-Saxon  race*jle 


92        HowoBTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  ofNomades, 

I  cannot  accept  either  of  these  etymologies.  Klaproth  relates 
that  when  Jermak^  the  Cossack^  attacked  the  Siberian  Tatars 
on  the  Tawda^  and  they  had  assembled  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Patschenka,  a  prince  named  Petscheneg  was  among  the  slain. 
This  shows  the  name  was  not  confined  to  the  Petchenegs  of  the 
Danube^  and  shows  further  the  probability  that,  like  Kaptchak 
and  Uzbeg,  it  was  a  family  name  of  note,  and  adopted  for  that 
reason  by  the  whole  race,  and  so  adopted  at  no  distant  date 
either ;  for  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus  tells  us  they  were 
formerly  called  Kangar  or  Kankar,  which  among  them  means 
valour.  The  mention  oi  Patschenka  seems  to  introduce  us  to 
the  typical  area  of  the  race.  Snorro  Sturleson  mentions  the 
Petchenegs  as  Pezina  VoUhr.  Sviatoslav,  the  Russian,  we  are 
tbld,  was  beheaded  in  Petschenka  curia.  Where,  then,  was 
Patschenka  ? 

The  Arabian  geographer  Scherif  Edrissi  speaks  of  the  countiy 
of  Bedschenay,  and  places  it  in  the  seventh  part  of  the  seventh 
climate,  in  contiguity  with  Bassdshirt  (Baskiria).  He  says  it  was 
not  extensive,  he  did  not  know  whether  they  had  any  larger 
town  than  Banamuni,  which  contained  many  inhabitants  of  the 
race  of  the  Turks,  and  that  they  carried  on  war  with  the  Rus- 
sians and  the  Greeks.  With  these  scanty  materials  it  would  be 
impossible  to  dogmatize.  The  name  by  which  they  were  known 
to  the  Hungarians  is  said  to  be  the  origin  of  the  syllables 
Besse  in  Bessarabia.  It  is  at  the  same  time  a  curious  coinci- 
dence that  one  of  the  Thracian  tribes  was  also  called  Bessi  or 
Bissi. 

In  the  statement  of  the  Emperor  Constantine,  already  quoted^ 
we  come  upon  more  fruitful  etymologies.  The  Kangar  can  be  no 
other  than  the  Eangitcs  of  Carpino,  the  Curges  and  Changle  of 
other  travellers,  the  Cancalis  so  celebrated  in  the  Ural  steppe  at 
the  time  of  Tchinghiz — ^names  derived  by  Klaproth  from  their 
invention  and  use  of  wheeled  carriages,  "kanek'^  meaning  wheels. 
Among  the  names  of  Petcheneg  tribes  preserved  by  Constantine 
is  the  Talmat,  which  Strahlenberg  compares  with  the  Talma^ 
sata  found  east  of  the  Volga  in  his  day — ^another  proof  of  the 
identification.  The  ethnic  affinities  of  the  Petchenegs  are  clear 
enough.  Nikon  the  chronicler  associates  them  with  the  Tork- 
mcni,  Tortozy,  and  Cumani.  Ibn  el  Wardi  calls  them  a  Turkish 
race.  Anna  Comnena  says  they  spoke  the  same  language  as  the 
Comans.  The  Byzantines  constantly  confound  the  Comans  and 
Petchenegs  under  the  conmion  name  of  Uzi.  All  these  facts 
confirm  the  position  of  most  inquirers,  that  the  Petchenegs  were 
a  horde  of  Turks  belonging  to  a  previous  wave  of  invasion  to 
the  Uzi  proper,  less  purely  Turk,  I  believe,  and  more  mixed 
with  foreign  elements.  Their  former  seats  were  situated  at  the 
foot  of  the  Ural  mountains ;  and  I  believe  them  t0~have  been 

■igitized  by  V3 


from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century .  93 

very  nearly  related  to  the  Baschkirs — ^a  race  whose  language  is 
Turk  but  whose  blood  is  mixed.  The  name  Baschkir  suggests 
comparisons  with  Bessi  and  Bisseni  of  the  Hungarians ;  and  I 
know  of  no  other  source  whence  the  Turkish  language  of  the 
Baschkirs  can  have  been  derived,  if  it  were  not  from  the  Pet- 
chenegs  or  Cancalis.  The  Kangli  or  Cancalis  had  been  an 
ancient  foe  of  the  Hoeitche  on  the  other  side  of  the  Volga. 
When  the  power  of  the  latter  became  settled,  the  Caucalis  emi- 
grated or  were  forced  towards  the  west;  I  believe  they  then 
drove  out  the  inhabitants  of  Pascatir  or  Baschkir  land,  and 
caused  them  to  migrate  to  Hungary ;  they  also  broke  the  power 
of  the  Khazars,  many  of  whom  they  also  drove  into  Hungary. 
The  Petchenegs  occupied  the  vacant  lands,  and  gradually 
pressed  westward  into  the  woods  of  the  Ukraine,  whence  they 
grievously  afflicted  the  borders  of  the  Greek  empire  and  the 
Russians  of  Kief.  With  the  Cumans  they  are  described  as  a 
savage  race,  living  on  the  flesh,  milk,  and  blood  of  their  herds ; 
we  are  also  told  they  were  an  inferior  race  to  the  Comans,  both 
in  numbers  and  in  appearance,  and  that  they  had  a  distinctive 
dress.  Their  chief  town  was  called  Korosten  or  Kourosteszov 
(i.  e.  wall  of  bark),  also  known  as  Nowopolci,  on  the  river  Tetera, 
famous  for  the  death  of  Igor  and  the  mound  under  which  he 
was  buried.  Another  of  their  towns  was  Ovroutsche,  where 
Oleg  was  murdered  (see  Bohusz,  Becherches  historiques  sur 
i'Origine  des  Sarmates,  &c.,  8.  xxxi.  532).  We  are  told  the 
Petchenegs  lived  in  tents,  that  each  of  their  eight  tribes  had  a 
separate  chief,  and  that  these  tribes  were  themselves  split  up 
into  forty  lesser  ones.  The  names  of  these  eight  tribes,  as  given 
by  the  Emperor  Constantino,  are  Ertem,  Tzur,  Gyla,  Culpee, 
Charobo^,  Talmat,  Chapon,  and  Tzopon;  they  divided  their 
conquests  into  eight  provinces  corresponding  to  them — four  east 
of  the  Dnieper,  between  the  Russians  and  the  Khazars,  and  four 
west  of  the  Dnieper,  in  Moldavia,  Transylvania  on  the  Bug, 
and  the  neighbourhood  of  Kief.  The  same  writer  places  their 
first  arrival  at  fifty  years  before  his  time,  t.  e.  about  a.d.  862. 
Rhegnion,  who  lived  about  908,  makes  the  date  889  (De 
Guignes.  Nestor  mentions  them  first  in  Russia  in  915 ;  they 
occur  in  his  pages  very  frequently.  They  killed  Igor  in  945, 
and  in  968  hud  siege  to  Kief.  In  alliance  with  the  Russians 
they  made  constant  raids  on  the  Greek  empire.  From  the 
Petchenegs  the  Russians  bought  their  oxen,  sheep,  and  horses, 
their  country  not  producing  these  animals.  In  their  hands,  too, 
was  the  traffic  with  the  Baltic  coast  for  amber,  and  with 
Novgorod  for  all  the  products  of  the  east. 

From  these  seats  they  were  driven  by  the  Comans,  some  into 
Bessarabia,  some  into  Hungary,  where  the  Hungarian  kings 

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94      HowoRTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  o/Nomades,  ^c. 

made  them  useful  in  settling  them  on  the  marchlands  or  frou* 
tiers  of  the  Theutonici;  others,  again,  coalescing  with  the 
Comans,  became  the  ancestors  of  the  Nogays.  As  I  have 
already  related,  one  of  the  western  hordes  of  the  Nogays  is  still 
called  Budzuchy  while  one  of  their  eastern  ones  retains  the  name 
of  Mangat,  applied  to  one  of  the  divisions  of  the  Cancalis.  The 
Petchenegs  who  were  left  on  the  other  side  of  the  Volga  in  the 
great  invasion,  I  consider  were  the  ancestors  of  those  Turcomans 
roaming  between  the  Caspian  and  the  Aral,  known  as  Kara- 
kalpacs  or  Black-caps.  Lastly,  I  trace  to  the  Petchenegs  also 
the  various  Turkish  tribes  still  found  in  the  Caucasus,  called  by 
the  Georgians  Bassiani.  Klaproth  reports  the  tradition  of  their 
elders  that  they  were  formerly  settled  on  the  steppes  of  the 
Kuma  as  far  as  the  Don,  and  that  their  capital  city  was  named 
Ckirck  Madshar,  represented  by  the  ruins  of  Madshar.  He 
has  proved  that  its  remains  are  entirely  of  a  Turkish  type.  ''At 
the  commencement  of  the  second  century  of  the  Hegira  (or,  ac- 
cording to  other  accouats,  so  late  as  the  fourteenth  century)  their 
several  princes,  living  in  constant  enmity  with  their  neighbours^ 
were  at  length  expelled  by  them,  on  which  they  retired  to  the 
Great  Kabardaah,  whence  they  were  in  the  sequel  driven  by  the 
Tscherkessians,  and  being  divided  into  detached  bodies  were 
necessitated  to  fix  their  habitations  on  the  highest  mountains,  at 
« the  sources  of  the  Kuban  Baksan  and  Tschegem ;  one  portion 
still  remained  on  the  Malka,  and  did  not  remove  till  a  later 
period  to  the  source  of  the  Tscherek,  whence  it  yet  retains  the 
name  of  Malkar  or  Balkar/'  The  other  Turks  of  the  Caucasus, 
not  included  under  the  name  of  Bassiani,  and  known  as  Cka- 
ratschai,  have  a  similar  tradition,  and  that  they  were  drivea 
&om  Madshar  and  into  the  mountains  by  the  Circassians.  The 
language  of  all  these  Turks  is  very  like  Nogay ;  and  I  can  see 
no  reason  for  doubting  for  a  moment  their  traditional  origin, 
and  that  they  form  another  detached  fragment  of  the  Cancalis. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  survey  the  ethnological  effects  of  the 
twin  invasions  of  these  sister  races,  the  Petchenegs  and  the 
Comans.  In  the  first  place,  I  believe  them  to  have  been  the 
first  Turks  whom  we  can  show  to  have  invaded  Europe.  I  do  not 
deny  that  Turkish  chieftains  may  have  led  the  armies  of  the 
earlier  invaders;  but,  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Latham 
and  of  every  other  authority  I  know,  I  deny  to  any  of  the  pre- 
vious races  the  characteristics  of  Turks.  The  earlier  occupants 
of  the  Nogay  steppe,  the  Khazars  and  the  Alans,  were,  I  con- 
sider, entirely  different  races;  the  materials  for  their  ethno- 
logical distinction  have  been  assiduously  collected  by  Fraehn, 
Vivien,  St.  Martin,  and  D^Ohsson,  although  they  have  none  of 
them,  so  far  as  I  know,  solved  the  problem. 


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Review.  95 

If  these  races  were  the  first  Turks  that  invaded  Europe^  it 
follows  that  M.  Vambery  is  only  very  partially  right  in  trying 
to  trace  the  Hungarians  to  the  Ouigours  and  other  Turkish 
tribes.  The  only  Turks  in  Hungary  are  the  remnants  of  the 
Cancalis  or  Petchenegs,  the  Comans,  and  the  Osmanli ;  and  they 
have  only  affected  the  population  in  a  very  superficial  manner, 
hardly  so  much,  perhaps,  as  the  Normans  affected  the  English. 
The  examination  of  this  superficial  coating  cannot  be  more  pro- 
fitably done  than  by  a  careful  criticism  of  the  Turcoman  hordes 
of  the  Persian  border  and  the  remains  of  Ouigour  literature ; 
and  it  is  a  question  of  very  great  interest ;  but  we  shall  be  very 
wild  in  our  ethnology  if  we  attempt  to  connect  the  main  bulk 
of  the  Hungarian  nation  and  its  idiosyncracies  with  such  an 
origin  and  cradle-land.  Notwithstanding  the  rudeness  and  tur- 
bulence of  Turkish  nomades,  we  must  never  forget  that,  from 
their  arrival  on  the  northern  and  eastern  borders  of  the  Caspian 
till  their  overthrow  by  the  Mongols,  they  were  the  main  traf- 
fickers between  Europe  and  the  Persian  and  Indian  frontier; 
from  the  Crimea  to  the  city  of  Kharazm  or  Khiva  caravans 
were  constantly  passing.  I  believe  that  they  succeeded  to  a 
culture  much  more  advanced  than  their  own ;  but  that  of  the 
Turkish  hordes  has  been  unnecessarily  decried.  The  Tatars  of 
the  Crimea  have  remains  which  display  no  mean  taste.  It  is  a 
melancholy  fact  that  both  Tatars  and  their  remains  are  being 
rapidly  extinguished.  Hardly  any  remain  in  Bessarabia.  Thou- 
sands are  now  being  cruelly  transported  from  the  Crimea ;  and 
if  we  would  study  the  diminishing  type  we  must  travel  to  the 
distant  desert  of  the  Kuban.  Yet  the  proverb  is  true  enough, 
that  when  we  scratch  the  Russian  we  meet  with  the  Tatar ;  and 
we  may  in  the  marchland  of  the  Ukraine  find  much  that  can 
only  be  explained  as  the  heel-mark  of  the  Polowtzian  and 
Drewensian  invaders. 


EEVIEW. 


DaiUf  lAfe  and  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians.     By  James  Boitwick, 
RB-Q-.S.     (Sampson  Low,  Son,  and  Mars  ton,  1870.) 

The  Last  of  the  Tasmanians  ;  ar,  The  Black  War  of  Van  Diemen's 
Land.  By  James  Bonwick,  F.E.G.S.  (Sampson  Low,  Son, 
and  Marston,  1870.) 

Now  that  the  Tasinanians  have  become  so  nearly  extinct  as  to  find 
their  sole  surviving  representative  in  the  person  of  an  aged  female,  it 
is  well  that  some  attempt  should  be  made  to  put  on  record  a  history 


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96  Notes  and  Queries. 

of  this  hapless  race.  Materiab  for  such  a  history  have  been  zealoualj 
collected  in  the  colony  by  Mr.  Bonwick,  and  the  results  of  his  labours 
are  given  in  the  two  interesting  volumes  cited  above.  Inverting  the 
order  of  their  publication,  that  work  is  placed  first  which  promises 
the  greater  amount  of  interest  to  the  Ethnologist — ^a  work  which  in- 
troduces us  to  the  physical  characters,  the  daily  life,  the  language, 
and  the  superstitions  of  the  Tasmanians ;  whilst  the  second  work 
tells  the  melancholy  tale  of  their  gradual  decline. 

The  Tasmanians  are  described  as  having  been  a  people  of  moderate 
stature,  and,  compared  with  the  Australians,  stout  and  robust.  The 
skin  was  of  a  dark  brown  colour,  or  nearly  black,  and  was  ornamented 
with  cicatrices  cut  upon  the  chest,  the  shoulders,  and  the  thighs ; 
while  the  entire  body  was  bedaubed  with  a  mixture  of  grease  and 
red  ochre,  which  was  also  liberally  applied  to  the  hair.  The  hair  was 
black,  and  often  presented  a  cnsp  and  woolly  appearance,  but  was 
nevertheless  extremely  different  from  that  of  the  Negro. 

As  weapons  the  Tasmanians  used  the  waddy  and  a  wooden  spear 
from  15  to  18  feet  in  length.  Unlike  the  Australians,  they  had  nei- 
ther the  boomerang  nor  tlie  wommera  or  throwing-stick.  Their 
tools  consisted  of  a  stone  axe,  generally  made  of  greenstone  or  ba- 
salt, and  a  smaller  implement  described  as  a  stone  knife.  It  is  nota- 
ble that  certain  stone  circles,  and  piles  of  stones  evidently  of  human 
erection,  have  been  found  in  the  interior  of  the  island. 


NOTES  AND  QUEEIES. 


The  Veddas  of  Ceylon. — Fuller  information  as  to  these  tribes,  £rom 
new  observation  or  accounts  not  generally  known,  would  be  of  great 
ethnological  value.  The  Yeddas  are  understood  to  speak  a  Singha- 
lese dialect  containing  Dravidian  (Telugu)  words,  and,  if  so,  are  the 
only  known  savage  tribes  speaking  an  Aryan  language.  Physically 
they  seem  to  belong  rather  to  the  indigenous  non- Aryan  tribes.  It 
is  probable  that  they  are  a  mixed  race.  There  are  papers  on  them 
in  the  Society's  Transactions  (vols.  ii.  and  iii.),  and  accounts  iu 
Prichard's  'Natural  History  of  Man,'  Sir  John  Lubbock's  'Pre- 
historic Times,'  Sir  J.  E.  Tennent's  '  Ceylon,'  &c.  But  a  much  more 
perfect  account  of  their  language,  physique,  and  habits  is  required. 
— Edwabd  B.  Ttlob. 

Qeorgian  and  Sontal. — I  note  the  following  parallels  between 
Georgian  and  Sontal  or  the  Central-Indian  forms. 

House    oda,       ada. 

Arrow    isari,      sar. 

Oda  in  Turkish  is  commonly  "  a  room." — Hybe  Clabke. 

Water. — The  Turkish  for  "water"  is  soo;  the  Georgian  for 
"  drink  "  (thou)  is  soo. — Hyde  Clabke. 


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THE  JOURNAL 

OP  THE 

ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 


Ordinary  Meeting^  Jan.  11th,  1870. 

Richard  Kino,  Esq.,  M.D.,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Members. — THe  Earl  op  Dunraven  and  Mountearl, 
K.P.,  F.R.S.,  P.R.G.S.,  F.S.A. ;  Thomas  Henry  Baylis,  Esq. ; 
David  Duncan,  Esq.,  M.A.;  John  Edwards,  Esq.;  and  J.  F. 
McLennan,  Esq. 

The  following  paper  was  read  by  the  author  :-r 

X.  On  the  KiTAi  and  Kara-Eitai.     By  Dr.  Gustav  Oppbrt. 

While  studying  Oriental  languages  and  ethnology,  and  prepa- 
ring a  critical  history  of  Central  Asia  and  India,  my  attention 
has  been  directed  to  a  people  whose  few  descendants  now  live 
in  a  state  of  dependency  scattered  over  Asia :  I  allude  to  the 
Kitai  or  Kara-Kitai. 

In  the  Russian  Government  of  Derbend,  near  the  Caspian  Sea, 
in  the  Chanate  of  Kaitach  (or  Kara-Kaitach) ,  and  in  the  Sibe- 
rian district  of  Hi  or  Guldja,  are  found  to  this  day  in  humble 
condition  the  offspring  of  those  who  once  governed  Central 
Asia  and  China. 

The  Kaitach  and  Kara-Kaitach  are  a  very  industrious  race, 
who  in  their  Chanate  live  mostly  as  husbandmen,  while  their 
brethren  in  Guldja  excel  as  clever  artisans.  The  whole  Kitaian 
population  in  both  districts,  who  still  show  in  their  physiognomy 
their  Mongolian  or  Tatarian  origin,  will  hardly  amount  to  50,000 
souls.  Till  1725  the  Kaitach  and  Kara-Kaitach,  near  Derbend, 
remained  independent ;  but  they  then  submitted  to  the  Russian 
supremacy,  and  since  1799  their  Chan  or  Usmei  has  enjoyed  an 
annuity  from  the  Russian  Government.  They  are  now  mostly 
Mahommedans,  though  in  Guldja  some  still  adhere  to  their  for- 
mer belief. 

This  is  all  that  at   this  moment  remains  of  a  people  once 

VOL.  11.  p>  1 

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98  Dr.  GusTAV  Oppert — On  the  Kttai 

supreme  in  Asia,  reigning  over  Northern  China  and  Central 
Asia,  and  whose  preponderance  was  felt  even  in  Europe.     The 
Kitai  are  very  likely  of  Tatarian  or  Mongolian  race — an  opinion 
which  is  supported  by  the  famous  historian  Rashideddin,  who 
calls  them  Kidan  Tatse  or  Kitan  Tatars*.     The  home  of  the 
Kitai  is  to  be  found  in  those  mountainous  regions  in  the  north  of 
Korea,  whence  all  the  rulers  of  China  descended  to  the  plains, 
as  in  later  times  also  did  the  Niutche  and  the  Mandju.     There, 
in  the  north  of  the  Chinese  province  Leaotong,  they  remained 
for  some  time  ravaging  the  imperial  domains,  and  were  dreaded 
as  dangerous  neighbours,  before  they  became  of  political  conse- 
quence.    For  their  subsequent  power  they  are  mostly  indebted 
to  their  chieftain  Apaoki,  who  at  the  end  of  the  ninth  and  the 
beginning  of  the  tenth  century  contrived,  by  his  great  military 
genius,  united  to  a  shrewd  and  excellent  statemanship,  not  only 
to  raise  his  nation,  and  of  course  himself,  to  a  position  of  the 
utmost  consequence,  but  also  to  extend  his  dominion  so  far,  that 
it  reached  from  Kashgar  and  the  Tsunling  Mountains  in  the 
west  to  the  Pacific  in  the  east.     Korea  and  North  China  were 
subject  to  his  sway,  and  his  chief  capital  was  Leaoyang  in  Lea- 
otong, until  he  changed  it  for  Yan,  the  modem  Peking.      After 
his  death,  which  occurred  a.d.  926,  his  successors  continued 
extending  and  strengthening  their  realm,  until  they  ultimately 
gave  their  name  to  the  whole  of  Central  Asia  and  China, — a 
name  not  even  now  forgotten,  as  Kitai  is  the  appellation  by 
which  China  is  expressed  in  Russian. 

As  the  terms  Kitai  and  Kara-Kitai  are  promiscuously  used  for 
the  same  nation,  it  is  diffictUt  to  decide  whether  these  two  names 
were  also  previously  employed  at  the  same  time.     The  Tatarian 

*  With  us  it  is  customary  to  speak  of  Tatarian,  Mongolian,  Turkish,  and 
Tungeeze  races,  but  I  do  not' believe  that  such  is  the  case  in  the  East.  These 
great  classifications  are,  however,  only  very  vague.  According  to  Oriental 
tradition,  Turk  was  the  son  of  Janhet ;  the  twin-brothers  Tatar  and  Moghool 
were.Turk'8  grandchildren,  and  Tungeez  was  the  son  of  the  famous  Aghooz 
Khan,  also  a  descendant  from  Turk.  Although  I  do  not  wish  to  be  made 
responsible  for  the  correctness  of  these  pedigrees,  one  may  safdy  derive  from 
them  one  conclusion,  namely,  that  the  progeny  of  these  patriarchs  regaided 
themselves  as  near  relationB,*though  they  did  not  always  treat  one  another  as 
such.  About  the  time  of  Gengyz  these  tribes  passed  under  the  name  of  Ta- 
tars, and  as  they  behaved  like  children  of  heU,  they  were  considered  to  have 
come  from  Tartarus.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  Tatars  were  made  acquainted 
with  the  bad  odour  in  which  their  name  stood,  but  under  the  Gengyzkhanides 
they  repudiated  that  name  and  called  themselves  Mongols :  afterwards  they 
found  fault  with  this  expression ;  and  if  we  read  the  works  of  Tamerlane  or 
of  Baber  we  often  find  that  they  object  to  be  called  Mongols,  and  prefer  as 
l^eutlemen  to  be  addressed  as  Turin ;  now  the  European  Turks  do  not  consider 
It  polite  to  be  called  Turks,  but  prefer  the  title  of  Osmanlies.  We  therefbn 
.see  that  in  the  East  these  different  significations  were  applied  at  difierent 
times  to  the  same  race. 


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and  Kara-Kitai.  99 

tribes  are  very  fond  of  expressing  by  certain  colours  the  changes 
of  political  condition  to  which  a  nation  may  be  subjected.  Black 
or  Kara  has  the  meaning  of  dependency  and  servitude^  while 
White  or  Ak  has  that  of  sovereignty  and  freedom.  These 
expressions  were  put  before  the  name^  and  Kara-Kitsi  would 
properly  signify  the  dependent  Kitai.  But  these  colours  are 
employed  only  so  long  as  they  really  describe  the  position  of  a 
tribe ;  for  if  a  dependent  horde  becomes  independent  and  sove- 
reign, the  former  Kara  or  Black  will  be  changed  into  Ak  or 
White ;  the  Tatars,  to  whom  the  mighty  conqueror  Tchingyz- 
khan  belonged,  were  named  before  his  time  f  ara-Tatars,  while 
another  tribe  was  called  ^A-Tatars  or  White  Tatars.  This  is 
also  the  reason  why  the  Emperor  of  Russia  is  caUed  the  White 
Zar,  and  the  divisions  of  Russia  into  White  and  Black  express 
the  same  meaning. 

During  their  reign  in  China  the  Kitai  undertook  great  expe- 
ditions to  the  West ;  and  one  of  those,  made  in  the  middle  of  the 
eleventh  century,  is  mentioned  by  the  well-known  Primas  of  the 
Jacobite  Church,  Gregorius  Abulfaradg,  in  the  year  1046  a.d.,  or 
438  of  the  Hedgra.  At  that  time  the  Kitai  possessed  five  capital 
towns  of  the  first  rank,  156  fortresses,  and  209  cities  of  a  third 
rank ;  5002  hordes  of  Tatars  were  reduced  to  submission,  and 
60  kingdoms  paid  tribute.  But  this  prosperity  did  not  last  long ; 
after  preponderating  for  219  years  (from  906  to  1125)  the  Kitai 
were  beaten  by  a  kindred  nation,  the  Niutche  or  Kin*. 

Though  defeated  by  the  Niutche  and  subjected  in  China,  the 
Kitai  were  not  doomed  to  extinction ;  nay,  they  even  raised  a 
more  powerful  empire,  and  again  filled  Asia  and  Europe  with 
tales  of  their  prowess,  grandeur,  and  riches.  A  prince  of  their 
djmasty,  Yeliutashe,  went  westwards  with  a  number  of  his  fol- 
lowers, who  preferred  exile  to  slavery,  and  by  lucky  circum- 
stances and  great  ability  contrived  to  become  the  founder  of  a 
large  empire.  All  Central  Asia,  Samarkand  and  Bokhara  in- 
cluded, to  the  borders  of  China  became  his  dominion.  "The 
Emperors  of  China  were  again  afraid  of  their  former  foe  and 
had  recourse  to  stratagems,  as  open  enmity  did  not  avail  to  post- 
pone Yeliutashe^s  exp^ition  towards  the  East.  The  mighty  and 
victorious  Sultan  Sanjar  defied  him,  and  marched  against  him 
at  the  head  of  a  numerous  army,  but  deemed  himself  happy 
when  with  a  few  companions  he  reached  the  River  Gihon,  in 

*  The  Kitai  emperors,  as  soon  as  they  had  established  their  power,  assumed 
the  title  of  Leao,  or  Iron ;  while  their  victorious  enemies,  the  Niutche,  called 
themselves  the  JTm,  or  AHuHj  i.  e.  the  **  OM,^^  I  think  this  adoption  of 
bynames  taken  from  metals  should  not  be  overlooked.  It  mav  perhaps  be 
regarded  as  a  proof  that  those  people  were  well  conversant  witn  the  work- 
ing of  mines,  especially  if  we  consider  that  the  native  countries  of  both  the 
Kitai  and  the  Niutche^are  rich  in  minerals. 

Digitiz^bfGoOgle 


100  Dr.  GusTAV  Oppert — On  the  Kitai 

1141^  after  his  dreadful  defeat  not  far  from  Balkh.     This  is  the 
battle  mentioned  by  Benjamin  of  Tudela. 

But  what  still  more  enhances  the  interest  of  Yelintashe  is^ 
that  he  represents  a  personage  so  often  mentioned  in  the  middle 
ages,  but  whom  nobody  has  before  been  able  to  trace  to  his  pro- 
per origin;  he  is  no  other  than  Prester  John,  or  Presln/ter 
Johannes. 

The  first  chronicle  in  which  the  name  of  Presbyter  Johannes 
occurs,  is  that  compiled  by  Otto,  Bishop  of  Freisingen  in  Bavaria, 
a  grandchild  of  the  Emperor  Henry  IV.,  a  half-brother  to  the 
Emperor  Konrad  III.,  and  uncle  to  Frederick  Barbarossa. 
Otto  relates  that  a  powerful  king,  called  the  Presbyter  Johannes, 
had  defeated  in  a  most  sanguinary  battle  the  Samiarchs  Jratres, 
the  kings  of  Persia  and  Media.  Sultan  Sanjar,  together  with 
his  brothers,  reigned  in  the  western  part  of  Asia,  and  the  word 
"  Samiar ''  is  nothing  else  than  the  name  Sanjar.  Otto  had  re- 
ceived the  news  through  the  Syrian  bishop  of  Gabala,  who  had 
come  to  Asia  to  ask  for  assistance  against  the  growing  power  of 
the  Atabek  Zenky,  who  had  taken  possession  of  the  strong  city 
of  Edessa.  Before  leaving  Asia,  the  Bishop  of  Gabala  bad 
been  beleaguered  by  the  Greek  Emperor  Johannes  Comnenus 
in  Antioch,  for  the  prince  of  Antioch,  Raimund,  had  refused 
to  allow  the  Emperor  to  march  with  his  troops  through  his 
territory.  It  is  this  siege  which  is  mentioned  by  the  famous 
traveller  William  Bubruquis  as  coeval  with  the  appearance 
of  a  mighty  Prince  in  the  North,  named  Coirchan  of  Kara 
khatai.  The  title  of  the  Prince  of  the  Kara-Kitai  was  Kor- 
khan,  which  means  the  Khan  of  the  Khans,  the  Supreme 
Khan,  or,  according  to  another  explanation,  may  also  signify 
the  Lord  of  the  People.  This  title  was  used  in  the  same  way 
as  that  of  Pharaoh  by  the  Egyptian  kings.  The  first  K  in 
Korkhan  is  a  Kaf,  which  in  the  Turkish  languages  can  be 
pronounced  as  K,  G,  or  J.  Gorkhan  or  Jorkban  sounds  to  the 
Syrian  ear  very  much  like  Jokhan  or  Jochanan,  which  is  the 
Syrian  form  for  Johannes*.  This  being  the  case,  it  is  easy  to 
see  how  the  Bishop  of  Gabala  could  call  the  Kitai  Korkhan, 
Johannes  or  John.  But  this  John  is  further  described  as  a  Nes- 
torian  and  a  Presbyter.  Now  it  is  generally  known  that  the 
Nestorian  missionaries  were  spread  over  Central  Asia  and  China, 
and  we  have  the  respectable  evidence  of  William  Rubruquis, 
who  states  that  the  Nestorian  bishops,  appearing  seldom  in  l^eir 

*  The  title  of  Korkhan  (Kurkhan,  Gurghan)  was  also  in  later  times  used 
by  Tatarian  sovereigns,  as,  e.  a.,  by  Tamerlane,  by  his  grandson,  the  famous 
astronomer,  Ulug  Beg,  and  others;  and  if  we  had  not  shown  it  before,  this 
circiunstance  alone  would  make  it  highly  probable  that  the  Kitai  belonged 
to  the  Tatarian  race. 


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and  Kara-Kitai,  101 

sees^  consecrated  to  the  priesthood  each  male^  even  the  children 
in  the  cradle.  The  Persian  historian  Mirkhond  distinctly  re- 
marks that  the  daughter  of  the  last  Korkhan  was  a  Christian. 
Moreover  the  title  of  Presbyter  Johannes  was  in  the  middle 
ages  held  in  great  respect^  as  it  was  then  often  announced  that 
the  end  of  the  world  was  near^  and  the  adherents  of  the  Millen- 
nium were  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  the  l^sbyter  Johannes  as 
the  precursor  of  Christ.  The  first  Prester  John  was  succeeded 
by  four  sovereigns  of  his  family,  who  all  reigned  prosperously, 
till  the  last,  JUuku  by  name,  was  shamef^y  deposed  by  his 
own  son-in-law,  a  Nayman  prince,  who  had  previously  found  at 
the  Court  of  the  Korkhan  shelter  from  the  persecution  of 
Tehingyzkhan  and  had  received  the  hand  of  the  Princess  Impe 
rial,  the  heiress  to  the  throne,  and  who  now  showed  his  gratitude 
by  ousting  his  benefactor.  Rubruquis  mentions  that  the  last 
Korkhan  was  succeeded  by  a  Prince  of  the  Nayman  tribe,  who 
also  took  the  title  of  Prester  John.  Kushluk  only  reigned  as 
Korkhan  or  Prester  John  a  few  years  (from  1213  to  1218),  when 
he  was  totally  defeated  by  the  troops  of  Tehingyzkhan  and  kiUed 
while  flying  from  the  field.  Thirty  years  afterwards  the  French 
monk  and  ambassador  to  the  Oreat  Khan,  Johannes  de  Piano 
Carpini,  passed  through  the  valley  in  which  Kushluk  was  de- 
feated. With  him  became  extinct  the  princes  who  had  the  title 
of  Korkhan  of  Kara-Kitai,  and  he  was  the  last  prince  of  that 
empire,  though  himself  only  a  usurper.  Another  dynasty  of 
Kara-Kitai  princes  settled  for  some  time,  fix>m  1224  to  1364,  in 
Kirman ;  but  the  memory  of  the  empire  of  the  Korkhan  soon 
passed  away,  and  when  the  European  travellers  passed  through 
Asia,  the  existence  of  the  Korkhan  or  real  Presbyter  Johannes 
had  already  assumed  a  mythical  aspect.  The  rapid  progress  of 
the  Mongolic  conquests  and  the  entire  overthrow  of  all  the  pre- 
vious empires,  and  of  the  whole  political  state  of  Asia,  explain  in 
some  degree  why  there  exists  no  trustworthy  history  of  these 
times,  and  how  a  manifest  falsification  of  history  could  have 
been  made  and  supported  even  up  to  the  present  day,  I  speak 
here  of  those  who  contend  that  Unkkhan,  the  chief  of  the  Ke- 
raite  tribe,  was  the  real  Prester  John.  This  hypothesis  is  quite 
unsupported ;  for  Unkkhan,  who  was  never  more  than  an  insig- 
nificant chieftain,  and  could  not  hold  his  own  without  the  assist- 
ance of  Tehingyzkhan,  and  his  father,  Pesuka  behadur,  was  not 
in  power,  perhaps  not  even  bom,  in  1141,  and  was  killed  before 
the  usurper  Kushluk,  the  last  Prester  John,  had  arrived  at  the 
Court  of  the  Korkhan. 

Thus  the  mighty  empire  of  the  Korkhan  had  been  destroyed 
in  the  West  by  the  troops  of  Tchingyzkhah,  while  in  the  East, 
in  China,  he  restored  the  Kitai,  if  not  to  their  previous  infitience', 

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102  Dr.  GusTAV  Opfert — On  the  Kitai 

yet  to  independence.  The  Great  Khan  was  anxious  to  strengthen 
his  forces  on  his  expedition  against  the  Emperor  of  the  Kin^  and 
nowhere  could  he  find  stauncher  supporters  than  in  the  de- 
scendants of  the  former  rulers.  Tchingyzkhan  succeeded  in 
gaining  the  affection  of  the  oppressed  population ;  and  though 
the  Niutche,  aware  of  the  dangerous  consequences  of  a  revolt, 
tried  the  utmost  cruelty  to  deter  their  subjects  from  rising,  yet 
Yeliu  Lieuko,  a  descendant  of  the  imperial  family  of  the  Leao, 
and  therefore  a  relative  of  the  Korkhan,  contrived  to  unite  his 
forces  with  those  of  the  Tatars,  to  defeat  the  Chinese,  and  to  be 
acknowledged  as  the  sovereign  of  the  Kitai,  though  naturally 
recognizing  the  Great  Khan  as  his  souzerain.  His  family  in- 
herited the  sovereignty ;  and  as  long  as  the  Mongolic  dynasty 
reigned  in  China,  the  Kitai  also  held  their  own,  keeping  up  a 
good  understanding  and  friendship  with  the  Tatar  Emperors. 

It  is  now  intelligible  how  the  Archbishop  of  Peking,  Johannes 
de  Monte  Corvino,  could  speak  in  his  letter,  dated  from  Peking, 
on  the  8th  of  January,  1305,  of  a  neighbouring  king  Geoi^us, 
a  descendant  of  Prester  John,  with  whom  he  stood  on  very  inti- 
mate terms ;  and  who,  persuaded  by  his  preaching,  had  left  the 
Nestorian  church,  had  become  a  Roman  CathoUc,  was  conse- 
crated by  him  a  priest,  and  used  to  administer  in  his  royal  gar- 
ments during  the  service.  This  king  Georgius  was  followed  by 
his  son  Johannes,  a  godson  of  the  archbishop.  Marco  Polo,  too, 
mentions  this  king  Georgius  as  the  fourth  (according  to  others 
as  the  sixth)  in  descent  from  Prester  John,  of  whose  family  he 
is  regarded  as  the  head.  "  There  are  two  regions  in  which  they 
exercised  dominion.  These  in  our  part  of  the  world  are  named 
Og  and  Magog y  but  by  the  natives  Ung  and  MongtU;  in  each  of 
these  provinces  is  a  distinct  race  of  people.  In  Ung  they  are 
Gog,  and  in  Mongul  they  are  Tatars.'^ 

Marsden,  in  his  edition  of  'Marco  Polo,'  despairs  of  explain- 
ing this  chapter ;  but  to  me  the  mentioning  of  Gog  and  Magog 
signifies  the  existence  of  a  wall,  that  is  of  the  Chinese  wall,  of 
which  Marco  Polo  nowhere  speaks,  because  it  was  for  the  most 
part  destroyed  by  the  Tatars,  and  then  of  no  great  use,  as  on 
both  sides  of  the  wall  obedience  was  paid  to  the  same  sovereign, 
the  Great  Khan.  But  what  makes  us  sure  of  the  correctness  of 
this  hypothesis  is  that  the  name  of  the  wall  is  in  the  language 
of  the  Kitai  Ungu  and  of  those  who  had  to  watch  it  Ungutti ; 
and  thus  we  see  that  by  this  Ung  is  clearly  expressed  the  Chi- 
nese wall,  and  that  the  Kitai  lived  near  it. 

Having  thus  proved  the  importance  oi  the  people  of  the  Kitai, 
it  only  remains  to  add  a  few  words  on  the  tales  of  Prester  John. 
At  the  time  when  the  rumour  of  this  prince  reached  Western 
Asia  and  Europe,  the  Crusaders  were  in  a  very  bad  position. 

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and  Kara-Kitai.  108 

Stronghold  after  stronghold  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the 
Moslems,  and  despair  began  to  fill  their  hearts.  Is  it  therefore 
astonishing,  when  the  defeat  of  their  fiercest  enemy  Sultan  San- 
jar  excited  the  most  sanguine  hopes,  that  reports  from  the  East 
supported  the  excitement  of  expectation,  and  the  simple  truth 
was  shaped  into  marvellous  forms  ?  We  have  thus  to  under- 
stand that  singular  letter  of  Prester  John,  which  was  received 
by  the  Pope,  ttie  Emperors  of  the  East  and  West,  and  other 
sovereigns,  as  those  of  France  and  Portugal.  It  is  without  the 
least  doubt  spurious ;  but  it  is  of  importance,  as  it  shows  how 
easily  men  could  be  imposed  upon  during  the  middle  ages. 
Though  the  most  heterogeneous  things  are  reported  in  it,  I  can 
prove  that  this  letter  is  on  the  whole  nothing  but  a  bad  copy 
of  the  wonderful  letter  of  Alexander  the  Oreat  to  his  mother 
Olympias,  which  we  find  in  the  work  of  Pseudo-Kallisthenes. 
In  the  voyages  and  travels  of  Sir  John  Maundeville  we  meet 
with  a  very  extensive  and  amusing  account  of  these  tales. 

But  if  that  letter  was  spurious,  repeated  news  and  reports  in- 
duced Pope  Alexander  III.  to  write  a  letter  to  Prester  John. 
It  is  dated  the  27th  September,  1177,  and  signed  at  the  Rialto 
in  Venice.  His  friend  and  physician  Philippus  was  charged  with 
its  safe  delivery;  and  though  this  ambassador  had  previoiisly  been 
in  the  empire  of  the  Korkhan,  and  knew  much  about  it,  we  do 
not  hear  what  became  of  Philippus  and  his  letter.  Poetry  soon 
possessed  itself  of  this  interesting  personage,  and  the  epics  and 
romances  of  the  middle  ages  abound  with  descriptions  of  the 
splendour  of  Prester  John.  In  later  times,  by  a  mistaken  notion, 
Prester  John  was  supposed  to  live  in  Africa,  and  to  be  the 
Abyssinian  Negus.  What  makes  the  Presbyter  Johannes  so 
important  to  history  and  geography  is,  that  the  voyages  which 
led  to  the  discovery  of  the  Cape  of  Oood  Hope  and  of  the  sea- 
way to  the  East  Indies  were  undertaken  in  search  of  that  mys- 
terious Prince,  as  can  be  proved  by  the  orders  given  to  Bartolo- 
meo  Diaz.  The  reason  why  all  former  inquiries  with  respect  to 
Prester  John  led  to  no  result  may  be  ascribed  to  the  circum- 
stance that  more  attention  was  paid  to  the  explanation  of  the 
name  than  to  the  historical  facts.  Thus  Joseph  Scaliger  con- 
tends that  Prester  John,  which  is  in  Italian  Preste  Giani,  stands 
for  the  Persian  word  Prestegiani,  which  (though  it  is  no  Persian 
word  at  all)  should  answer  to  the  Greek  airoardkuco^ )  Padesha 
prestegiani  means  therefore  an  Apostolic  or  Christian  king. 
Another  scholar  explained  it  by  Prester  Chan,  or  the  Chan 
of  the  Adorers  or  Christians.  Tzaga  Zabus  converts  Presbyter 
Johannes  into  Pretiosus  Johannes  (Precious  John,  or  John  pos- 
sessing precious  things) — a  name  still  to  be  found  on  old  maps 
of  Abyssinia.    Cornelius  a  Lapide  contends  that  Preste  or  Prete 

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104  Dr.  GusTAV  Opfert — On  the  Kitai 

is  the  Portuguese  Preto  (black),  and  that  Preto  Joan  means 
Black  John,  a  name  for  the  Abyssinian  Emperor.  Paulus  Guicius 
calls  Prester  John  Pedro  Juan,  or  Peter  John ;  and  the  famous 
scholar  Sebastian  Miinster,  a  contemporary  of  Luther,  makes 
of  him  a  Presbyter  Kohan  or  Presbyter  Kohn.  According  to  a 
French  explanation  Presbyter  Johannes  is  the  Dalai  Lama; 
Preste  corresponds  to  Lama,-  and  Criani  means  Dalai  or  Sea, 
World  (Persian  Gehan),  so  that  "Dalai  Lama*'  signifies  a 
Priest  over  a  large  sea  or  empire,  a  sort  of  Presbyter  Universalis. 
Joseph  Stocklein  describes  him  as  the  Presbyter  or  Great  Lama  of 
Yunnan,  the  great  Province  near  China,  for  Lama  means  in  the 
Tatarian  languageCross ;  and  as  it  is  a  great  dignity  to  be  a  Grand 
Cross  of  a  European  Order,  so  it  is  likewise  in  Asia,  where  the 
Great  Lama  or  Grand  Cross  is  the  highest  priest.  The  diflFer- 
ence  of  opinion  is  still  more  glaring,  if  we  remember  that 
Samuel  Lee,  in  his  edition  of  the  travels  of  Ibn  Batuta,  makes 
of  him  a  Ferishta  Jan,  or  John  the  Angel,  while  others  regard 
him  as  John  the  Slave.  The  great  geographer  Karl  Bitter,  iden- 
tifying Prester  John  with  the  Keraite  Prince  Ung  Khan,  says 
how  easily  could  a  Chinese  title,  as  Vang  Khan  or  Vang  Rex,  be 
altered  to  Um  Can,  Ung  Khan,  Can  Khan  till  it  became  Joan 
Rex, — a  proceeding  somewhat  similar  to  the  derivation  of  fox 
from  alopex. 

Otto  of  Freisingen  connects  Prester  John  with  the  Three  Holy 
Kings.  He  says  that  he  was  a  descendant  of  the  Magi.  It  ia 
perhaps  not  generally  known  that  in  later  times  it  was  believed 
that  the  Magi  came  from  Eastern  Asia,  as  we  read,  e.  g.,  in  the 
Oriental  history  of  the  Armenian  Prince  Hayton  and  in  other 
chronicles.  In  the  legends  of  the  Three  Kings,  it  is  stated  that 
Melchior  came  from  Nubia,  Balthasar  frt)m  Saba,  and  Caspar 
was  king  of  Tharsis.  These  names  occur  first,  as  far  as  I  know, 
in  Bede ;  for  it  is  difficult  to  prove  that  the  chronicle  of  Flavius 
Dexter,  a  friend  of  St.  Jerome,  which  also  contains  these  names^ 
was  really  written  at  that  time  and  was  not  a  later  work*  These 
names  now  seem  to  me  to  indicate  the  countries  from  which 
the  Magi  were  supposed  to  have  come ;  Melchior  is  called  the 
king  of  Nubia,  or  the  king  of  the  Nile ;  Malchijeor  is  a  verbal 
translation  of  the  latter  (Jeor  being  the  Hebrew  name  for  the 
Nile).  Balthasar  is  naturally  Belshazzar,  and  Caspar  is  Cas-Bar, 
the  king  of  Central  Asia,  of  Tharsis,  or  the  Casia  regio,  where 
we  have  to  this  day  Kashmir,  Kashgar,  &;c.  Thus  we  see  that 
these  names  express  the  countries  in  which  the  kings  are  said  to 
have  reigned.  It  is  quite  different,  however,  with  that  set  of 
names  which,  besides  others,  are  mentioned  by  Petrus  Comestor 
in  his  Scholastica  historia,  viz.  Apellius,  Amerus,  and  Damasius, 
— ^names  which,  in  my  opinion,  are  derived  from  the  prophet 

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and  Kara-Kitai.  105 

Isaiah  (chap.  viii.  v.  4) .  Damasius  is  derived  in  this  instance 
from  Damask,  Amerus  from  Samaria,  and  Apelliiis  stands  for 
the  king  of  Assyria,  who  is  explained  by  Tertullian  and  other 
early  fathers  to  be  the  Diabolus  or  Apollyon. 

By  some  German  poets  the  legend  of  Prester  John  has  also 
been  mixed  up  with  that  of  the  San-Gral,  Wolfram  von  Eschen- 
bach  and  Albrecht  von  ScharflRenberg  contend  that  the  San  Gral 
went  to  Prester  John  when  the  West  was  not  deemed  holy 
enough  to  keep  the  precious  treasure.  In  the  Parcival  of  Wol- 
fram, the  Gral  is  described  as  a  stone  by  which  the  knights  o 
the  Gral  are  fed,  with  which  the  Phoenix  bums  himself,  ana 
whose  knights,  who  are  called  Templers,  defend  the  castle  of 
Salvatierra. 

Salvatierra,  also  called  Caatellum  Salutis,  lies  in  the  Mancha 
amidst  the  mountains  of  the  Sierra  Morena,  and  was  the  seat  of 
the  knights  from  1198  to  1210,  when  after  a  most  obstinate  de- 
fence the  fortress  was  taken  by  the  Khalif  Mohammed  the  Green. 
These  examples  give  us  an  insight  into  the  mode  in  which  his- 
torians and  poets  formerly  were  wont  to  amalgamate  historical 
events  with  mythical  traditions  and  personal  inventions. 

The  history  of  the  Kitai  shows  in  an  interesting  manner  how, 
even  in  half-civilized  ages,  the  most  distant  nations  are  brought 
in  contact  with  each  other,  and  how  legends  may  arise  from  mis- 
stated facts,  and  influence  for  some  time  the  destiny  of  powerful 
realms.  The  Kitai  gave  their  name  to  Asia;  the  victory  of 
their  Korkhan  over  Sultan  Sanjar  originated  the  famous  and 
influential  personage  of  Prester  John,  who  was  celebrated  in 
prose  and  in  verse.  To  find  him  was  one  of  the  chief  objects 
of  the  French  and  Papal  ambassadors  to  the  Court  of  the  Great 
Khan,  and  was  in  later  centuries  the  principal  causes  of  the 
voyages  of  the  Portuguese  navigators,  and  of  their  discovery  both 
of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  of  the  sea-way  to  the  East 
Indies. 

Discussion. 

Mr.  Htde  Clarke  said  that  Dr.  Oppert  had  given  them,  in  his 
enumeration  of  the  absurd  etymologies  assigned  by  men  of  learning 
to  Prester  John,  a  caution  as  to  that  abuse  of  comparative  philology 
not  uncommon  in  the  present  day,  and  which  sought  to  establish 
ethnological  relationships  by  the  association  of  incompatible  roots, 
while  in  his  own  instance  he  had  shown  the  true  services  that  phi- 
lology may  lender  to  ethnology. 

Mr.  Clarke  observed  that  Kitai,  under  the  form  of  Cathayy  had 
been  made  a  popular  name  by  our  poets,  and  was  down  to  the  seven- 
teenth century  a  well-known  term.  The  use  of  colours  and  metals 
as  distinctions  of  nations  deserved  comment.  From  what  he  had 
seen  he  believed  the  Black  and  White  cap  still  distinguished  tribes 

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lOG  Col.  A.  Lane  ¥ox—Note  on  the 

and  classes  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  Caucasus,  opposite  to  the 
Kitai.  He  concurred  with  Dr.  Oppert  in  believing  that  the  applica- 
tion of  the  terms  Manchoo,  Mongol,  Tongoos,  and  Turk  must  have 
been  interchangeable  in  many  cases,  or  that  they  are  much  mixed  up. 
The  languages  are  distinct  (except  some  accidental  identity  of  com- 
municated roots),  but  there  is  a  c;eneral  grammatical  affinity  suggest- 
ing relationship.  He  believed  they  might  be  regarded  as  holding  the 
same  relationship  within  themselves  as  the  more  southern  groups,  the 
Tibetan  (including  the  Caucasian),  the  Chinese,  and  Indo-Chinese. 

Dr.  Oppert  hi^  called  attention  to  an  interesting  ethnological 
fact,  that  the  Kitai  having  once  exercised  a  great  empire  have  now 
dwindled  to  50,000  souls.  Mr.  Clarke  considered  this  to  be  due  to 
the  fact  that  a  race  of  small  numerical  resources  had  become  domi- 
nant over  many  others ;  the  certain  result  in  such  cases  is  the  decline 
of  the  dominant  race,  if  not,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Bomans,  extinction. 
A  dominant  race  can  only  be  maintained  by  large  and  compact 
bodies  of  its  members,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Turks,  the  Magyars,  and 
the  English,  but  when  these  are  diffused  over  greater  numbers  they 
must  decline. 


The  following  note  was  then  read  by  the  author  : — 

XI.  Note  on  the  Use  of  the  New-Zealand  Mere. 
By  Col.  A.  Lane  Fox,  F.S.A. 

In  a  paper  which  I  read  last  year  at  the  United  Service  Institution 
upon  "  Primitive  Warfare/'  the  subject  of  which  had  reference 
to  the  origin  and  development  of  the  weapons  of  savages  and 
early  races,  I  ventured  an  opinion  that  the  Mere  or  Pattoo-Pat> 
too  of  the  New  2ealanders  ought  to  be  classed  rather  with  axes 
or  thrusting- weapons  than  with  clubs ;  and  that  in  all  probability 
this  weapon  derived  its  origin  from  the  stone  celt  which  is  well 
known  to  be  common  to  those  regions,  as,  indeed,  it  is  to  the 
stone  period  of  nearly  every  part  of  the  globe. 

My  reasons  for  this  opinion  were  the  following : — 

First,  that  it  is  usuaUy  composed  of  jade  or  some  other  hard 
stone, — materials  of  which  the  celt  is  also  constructed  in  New 
Zealand,  Australia,  New  Caledonia,  and  the  adjoining  isles. 

Secondly,  that  the  Mere  is  not  unfrequently  ground  to  a  sharp 
edge  at  the  end  like  a  celt,  a  form  which  would  not  have  been 
given  it  unless  it  was  either  itself  used  for  striking  at  the  end, 
or  derived  from  a  similar  implement  so  used. 

Thirdly,  that  amongst  the  various  forms  of  the  New-Zealand 
Mere,  all  the  connecting-links  between  it  and  the  celt  are  found ; 
one  specimen  in  the  Christy  Collection  (fig.  3),  believed  to  be 
irom  New  Zealand,  has  a  straight  sharp  edge  at  the  end,  and 
could  only  have  been  used  as  a  celt.  Many  others,  as  for  ex- 
ample, fig.  4,  in  the  Christy  Collection,  resemble  celts  that  are 


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Use  of  the  New-Zealand  Mere, 


107 


slightly  rounded  at  the  small  end  to  receive  the  hand ;  and  the 
iiltimate  perfection  of  the  weapon  with  a  carved  knob  at  the 
small  end  (fig.  5)  appears  to  be  merely  a  development  of  the 
earlier  forms. 

Fourthly,  that  similar  stone  clubs  are  found  in  Ireland,  one 
of  which,  from  my  Collection,  is  here  given  (fig.  6),  and  another 


Fig.  3. 


Fig.  4. 


Fig.  6. 


Fig.  6. 


is  figured  in  the  '  Ulster  Journal  of  Archaeology'* ;  these  are 
evidently  stone  celts  similarly  cut  at  the  small  end  to  fit  the 
hand. 

Fifthly,  that  analogy  would  lead  one  to  suppose  that  so  pecu- 
liar a  weapon  as  the  Mere,  not  being  the  best  adapted,  either  as 
to  its  form  or  composition,  to  be  used  as  a  hand-club,  must  have 
been  derived  from  some  other  implement  of  traditional  usage 
amongst  the  people,  it  being  a  fact  capable  of  demonstration  that 
nearly  all  the  weapons  of  savages  have  derived  their  form  from 
an  historical  development,  and  are  capable  of  being  traced  back 
through  their  varieties  to  earlier  and  simpler  forms,  tvith  as  much 
certainty  as  the  various  forms  of  animal  and  vegetable  life. 

Some  time  after  I  had  read  my  paper,  and  before  it  had  been 
published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Institution,  Sir  Charles  W.  Dilke 
happened  to  see  my  collection  of  prehistoric  antiquities,  and  in 
looking  over  the  series  of  stone  celts  from  various  countries, 
amongst  which  I  had  included  some  of  these  Meres,  according 
to  the  classification  which  I  had  adopted,  he  took  up  one  of  them 
and  said  to  me,  "  Do  you  know  the  way  in  which  the  New  Zea- 
landers  use  this  weapon  ?  They  do  not  strike  with  it  like  a  club 
or  sword,  but  use  it  in  prodding  the  enemy  behind  the  ear  with 
the  sharp  end  ;"  and  he  then  told  me  that  he  had  obtained  this 
information  from  a  New-Zealand  chief,  when  travelling  in  New 
Zealand. 

I  afterwards  mentioned  the  subject  to  Dr.  Hooker,  and  he, 
having  been  struck  by  the  circumstance,  determined  to  write  to 
New  Zealand  and  obtain  further  information  on  this  point  from 

•  Ulster  Journal  of  Archwology,  No.  18,  April  1857. 

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108  Col.  A.  L^NE  Fox— Note  on  the 

the  old  M aories.     The  result  has  been  the  following  correspon- 
dence : — 

Dr.  Hooker  to  Col.  Lane  Fox. 

"Sept.  30th,  1809. 
"  Dear  Col.  Lane  Fox. — I  wrote  to  New  Zealand  respecting 
the  use  of  the  Mere  as  a  thrusting-weapon^  and  have  received 
the  enclosed  answer.  If  you  think  it  worth  while,  will  you  com- 
municate it,  or  a  copy  of  it,  to  the  Ethnological  Society  and 
return  me  the  original. 

"  Ever  truly  yours, 

"Jos.  Hooker/' 

Eev.  Jas.  W.  Stack  to  Dr.  Haast. 

"'  St.  Stephens,  Kaiapoi, 
May  17th,  1869. 

"  My  Dear  Haast, — I  trust  you  will  forgive  me  for  leaving 
your  kind  note  so  long  unacknowledged.  With  regard  to  Dr. 
Hooker's  inquiry,  I  have  obtained  the  necessary  information  for 
you  from  the  old  Maories.  The  Mere  was,  as  he  conjectures, 
a  ^  thrusting-instrument.'  The  warrior  before  delivering  the 
thrust  generally  seized  his  enemy  by  the  hair,  and  then  drove 
the  point*  of  the  Mere  either  into  the  temple  or  at  the  angle 
of  the  jaw  just  below  the  ear,  or  at  the  back  of  the  head.  A 
down  stroke  or  a  blow  with  the  sharp  edge  would  have  shattered 
the  Mere.  It  was  grasped  with  the  thumb  towards  the  blade. 
If  I  have  omitted  any  point  please  let  me  know. 

"  Believe  me,  faithfullv  yours, 

"  James' W.  Stack." 
"  To  Dr.  Haast, 
"  Catiferbury,  New  Zealand." 

From  this  letter,  which  entirely  corroborates  the  information 
received  from  Sir  Charles  Dilke,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Mere  is 
used  exactly  in  the  way  that  a  stone  celt  or  any  other  weapon  of 
the  axe- type  would  be  used,  if  held  in  the  hand  without  a  handle. 
I  am  therefore  confirmed  in  my  conjecture  that  it  must  have 
derived  its  origin  from  the  celt,  and  probably  from  a  period 
when  the  celt  was  used  in  this  manner,  perhaps  before  the  idea  of 
using  it  in  a  handle  had  been  thought  of.  As  these  weapons  are 
known  to  have  been  handed  down  as  heirlooms,  and  to  be  much 
prized  by  the  chiefs  as  symbols  of  office,  they  have  probably  (as 
not  unusually  happens  in  like  cases)  retained  their  primitive 
cliaracter,  and  may  therefore  be  r^arded  as  belonging  to  the 
class  of  objects  which  Mr.  E.  B.  Tylor  has  aptly  termed  "  sur- 
vivals."    We  have  not  far  to  go  to  find  the  stone  or  jade  celt 

•  It  should  rather  be  the  endj  for  the  Mere  is  not  pointed. — ^A.  L.  F. 


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Use  of  the  New-Zealand  Mere,  109 

actually  used  at  the  present  time  in  the  manner  I  have  described. 
Fig.  7  is  a  drawing  showing  the  manner  in  which  the  South 
p.  -  Australians  use  their  celts,  grasping  the  small  end 
in  the  hand  and  prodding  with  the  broad  sharp  end, 
the  fore  arm  of  the  holder  itself  supplying  the  place 
of  a  wooden  handle.  The  drawing  was  kindly  sent 
tQ  me  by  Mr.  Hodder  Westropp,  and  was  sketched 
by  an  eye-witness,  Mr.  Chas.  Seymour. 
I  believe  that  the  evidence  aflforded  by  the  study  of  weapons 
and  implements  will  eventually  prove  to  be  of  the  utmost  value 
as  a  means  of  traaing  back  the  connexion  of  races  and  the 
sources  of  early  culture,  owing  to  the  persistent  manner  in  which 
all  savages  preserve  their  ancient  types.  Whilst  language,  hav- 
ing no  material  existence  previously  to  the  introduction  of  writ- 
ing, is  liable  to  constant  change  as  the  words  are  passed  &om 
mouth  to  mouth ;  so  much  so  that  amongst  the  Polynesian  and 
Melanesian  races,  the  Bishop  of  Wellington  has  told  us,  there 
are  no  fewer  than  200  languages,  differing  from  each  other  as 
much  as  Dutch  differs  from  German  ;  these  implements,  having 
been  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation,  or  having 
been  otherwise  preserved  in  their  original  forms,  constitute  the 
most  enduring  memorials  of  the  ancestors  of  the  people,  and  are 
often  found  to  present  strong  family  likenesses  in  regions  re- 
motely separated. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  trace  the  Mere  with  certainty  out  of 
New  Zealand ;  but  it  is  worthy  of  mention  that  Dr.  Klemm,  in  his 
work  on  the  Weapons  and  Implements  of  Savages*,  gives  an 
illustration  of  a  stone  Mere,  which  he  attributes  to  the  ancient 
Peruvians  (fig.  8) .  Its  identity  with  the  New-Zealand  Mere  is 
p.  g  evident ;  but  little  reliance  can  be  placed  on  an 
^*  '  isolated  example.  Some  of  the  small  wooden 
clubs  from  British  Guiana  very  much  resemble  the 
Mere,  and  those  constructed  of  bone  from  Nootka 
Sound  (fig.  9)  still  more  closely  resemble  the  New- 
Zealand  weapon.  I  also  exhibited  a  wooden  club  of 
the  same  form  from  New  Guinea,  the  ornamenta- 
tion upon  which  is  so  perfectly  identical  with  that 
of  the  New-Zealand  canoes  as  to  leave  no  doubt 
of  a  connexion  between  them.  Dr.  Klemm  also 
mentions  some  Meres  from  the  New  Hebrides; 
but  I  have  not  been  able  to  verify  that,  and  I 
believe  it  to  be  a  mistake  of  the  author. 


•  '  Werkzeuge  und  WRffen,'  by  Dr.  Gustav  Klemm,  p.  2G. 

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110     Dr.  Julius  Haast — On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains 

The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  Hon.  Secretary : — 

XII.  On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains  discovered  in  New  Zea- 
land^ and  on  the  Nature  of  the  Deposits  in  which  they 
occurred.     By  Dr.  Julius  Haast^  F,R.S. 

The  title  of  these  notes  might  be  considered  scarcely  appropriate 
if  the  term  prehistoric  were  applied  exclusively  to  works  of  art 
discovered  in  countries  which,  like  those  of  Europe  and  Asia, 
possess  historical  records  of  ancient  date  on  which  dependence 
may  be  placed.  New  Zealand,  having  been  inhabited  by  Euro- 
pean settlers  only  for  the  last  thirty  or  forty  years,  and  having 
been  before  that  time  exclusively  the  abode  of  savages,  has  no 
such  history ;  and  therefore  the  term  is  here  used  in  a  geological 
sense  to  designate  remains  of  human  workmanship  found  iu 
beds  of  quaternary  formation,  the  age  of  which  may  be  coeval 
with  strata  of  the  northern  hemisphere,  in  which  similar  objects 
have  been  discovered.  These  deposits  are,  moreover,  of  so  curi- 
ous a  nature  that  a  description  of  their  mode  of  formation  may 
not  be  without  interest  even  to  the  European  geologist. 

But  before  entering  upon  this  subject  I  may  perhaps  be  per- 
mitted to  glance  at  the  traditions  of  the  native  population  of 
these  islands  in  reference  to  their  origin  :  these  are,  however,  of 
a  very  contradictory  character.  According  to  the  generaUy 
accepted  traditions  of  the  natives,  which  are  apparently  well 
sustained  by  the  genealogies  of  many  tribes  in  several  parts  of 
these  islands,  the  ancestors  of  the  Maori  race  arrived  here  in  a 
few  large  canoes,  about  five  hundred  years  ago,  from  an  island 
called  Hawaiki,  situated  in  a  northerly  direction  from  New 
Zealand.  Increasing  rapidly,  they  spread  in  all  directions  in 
the  Northern  Island  where  they  first  landed ;  they  then  crossed 
Cook^s  Straits  and  peopled  also  the  Southern  Island.  Con- 
sidering the  natural  productions  of  New  Zealand,  the  compara- 
tive scarcity  of  animal  and  vegetable  substances  available  for 
the  sustenance  of  human  life,  and  the  savage  and  warlike  cha- 
racter of  the  Maories,  I  do  not  think  that  in  so  comparatively 
short  a  time  these  few  immigrants  could  have  grown  into  so 
numerous  a  population  as  was  found  here  when  New  Zealand 
was  first  visited  by  Europeans.  The  native  population  was  then 
estimated  at  several  hundred  thousands. 

The  same  traditions  state  also  that  the  immigrants  found  the 
islands  uninhabited,  and  consequently  there  could  have  been 
no  contest  with  aboriginal  inhabitants.  But  the  fact  that  the 
Maories  are  a  mixed  race,  in  which  Malayan,  Papuan,  and  (in  a 
minor  degree)  Mongolian  blood  are  apparently  blended,  seems 
to  forbid  such  an  assumption,  although  its  advocates  suggest 
the  possibility  that  the  present  inhabitants  of  New  Zealand 

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discovered  in  New  Zealand.  Ill 

mighty  during  their  migration^  have  mixed  freely  with  other 


races*. 

Other  inquirers  state  that  these  accounts  are  erroneous^  and 
that^  according  to  other  and  more  reliable  traditions^  the  present 
native  inhabitants  in  New  Zealand  are  a  mixed  race ;  that  the 
original  Papuan  population  intermarried  with  the  more  civilized 
newcomers  from  some  island  or  islands  in  the  north-east  Pacific 
ocean ;  and  that  all  traces  of  the  original  language  of  the  former 
have  been  lost. 

These  contradictory  accounts  are  foreign  to  the  scope  of  these 
notes^  and  I  do  not  propose  to  discuss  them  except  in  so  far  as 
they  may  affect  the  question  of  the  relative  age  of  flint  or  stone 
implements  found  in  New  Zealand ;  but  I  may  at  once  state  my 
conviction  that  these  islands  have  been  inhabited  much  longer 
than  the  current  traditions  of  the  so*called  Hawaiki  immigrants 
would  suggest. 

I  hope,  when  publishing  hereafter  the  results  of  my  excava- 
tions of  Dinomis  remains^  to  prove  convincingly  that  these  spe- 
cies have  been  extinct  much  longer  than  has  been  generally 
admitted.  I  shall  then  also  show  more  fully  that  the  Maories 
have  not  even  a  tradition  about  them^  and  that  the  huge  birds 
had  doubtless  disappeared  long  before  the  race  which  at  present 
inhabits  these  islands  arrived  here,  or  that  the  Moa  has  been  so 
long  extinct  that  every  record  of  it  has  been  lost. 

Several  of  my  friends  (amongst  them  the  Rev.  James  Stack, 
of  Kaiapoi,  Mr.  A.  Maekay,  Native  Commissioner  in  this  island, 
and  several  other  gentlemen  well  acquainted  with  the  natives) 
have  at  my  request  made  careful  inquiries  on  the  subject,  and 
all  without  exception  have  foimd,  in  sifting  the  Maori  traditions, 
that  beyond  the  fact  that  the  Moa  was  a  bird  and  that  its  fea- 
thers resembled  those  of  the  Kiwi  or  Apteryx,  the  natives  did 
not  possess  any  information  about  it. 

*  I  extract  the  following  passage  from  a  letter  from  my  friend  the  Rev. 
James  Stack,  of  Kaiapoi,  of  whom  I  made  inquiries  on  the  subject : — *^  The 
subject  of  your  in(^uirj^  is  one^  in  which  I  have  taken  some  interest,  but  the 
result  of  my  investigations  leai^  me  to  very  different  conclusions  from  those 
of  Mr.  Taylor  and  others.  From  inquiries  here  and  in  the  north  I  am  per- 
suaded tliat  there  is  not  a  shadow  of  evidence  to  prove  the  existence  of  an 
aboriginal  race  in  New  Zealand  when  the  Maories  arrived  five  hundred  years 
ago. 

**  The  existence  of  such  a  race  at  the  Chathams,  coupled  with  the  fact  that 
great  diversities  of  expression  are  noticeable  amonffst  the  Maories,  may  suggest 
the  probability  of  their  having  found  the  islaucu  preoccupied,  fiut  Maori 
traditions  are  all  against  the  supposition. 

"  K  any  race  inhabited  these  islands  prior  to  the  Maori  occupation  of  them, 
that  race  was  extinct  and  left  no  visible  trace  of  its  existence.  The  variety  of 
features  existing  amongst  the  native  race  I  attribute  to  their  intermingling 
with  Papuans,  Malays,  and  Mongolians  in  their  progress  to  these  islands. 


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112      Dr.  Julius  Haast — On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains 

The  Maories^  moreover,  attribute  it8  extinction  to  a  great 
fire,  called  the  Fire  of  Tamatea,  which  they  assert  swept  the 
Canterbury  plains  about  five  hundred  years  ago,  the  smoulder- 
ing remains  of  which  may,  as  they  think,  be  still  seen  in  the 
Rakaia  Gorge.  These  so-called  smouldering  remains  are,  how- 
ever, seams  of  lignite  in  combustion,  and  this  fact  alone  proves 
the  legendary  character  of  their  traditions.  The  proverb  he  Moa 
kai  hau  {"  di  wind-eating  Moa^^)  is  the  only  trace  which  the 
Rev.  J.  Stack  could  find  of  any  allusion  in  the  sayings  of  the 
ancient  inhabitants  to  the  existence  and  habits  of  these  huge 
birds.  If  it  be  true,  as  I  have  been  informed,  that  it  is  a  favourite 
habit  of  the  African  Ostrich  to  stand  with  its  beak  wide  open 
towards  the  wind,  such  a  coincidence  in  the  habits  of  two  allied 
huge  terrestrial  birds  would  certainly  be  very  curious,  and  woidd 
clearly  show  that,  although  all  other  tracer  have  been  lost,  the 
proverbial  saying  has  survived,  and  moreover  it  would  compel 
us  to  believe  in  its  correctness. 

Concerning  the  traditions  on  this  subject  in  the  North  Island, 
the  Bev.  W.  Colenso,  writing  in  1842,  showed  convincingly  that 
no  value  attached  to  the  native  accounts ;  in  fact  it  seems  to  me 
evident  that  the  present  native  race,  unable  otherwise  to  account 
for  the  huge  remains  of  the  Moa  found  sometimes  washed  out 
from  the  postpliocene  alluvium,  and  at  other  times  scattered 
about  on  the  open  plains,  took  refuge  in  miraculous  legends. 

On  comparing  the  Moa-bones  with  those  of  other  living  spe- 
cies of  birds,  they  found,  undoubtedly,  that  in  their  principal 
characteristics  they  most  resembled  those  of  the  Kiwi  or  Apte- 
ryx,  which  were  sometimes  mixed  with  them ;  and  this  fact  may 
account  for  the  tradition  concerning  the  similarity  of  the  fea- 
thers. In  drawing  a  conclusion  from  our  present  knowledge  of 
the  subject,  there  is  the  greatest  probability  that  at  the  time  the 
Maories  arrived,  the  race  which  hunted  the  Moa  was  either  ex- 
tinct or  had  dwindled  down  to  a  small  remnant  living  in  the 
interior  of  the  South  Island. 

The  new  comers  must,  moreover,  have  been  greatly  advanced 
in  comparison  with  the  original  inhabitants,  as  they  were  able 
to  build  canoes  and  make  implements  for  the  purposes  of  agri- 
culture. 

The  unpolished  stone  implements  found  in  the  Moa-ovens  ^ 

*  I  shall  call  the  race  which  was  contemporary  with  the  Dinomis,  and 
in  whof^e  cooking-places  or  ovens  the  remains  of  those  huge  birds  were 
found,  Moa-hunters.  These  Moa-himters,  like  the  present  native  race,  dug 
shallow  pits  in  the  around  in  which  they  cooked  their  food  by  means  of 
heated  stones,  on  which  water  was  poured  in  order  to  generate  steam.  In 
several  localities  in  this  island  unusually  lar^e  ovens  of  this  description  have 
been  discovered,  in  or  near  which  split  and  sometimes  charred  Moa-bones 
are  found,  togetner  with  chips  of  stone  used  as  knives. 


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discovered  in  New  Zealand.  113 

resemble,  if  we  judge  from  the  way  they  are  manufactured, 
rather  those  of  the  Amiens  beds  than  the  true  Maori  imple- 
ments, which  are  highly  finished  and  polished.  Those  which 
are  found  in  old  burial-grounds,  pahs,  battle-fields,  and  some- 
times even  deep  below  the  ground  are  all  of  the  latter  character, 
and  are  quite  unlike  the  primitive  stone  implements  of  the  Moa- 
hunter. 

I  also  wish  to  point  out  that  the  stone  implements  I  am  about 
to  describe,  notwithstanding  their  great  age,  resemble  more 
closely  in  their  form  and  polish  the  Maori  implements  than 
those  of  the  Moa-hunter.  May  not  this  be  an  additional  proof 
that  the  different  species  of  Dinornis  have  been  extinct  for  ages  ? 
There  is  at  the  same  time  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  the  extinc- 
tion of  the  Moa  was  principally  caused  by  the  agency  of  man, 
either  directly  by  being  used  as  food,  or  indirectly  by  being 
driven  from  their  genial  feeding-places  amongst  the  grass  and 
scrub  of  the  plains  and  low  hills  into  the  dense  forest  or  the 
mountain-regions,  where  the  food  necessary  for  their  subsistence 
and  the  conditions  needful  for  their  reproduction  could  not  be 
obtained. 

Comparing  the  degree  of  advancement  of  New  Zealand  at  the 
time  of  its  colonization  with  that  of  Europe,  we  are  led  to  con- 
clude that  it  was  then  as  far  advanced  as  Europe  had  been  in 
the  neolithic  age,  while  the  Bruce- Bay  stone  implements  here- 
after to  be  described,  and  still  more  the  chipped  and  unpolished 
stone  implements  of  the  Moa-hunter,  represent  the  far  more 
remote  time  of  the  pateolithic  period  of  the  mother  country. 
But  another  explanation  might  be  offered  from  the  few  data  at 
our  command,  namely,  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  coast,  being 
immigrants  from  more  advanced  countries,  already  used  polished 
stone  implements,  whilst  the  older  inhabitants  of  the  country 
living  in  the  interior,  whither  they  had  followed  the  Dinornis, 
were  still  in  a  more  primitive  state  of  civilization.  And  is  it 
not  possible  that  in  Europe  also  similar  conditions  may  have 
been  in  operation?  so  that  two  different  races  may  have  existed 
contemporaneously — a  primitive  one  in  the  forest  fastnesses  and 
near  the  lakes  in  central  Europe,  and  a  more  advanced  one  in 
the  coast  regions  or  along  the  banks  of  great  rivers ;  the  new- 
comers having  either  forcibly  taken  possession  of  the  country,  or 
found  it  deserted  as  no  longer  offering  good  hunting-grounds  to 
its  first  inhabitants. 

In  a  paper  printed  in  the  Journal  of  the  Geological  Society 
of  London  ^,  I  have  treated  of  the  glacial  deposits  at  the  west 
coast  of  this  island,  and  shown  that  many  morainic  accumula. 

•  Vol.  xxiii.  1867,  p.  34'2. 

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114    Dr.  Julius  Haast — On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains 

tions  not  only  reached  the  shores  of,  but  also  entered  into  the 
sea,  where  they  still  form  bold  headlands.  Many  of  them  ex- 
hibit all  the  characteristics  of  lateral  or  medial,  and  others  of 
terminal  moraines.  In  the  small  sketch-map  accompanying  the 
paper  referred  to,  I  have  marked  in  general  outlines  how  far 
these  remarkable  moraines  reached  and  where  they  formed  the 
principal  headlands.  Among  them  are  two  conspicuous  bluffs 
called  the  Makowiho  and  Heratanewha  points,  which  are  the 
two  lateral  moraines  of  an  enormous  glacier  formerly  descending 
from  the  western  slopes  of  the  southern  Alps  by  the  Makowiho 
and  Waitaha  valleys.  It  is  evident  from  the  present  configura- 
tion of  that  part  of  the  country,  that  when  the  huge  glacier  had 
retreated  within  the  ranges,  its  lateral  moraines  stood  out  boldly 
in  the  sea  Like  two  walls.  At  that  period  a  shallow  bay  existed 
between  them,  washing  the  western  foot  of  the  southern  Alps. 
In  this  bay  two  rivers,  the  Makowiho  and  Waitaha  (the  outlets 
of  the  retreating  glaciers),  emptied  themselves,  flowing  along  or 
near  the  two  lateral  moraines,  and  bringing  with  them  ample 
material  to  advance  their  deltas  in  the  bay.  At  the  same  time 
another  agency  was  at  work  obliterating  that  shallow  bay  by 
forming  it  into  a  lagoon.  Littoral  beds  were  deposited  by 
marine  currents  travelling  fix)m  south  to  north,  assisted  by  the 
powerful  north-western  and  north-eastern  gales,  which  in  their 
turn  assisted,  by  forming  a  very  heavy  surf,  to  throw  up  a  large 
bank  of  sand  and  shingle  between  the  two  walls,  crossing  from 
near  the  extremity  of  Makowiho  point  in  the  north  to  the 
northern  side  of  the  Heratanewha  wall,  about  a  mile  from  its 
western  extremity.  The  two  rivers  continuing  to  deposit  their 
shingle  in  the  lagoon  thus  enclosed,  soon  formed  shingle-beds 
along  the  two  walls,  reaching  in  time  the  littoral  deposits,  and 
leaving  in  the  centre  a  shallow  lake,  which  in  its  turn  was  gra- 
dually in  part  silted  up  and  in  part  filled  by  decaying  vegetable 
matter.  This  former  lake-bed  still  forms  a  plain,  severid  miles 
in  breadth  and  length,  covered  with  a  scanty  vegetation  of 
sphaffnumy  sedges,  rushes,  and  ferns  peculiar  to  such  marshy 
soil ;  while  the  surroimding  sides,  along  the  sea,  along  the  river- 
beds, and  on  the  mountain-slopes,  are  clothed  with  a  high  and 
luxuriant  forest. 

The  small  geological  sketch-map  (PI.  XII.  fig.  1)  will  give, 
better  than  any  description,  an  insight  into  the  peculiar  struc- 
ture of  this  portion  of  New  Zealand. 

When  the  highly  profitable  gold-fields  in  the  pliocene  allu- 
vium,  and  in  the  river-beds  crossing  it  near  Hokitika,  were  all 
taken  up  by  diggers  who  had  arrived  in  great  numbers  on  the 
west  coast,  the  rest  sought  paying  claims  in  other  directions, 
and  many  set  to  work  in  localities  where  scarcely  any  one  would 

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discovered  in  New  Zealand.  115 

have  thought  that  payable  ground  existed.  Amongst  these 
localities  were  the  sea-beaches^  where  in  many  instances  for- 
tunes have  been  made  by  their  lucky  owners.  These  sea- 
beaches  were  generally  situated  between  two  headlands^  often 
several  miles  distant  from  each  other^  and  where  the  slopes  of 
the  sea-bottom  and  of  the  shores  were  shallow.  Here,  after 
working  through  the  beds  of  shingle  and  sand  near  high- water 
mark,  layers  of  "black  sand''  are  frequently  found,  reposing 
mostly  on  shingle-beds  cemented  into  a  conglomerate  by  oxide 
of  iron.  When  the  deposits  were  in  such  a  position  that  the 
tides  did  not  interfere  with  the  labours  of  the  miners,  several 
beds  were  generaUy  found  below  the  first,  often  of  equal  or  even 
greater  richness ;  but  owing  to  the  impossibility  of  keeping  the 
water  out,  these  lower  beds  have  not  hitherto  received  that 
attention  which  they  deserve.  Instead  of  sinking  lower  down 
in  their  claims  near  the  sea-shore,  the  miners  have  gone  inland 
seeking  another  "  lead,''  as  it  is  technically  termed. 

During  my  last  journey  along  the  west  coast  of  this  island,  in 
March  and  April  1868,  I  had  an  opportunity  of  observing  how 
these  auriferous  beds  were  being  formed,  and  I  found  that  some 
of  the  diggers  were,  from  a  practical  point  of  view,  already 
well  acquainted  with  their  mode  of  formation.  Thus,  on  one 
portion  of  the  coast  between  Makowiho  point  and  the  mouth  of 
the  Karangarua  river,  called  Hunt's  beach,  the  sea-coast  is  very 
shallow  and  sandy.  Here  during  fine  south-westerly  weather 
large  masses  of  sand  are  accumulating  in  and  above  the  tidal 
boundaries.  At  such  times  only  light  winds  are  blowing,  and  the 
surf  IB  consequently  of  no  great  force ;  but  when  an  occasional 
north-west  or  north-east  storm  rages  along  the  coast,  the  masses 
of  sand  deposited  during  the  preceding  fine  weather  are,  as  it 
were,  undei^oing  a  process  of  natural  sluicing.  Generally  the 
greater  portion  of  the  sand  is  removed,  but  in  favourable  spots, 
sheltered  either  by  a  slight  indentation  in  the  coast-line  or  by 
some  large  pieces  of  drifted  timber,  its  heavier  particles  remain ; 
these  consist  of  black  iron -sand  (both  magnetic  and  titaniferous 
oxide  of  iron)  associated  with  small  garnets  and  with  gold. 
These  black  layers  are  often  one  to  two  inches  thick,  and  repose 
upon  coarse  quartzose  sands. 

As  soon  as  a  storm  has  subsided,  the  "  beachers "  or  '^  sur- 
facers,"  as  they  are  called,  examine  the  coast-line  near  their 
houses.  When  they  come  upon  one  of  the  rich  spots,  the  fine 
particles  of  gold  being  often  visible  to  the  naked  eye,  they  at 
once  remove  the  black  layer  of  sand  out  of  the  reach  of  the  tide, 
and  wash  it  when  convenient. 

During  their  search  for  beach-diggings  the  miners  reached 
Bruce  Bay.     There  they  found  three  "  leads  "  running  parallel 

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116    Dr.  Julius  Haast — On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains 

with  the  coast-line,  the  one  nearest  the  sea  heing  the  shortest, 
the  second  intermediate  in  length,  and  the  last  and  most  inland 
one  the  longest.  I  may  here  observe  that  there  were  no  indica- 
tions whatever  to  guide  the  miner  in  his  search,  and  their  whole 
extent  and  general  features  were  discovered  from  experience  in 
prospecting  and  following  the  auriferous  leads  in  both  directions. 

Where  at  this  coast  ancient  level  strips  of  land  exist  dose 
to  the  sea,  which  are,  however,  often  breached  by  the  waves,  we 
find  that  the  usual  forest  vegetation  grows  to  the  water's  edge : 
but  generally  the  level  land  is  of  quite  recent  origin,  as  the  land 
is  gaining  upon  the  sea,  and  new  ground  is  continually  formed. 
In  localities  of  this  nature  we  observe  that  the  more  we  advance 
from  high- water  mark  inland,  the  more  luxuriant  becomes  the 
vegetation,  exhibiting  three  distinct  belts  of  peculiar  growth. 
This  is  well  shown  in  Bruce  Bay  (PL  XII.  fig.  2).  There  is 
generally  above  high-water  mark  a  zone  50-100  feet  broad,  con- 
sisting of  fine  drift-sand  usually  forming  small  hillocks,  amongst 
which  a  great  mass  of  drift-wood  is  decaying,  but  in  which  no 
other  vegetation,  except  a  few  fungi  on  the  rotten  wood,  makes  its 
appearance.  Then  follows  a  second  belt,  also  of  sand,  80-150 
feet  broad,  in  which  the  drift-wood  has  already  entirely  disap- 
peared, and  which  is  covered  by  vegetation  peculiar  to  such 
localities,  consisting  of  sedges,  rushes,  and  a  few  plants  of  higher 
organization.  The  following  plants  grow  principally  in  this 
second  or  *' Coprosma-acerosa  belt,''  as  I  propose  to  call  it; 
namely,  Coprosma  acerosa,  Jvncus  maritimus,  Desmoschomus 
spiralis,  Scirpus  maritimus,  Leptospermum  scopiarum,  Euphorbia 
glauca,  Convolvulus  soldanella,  and  Discaria  toumatou, 

A  third  distinct  zone  follows,  from  300-500  feet  broad,  com- 
monly called  the  "  scrub-belt.''  The  main  mass  of  its  vegeta- 
tion consists  of  Coriaria  ruscifolia,  Coprosma  petiolata,  Coprosma 
Baueriana,  Veronica  salicifolia,  Fucfisia  excorticata,  Griselinia 
littoralis,  Phormium  tenax,  and  some  more  shrubby  plants,  gene- 
rally with  a  dense  undergrowth  of  ferns  belonging  to  the  genera 
Asplenium,  Polypodium^  Lomaria,  &;c. 

The  boundary  between  the  first  and  second  belt  is  not  so  di- 
stinct as  that  between  the  others,  especially  between  the  ['  shrub  " 
and  "  forest-belt,"  which  is  generaUy  sharply  defined. 

In  Bruce  Bay,  where  the  ground  is  rather  swampy,  the  vegeta- 
tion of  this  last-mentioned  belt  consists  of  the  following  trees : — 
Podocarpus  dacrydioides,  Podocarpus  Totara,  Dacrydium  ctgnres^ 
sinum,  IMocedrus  Doniana,  Weinmannia  racemosa,  MetrocCderos 
lucida.  Several  species  of  Coprosma,  Pittosporum,  and  fem- 
trees,  as,  for  instance,  Cyathea  Smithii  and  Dicksonia  squarrosa, 
grow  between  and  below  them,  while  the  Khipogonum  scandens, 
the  ''  supple  Jack  "  of  the  colonists,  interlaces  the  whole  with  its 


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Joum.   Et3mo.  Soc.Vol  IT.  PL  UL 


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i 


I 


j'^ImJ  isr**^ 


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discovered  in  New  Zealand.  117 

numerous  flexible  stems.  Where  the  Kiekie  or  Preycinetia 
Banksii  occurs^  which  is  not  unfrequeot^  this  forest  zone  is 
almost  impenetrable. 

When  I  arrived  in  Bruce  Bay  the  two  auriferous  leads  situated 
in  the  beginning  of  the  second  and  third  belts  had  already  been 
worked  out,  and  the  miners  were  exclusively  at  work  on  the 
third  lead  situated  in  the  forest-belt,  where  they  had  to  sink 
13-15  feet  before  the  auriferous  beds  were  reached.  After 
having  removed  the  large  trees  growing  here,  sometimes  4  feet 
in  diameter,  and  standing  closely  together  upon  8-12  inches  of 
vegetable  soil,  in  which  the  roots  run  horizontally,  the  miners 
passed  generally  through  the  following  strata  before  the  au- 
riferous sands  were  reached : — 

ft.  in. 

Flattened  lieach-shingle  mixed  with  black  sand     4  0 

Black  sand  containing  a  little  gold   0  2 

Quartzose  and  black  sands  alternating  repeatedly  with  each 

other 1  1 

Large  flattened  shingle  with  some  black,  iron,  and  quartzose 

sandS;  but  not  auriferous  enough  to  pay  for  the  extraction 

oftheffold    0  5 

Fine  black  sand,  a  little  auriferous    1  0 

Very  coarse  gravel 1  7 

Auriferous  black  iron-sand,  which  is  the  layer  of  wash-dirt 

excavated  for  sluicing 0  6 

14    9 

This  last  layer  reposes  upon  a  bed  of  coarse  gravel,  which, 
being  cemented  by  an  argillaceous  matrix,  has  materially  assisted 
to  retain  the  fine  gold  in  the  black  sand  above  it. 

From  an  examination  of  the  section  (PI.  XII.  fig.  2)  it  will  be 
seen  that  a  long  period  of  time  must  have  elapsed  before  such  a 
succession  of  beds  could  be  formed,  because  it  is  evident  that 
the  beaches  have  not  been  always  receiving  new  additions,  but 
deposits  have  been  thrown  up  and  again  partially  removed  ac- 
cording to  the  prevailing  winds.  It  is  also  clear  that  since  the 
formation  of  these  littoral  deposits  a  slight  upheaval  of  this  part 
of  the  coast  has  taken  place,  the  edge  of  the  forest-belt  being 
situated  about  4  feet  above  the  highest  flood-line. 

Again,  there  is  evidence  that  since  the  formation  of  these  beds 
oscillations  in  the  relative  position  of  land  and  sea  have  taken 
place,  as  proved  by  a  surface-layer  of  wash-dirt  in  the  Coriaria 
or  third  belt,  overlying  unconformably  the  more  inclined  first- 
formed  strata ;  all  of  which  tends  to  confirm  my  opinion  that  a 
long  lapse  of  time  was  requisite  for  the  formation  of  these  beds, 
and  for  the  growth  of  the  dense  vegetation  which  now  covers 
them. 

If  we  examine  the  different  belts  of  vegetable  life  followina 

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118    Dr.  Julius  Haast — On  certain  Prehistoric  Remains 

each  other  with  such  distiiictness  as  we  go  inland^  additional  evi- 
dence is  offered  that  considerable  time  was  necessary  to  change 
the  Coprosma-acerosa  belt  into  the  scrub-belt^  and  a  still  longer 
period  had  to  elapse  for  the  formation  of  a  sufficient  thickness 
of  vegetable  mould  to  allow  the  forest-trees  to  grow  to  such 
large  dimensions ;  some  of  them  which  I  measured  were  4  feet 
in  diameter.  In  the  same  forest  many  and  often  still  larger 
trees  are  lying  prostrate  on  the  ground^  and  in  all  stages  of 
decay;  sometimes  they  are  only  indicated  by  long  mossy  ridges, 
so  that  we  may  safely  conclude  that  the  present  forest- vegetation 
is  not  the  first  one,  but  that  it  was  preceded  by  trees  of  the  same 
species,  and  often  of  large  dimensions,  which  formerly  grew 
there. 

In  one  of  the  claims  in  this  last  described  forest-belt,  on  the 
bottom  of  the  wash-dirt,  reposing  directly  upon  the  argillaceous 
gravel,  a  party  of  miners,  consisting  of  S.  Fiddean^  J.  Sawyer, 
and  T.  Harrison,  found  a  stone  chisel  (PL  XIII.  fig.  2)  and 
a  sharpening-stone  (PL  XIII.  fig.  1)  lying  dose  to  each  other; 
the  former  was  broken,  having  been  accidentally  struck  by  the 
pick  when  the  miners  were  loosening  the  wash-dUrt.  The  stone 
chisel  is  made  of  a  dark  greenish  chert,  and  is  partly  polished; 
the  sharpening-stone  is  made  of  a  coarse  greyish  sandstone, 
which  I  found  in  situ  about  ten  miles  south  of  this  locality,  near 
the  mouth  of  the  river  Piringa. 

The  two  stone  implements  were  found  a  few  days  before  my 
arrival,  and  it  was  quite  accidentally  in  looking  at  the  claim  that 
I  heard  of  their  discovery.  They  are  now  in  the  Canterbury 
Museum,  New  Zealand. 

I  measured  carefully  the  distance  from  high-water  mark  to 
the  exact  spot  where  they  were  discovered,  and  found  it  to  be 
525  feet,  crossing  the  different  belts  as  foUows : — 

feet 

First,  or  drift-wood  belt  63 

Second,  or  Coproama-acerosa  belt    06 

Third,  or  Conaria  belt 390 

Fourth,  or  White-pine  belt 37 

526 

The  beds  through  which  the  miners  had  been  working  were 
quite  undisturbed,  and  some  very  large  trees  had  been  growing 
just  above  that  portion  of  their  claim  near  the  centre  of  which 
these  stone  implements  had  been  found. 

Owing  to  the  dense  forest  covering  the  ground  everywhere  on 
the  west  coast  of  this  island,  these  beaches  are  generally  used  for 
travelling,  the  favoiirable  time  of  the  receding  tides  being  selected. 
I  can  easily  imagine,  therefore,  how  these  tools  mav  have  been 

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discovered  in  New  Zealand,  119 

left  behind.  When  travelling  with  Maories  along  that  coast  I 
have^  daring  a  rest  of  a  few  moments^  seen  them  repeatedly  pull 
out  a  piece  of  greenstone  and  polish  or  cut  it  until  the  mot 
d'ordre  to  proceed  was  again  given  by  me.  In  the  same  way 
the  owner  of  these  implements  may  have  set  to  work^  and  when 
starting  again  either  forgotten  them  or  left  them  behind  when 
surprised  by  an  enemy. 

The  character  of  these  implements  shows  that  the  people  in- 
habiting or  visiting  this  island  at  that  remote  period  were  much 
more  advanced  in  civilization  than  the  Moa-hunters^  whose  tools 
consisted  only  of  chipped  pieces  of  sandstone^  flint,  and  similar 
siliceous  rocks  without  any  attempt  at  polish.  I  am  not  ac- 
quainted with  the  rate  of  growth  of  our  New-Zealand  forest- 
trees,  but  have  no  doubt  that  by  far  the  greater  portion  of  them 
grow  very  slowly,  especially  when  compared  with  Australian,  or 
even  some  European  and  North- American  trees. 

A  fair  criterion  by  which  to  judge  is  offered  in  our  New- 
Zealand  gardens,  where  the  native  trees,  which  are  raised  with 
great  diflSculty,  grow  only  a  few  feet  in  six  or  eight  years,  whilst 
the  introduced  trees  planted  as  seed  or  seedlings  at  the  same 
time  as  the  endemic  vegetation,  form  in  that  time  conspicuous 
trees  often  20-30  feet  high. 

To  sum  up  the  evidence  we  at  present  possess  as  to  prehistoric 
remains  in  New  Zealand,  I  may  state  that  the  most  primitive 
implements  hitherto  discovered  arc  those  found  in  or  near  Moa- 
ovens.  They  are  simply  chipped  from  boulders  and  blocks  of 
siliceous  rocks.  In  the  Manuherikia  valley,  in  the  Province  of 
Otago,  where  many  Moa-ovens  have  been  discovered,  an  old 
workshop  has  been  found  where  a  great  many  chips  and  blocks 
thrown  away  as  useless  are  still  lying  together,  making  us  well 
acquainted  with  the  mode  in  which  those  primitive  Moa-hunters 
manufactured  their  tools.  The  stone  implements  found  in  Bruce 
Bay,  and  described  in  this  paper,  are  more  highly  finished ;  and 
many  others  of  similar  characters  have  been  obtained  in  the 
Wellington  Province  during  the  dr  linage  of  swamps  and  the 
construction  of  roads,  often  several  feet  below  the  surface,  and 
under  the  roots  of  trees  of  enormous  size.  Others  were  occa- 
sionally found  in  the  Canterbury  plains  during  the  operations 
of  ditching  and  deep  ploughing,  but  all  these  implements  are 
more  or  less  polished,  and  resemble  in  many  respects  those  of 
the  present  native  population.  I  wish  to  point  out,  however, 
that,  although  these  tools  are  much  more  perfect  than  those 
found  in  the  Moa-ovens,  I  am  not  able  to  say  which  are  of  the 
greater  antiquity.  It  may  be  possible  that  after  the  interval  of 
a  great  lapse  of  time  various  races  arrived  in  New  Zealand  who 
possessed  a  higher  degree  of  civilization  than  the  original  in- 
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120     Dr.  J.  Haast — On  New-Zealand  Prehistoric  Remains, 

habitants.  Moreover,  the  latter  were  perhaps  living  only  in  the 
interior,  whither  they  had  followed  the  retreating  Dinomis. 
In  several  islands  in  the  Pacific  and  Indian  oceans  two  distinct 
races  are  now  living — ^the  more  civilized  near  the  coast,  and  the 
original  and  inferior  race  near  the  mountains.  In  order  to 
arrive  at  a  solution  of  this  question  it  will,  however,  be  neces- 
sary for  competent  observers  to  study  the  approximate  age  and 
position  of  the  Moa-ovens  in  this  and  the  Otago  Province  much 
more  closely  than  has  been  done  hitherto. 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES  Xn.  and  XIIL 

Plate  XII. 

Fig.  1.  Geological  map  of  Bruce  Bay,  New  Zealand.    Scale  4  miles  to  1  inch. 

2.  Section  from  N.N.W.  to  S.S.E.  across  the  deposits  in  Bruce  Bay, 

showins  the  four  belts  of  vegetation,  and  the  three  auriferous 

^  leads    :  in  the  most  inland  lead  the  stone  implements  were 

found.    Scale,  horizontal  and  vertical,  80  feet  to  1  mch. 

Plate  XIII. 

Fig.  1.  Sharpening-stone  found  in  Bruce  Bay.    Half  size. 

2.  Stone  chisel  found  in  Bruce  Bay,  showing  both  front  and  side  view. 
Half  size. 

DrscussioN. 

Mr.  BoNWiOK  thought  that  the  question  of  relative  antiquity  of 
the  implements  could  be  settled  by  geology.  If  that  third  inhmd 
auriferous  deposit  had  been  brought  along  the  beach  by  currents, 
then,  in  spite  of  the  argument  of  a  change  of  vegetation  on  the  spot, 
the  formation  would  be  comparatively  recent;  but  as  the  sunJcen 
pit  bore  much  of  the  likeness  of  an  ordinary  digging,  the  whole 
would  give  a  greater  antiquity.  The  map  furthermore  indicated 
moraines  near  the  sea,  marking  the  former  far  more  considerable 
elevation  of  the  country  around  that  formation;  wliile  the  meta- 
morphic  rocks,  the  source  of  gold,  are  placed  above  the  deposit,  as 
though  it  had  been  brought  down  from  the  mountain-ranges  in  the« 
ordinary  way,  and  not  in  from  the  sea. 

Mr.  Hyde  Clarke  called  attention  to  the  question  of  the  ethno- 
logical capacity  for  extension  within  a  limited  period.  Dr.  Haast  * 
doubted  whether  600  years,  or  15  generations,  would  be  sufficient  for 
three  canoesfuU  to  supply  the  alleged  population  of  several  hundred 
thousands.  Mr.  Clarke  thought  the  instance  of  Lower  Canada 
worthy  of  investigation.  The  French  population  at  the  conquest 
by  General  "Wolf  was  30,000,  and  without  immimtion  in  a  century 
it  had  increased  twenty  or  thirtyfold.  Supposing  the  30,000  had 
been  obtained  by  natural  increase  instead  of  by  immigration,  then 
1000  or  1500  a  century  before  would  at  the  same  rate  produce  30,000, 
and  a  century  before  that  three  boatloads  might  be  progenitors  in 
three  centuries  of  the  existing  French  Canadian  population. 


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James  Bonwick— On  t/ie  Origin  of  the  Tasmaniaris.      121 

Ordinary  Meeting^  Jan.  25th,  1870. 

Professor  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

New  Members. — Lord  Rosehill;  J.  W.  Barnes,  Esq. ;  Wal- 
ter Morrison,  Esq.,  M.P. ;  and  Robert  Lucas  Nash,  Esq. 

Dr.  Hooker,  C.B.,  exhibited  a  collection  of  figures  in  unburnt 
clay  modelled  by  a  native  Zulu,  and  sent  to  this  country  by 
J.  Sanderson,  Esq. 

Col.  Lane  Fox  exhibited  two  stone  mullers,  one  from  Tahiti, 
and  the  other  from  the  West  Indies,  together  with  a  drawing  of 
a  similar  muller  from  New  York. 

The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  author : — 

Xni.  On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians  Geologically  consi- 
dered.    By  James  Bonwick,  Esq.,  P.R.G.S. 
(Abridged.) 
The  *'  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians ''  has  at  this  moment  a  painful 
interest.   The  last  man  of  the  race  has  departed  :  an  old  woman 
is  the  sole  survivor  of  the  island  tribes. 

The  people  were  recognized  as  among  the  lowest  of  the  human 
form,  and  the  most  isolated  and  peculiar  of  the  family  of  man. 
Black  and  woolly-haired,  they  seemed  allied  to  Africans  seven 
thousand  miles  away,  while  their  manners  and  general  physique 
connected  them  with  their  Australian  neighbours.  How  came 
they  where  the  early  voyagers  found  them  ? 

Linguistic  analogies,  identity  of  customs,  and  assimilation  of 
habits  of  thought  associate  them  with  others  scattered  over  vast 
areas ;  but  grave  difficulties  beset  our  way  in  seeking  a  common 
origin  for  races  so  remotely  situated  from  each  other,  and  almost 
aU  of  whom  may  be  reputed  consistent  landsmen. 

In  pleading,  therefore,  as  I  shall  have  to  do,  for  the  prior 
existence  of  a  continent  with  which  these  several  peoples  could 
have  been  associated,  I  am  conscious  of  placing  myself  in  anta- 
gonism to  popular  and  established  theories,  and  of  confronting 
those  who  would  make  the  Aborigines  literally  "  Men  of  the 
Soil,'' — beginning  an  existence  as  a  race  in  the  country  where 
they  are  now  observed. 

Assuming  sufficient  time,  it  may  be  demonstrated  that  the 
Papuan  race,  which  we  see  at  so  many  isolated  spots,  were  for- 
merly more  associated  geographically,  and  that  they  could  have 
had  one  common  ancestry.  Prof.  Huxley  sees  reason  to  connect 
the  Tasmanian  and  his  neighbours  with  the  very  old  prehistoric 
folk  of  Europe.  *'  I  shall  be  inclined,''  says  he,  "  to  look  among 
the  Papuan  races  of  New  Guinea  and  New  Holland  for  the 
nearest  allies  of  men  to  whoi|^  the  Shell-Mounds  once  belonged." 

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122     James  Bokwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians, 

The  migratioa  took  place  at  a  period  when  civilizatioii  had 
made  little  advance;  and  not  only  prior  to  the  institution  of 
agriculture,  but  before  the  domestication  of  cattle. 

It  is  in  the  highest  degree  probable  that  the  site  of  the  sunken 
continent  whence  the  various  black  races  surrounding  the 
Indian  Ocean,  and  extending  into  the  Pacific  and  Southern 
Oceans,  may  have  radiated  was  the  source  of  the  Australian 
vegetation.  Dr.  Hooker,  in  his  valuable  work  on  the  Flora  of 
the  South,  has  afibrded  us  some  remarkable  data  for  this  con- 
ception. He  indirectly  supports  the  continental  theory  by 
showing  how  very  inadequate  the  powers  of  currents  of  air  and 
water  are  as  propagators  of  species.  In  accounting  for  the 
absence  of  certain  forms  in  New  Zealand,  after  that  region  was 
isolated  from  New  Holland,  he  demonstrates  that  it  '^is  still 
more  incompatible  with  the  theory  of  extensive  migrations  by 
oceanic  or  aerial  currents.  This  absence  is  most  conspicuous  in 
the  cases  of  Eucalypti  and  almost  every  other  genus  of  Myr^ 
tacea,  of  the  whole  immense  genus  of  Acacia,  and  of  its  nume- 
rous Australian  congeners.^^  The  Blackfellows  could  no  more 
cross  the  sea  than  could  the  gum-tree. 

But  he  proceeds  to  the  origin  of  that  flora.  He  found  273 
genera  of  North  Australia  allied  to  those  of  India ;  and  that,  as 
the  proportion  of  peculiarity  increased  while  going  south-east- 
wards, the  maximum  of  home  plants  was  obtained  in  the  south- 
western part  of  Australia.  He  sees  "  a  greater  specific  differ- 
ence between  two  quarters  of  Australia,  south-east  and  south- 
west, than  between  Australia  and  the  rest  of  the  globe  j  and  that 
the  most  marked  characteristics  of  the  flora  are  concentrated  at 
that  point  most  remote  from  any  other  region  of  the  globe.'' 

But  that  quarter  would  be  the  one  nearest  the  sunken  conti- 
nent; to  which,  therefore,  we  trace  the  flora  of  Australia. 
Dr.  Hooker  is  led  also  to  the  old  continent  by  the  thought 
that  "  the  many  bonds  of  aflSnity  between  the  three  Southern 
Floras  (the  Antarctic,  Australian,  and  South  African)  indicate 
that  these  have  had  a  common  origin,  that  the  period  of  their 
divergence  antedates  the  creation  oi  the  principal  existing  gene- 
ric forms  of  each.'' 

The  extension  of  the  country  of  the  Blackfellows  was  neces- 
sary to  account  for  its  vegetation,  as  the  same  botanical  autho- 
rity is  convinced  that  facts  prove  "  not  only  the  antiquity  of  the 
flora,  but  that  it  was  developed  in  a  much  larger  area  than  it 
now  occupies 'y "  and  he  elsewhere  says,  *' the  antecedents  of  the 
peculiar  Australian  flora  may  have  inhabited  an  area  to  the 
westward  of  the  present  Australian  continent,  and  that  the 
curious  analogies  which  the  latter  presents  with  the  South- 
African  flora,  and  which  are  so  much  more  conspicuous  in  the 

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Jambs  Bonwick — On  the  Griffin  of  the  Tasmanians,     128 

south-west  quarter,  may  be  connected  with  such  a  prior  state  of 
things/' 

Dr.  Hooker  declares  that  one-eighth  of  the  plants  of  South 
America  may  be  found  in  New  Zealand,  while  the  Polynesian 
flora  generally  has  much  sympathy  with  that  continent.  One- 
tenth  of  the  New-Zealand  vegetation  is  common  to  Australia 
and  South  America.  The  Oxalis  Magelianica  is  found  in  New 
Zealand,  Tasmania,  and  South  America,  while  the  Edwardsia 
grandijlora  is  detected  in  the  first  and  third  of  these  regions ; 
and  yet  the  President  of  the  Linnsean  Society  has  affirmed  that 
"  the  seeds  of  neither  could  stand  exposure  to  the  salt-water,  and 
they  are  too  heavy  to  be  borne  on  the  air"  Mr.  Andrew  Mur- 
ray says  '^  South  America  was  most  probably  united  to  Australia, 
if  we  may  draw  any  inference  from  the  presence  of  allied  forms 
of  life  common  to  both.'' 

The  botany  of  South  Africa  is  much  like  that  of  Australia,  there 
being,  according  to  Dr.  Hooker,  280  genera  of  1000,  or  nearly 
thirty  per  cent.,  identical.  The  wonderful  egg  of  Madagascar, 
14  inches  long,  proves  that  the  land  must  have  extended  far  be« 
yond  the  present  narrow  limits  when  the  parent  of  such  an  egg 
existed,  and  that  most  probably  toward  the  east  and  north  end, 
as  Mr.  Wallace  believes  Madagascar  has  not  been  connected 
with  the  African  mainland  since  the  Miocene  period,  at  least. 
Mr.  Wake  gives  especial  prominence  to  the  island  in  his  theory 
of  continental  extension. 

We  may,  then,  conclude  with  Mr.  Murray  that  "  a  complete 
circlet  of  land  formerly  crowned  the  southern  temperate  regions, 
as  now  does  the  northern." 

Mr.  Pritchard  admits  that  "  an  archipelago  was  originally 
formed  by  the  disruption  of  an  ancient  continent  through  the 
invasion  of  the  equatorial  current."  D'Urville  wrote  of  that 
old  continent.  The  learned  Mr.  Logan,  of  Singapore,  has  these 
remarks : — "  Asia  cannot  be  severed,  in  a  physicfd  or  geological 
view,  fipom  the  great  infeular  region  which  lies  to  the  southward 
of  it."  He  has  shown  the  continuity  of  geological  formations 
from  Malaya  across  the  Strait  to  Singapore,  and  onward  to 
ialands  southward  and  eastward.  Mr.  Oxley  finds  the  four 
great  families  of  Casuarina,  Myrtacea,  Melaleucea,  and  Pro- 
teacea  represented  in  India.  The  Australian  flora,  according 
to  Dr.  Hooker,  terminates  with  the  Casuarina  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  and  the  StyUdium  on  the  western. 
''In  many  cases,"  writes  Sir  J.  E.  Tennant,  "the  faunas  of 
Ceylon  and  of  Australasia  seem  more  similar  than  those  of  Cey- 
lon and  Hindustan."  But  Mr.  Murray  adds,  ''Both  their 
faunas  and  floras  have  to  a  considerable  extent  an  Australian 
character."    The  traditions  of  Ceylon  point  to  a  time  when  the 

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124     James  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians, 

country  extended  far  southward.  The  Arabs  still  speak  of  the 
Gate  of  Tears^  which  opened  to  let  in  the  floods  that  tore  their 
land  from  Africa.  The  South-Australian  blacks  even  now  point 
to  the  West  as  the  source  of  Babydom.  Prof.  Owen  thinks  that 
"  the  Andaman  Islands^  like  the  Nicobar,  Java^  Sumatra^  and 
('eylon,  may  have  been  parts  of  some  former  tract  of  dry  land 
distinct  from^  and  perhaps  preexistent  to,  that  neighbouring 
and  more  northern  continent."  Prof.  Huxley  considers  that 
the  Australioid  and  Negroid,  of  his  ethnological  nomenclature, 
were  in  existence  when  there  was  land  communication  between 
Australia  and  the  Deccan  on  the  one  hand,  and  South  Africa, 
Malacca,  and  New  Guinea  on  the  other. 

New  Guinea  has  so  many  similarities  with  its  greater  neigh- 
bour that  we  seem  ready  to  regard  the  two  in  the  likeness  of 
Dover  and  Calais,  and  with  New  Guinea  may  be  brought  into  con- 
nexion with  Australia,  the  Melanesian  group  of  New  Hebrides, 
Solomon  Isles,  New  Britain,  New  Ireland,  New  Caledonia, 
&c.  Marsupialia  still  exist  in  the  New  Hebrides.  The  Rev. 
John  Inglis,  Presbyterian  Missionary,  is  disposed  to  con- 
nect some  of  those  with  New  Zealand,  though  regarding  New- 
Caledonian  botany  as  kindred  to  that  of  New  South  Wales.  Dr. 
Hooker,  however,  classes  the  plants  of  New  Hebrides  and  New 
Caledonia  with  those  of  New  Zealand  and  New  Holland.  Dr. 
Sdater  classes  the  birds  of  Polynesia  with  those  of  Australia. 
Mr.  Murray  sees  that  the  only  mammals  of  Polynesia  "  belong 
to  an  order  also  found  in  Australia,  the  Bats ; "  he  observes 
great  affinity  of  genera  in  birds  of  Australia  and  Papua,  and  Dr. 
Giinther  noticed  the  same  with  reptiles  and  batrachians. 

The  geological  history  of  New  Zealand  has  some  strong  con- 
nexion with  that  of  New  Holland.  For  example,  the  Coid-field 
of  Eastern  Australia,  one  of  the  largest  in  the  world,  seems  one 
with  that  of  New  Zealand  on  the  western  side  ;  whilst  the  gold- 
fields  of  New  Zealand  are  similar  to  those  of  Australia. 

The  existence  of  huge  birds,  like  the  Dinorms  or  Moa,  is  not 
at  all  in  accordance  with  the  theory  of  an  insular  history.  New 
Zealand  must,  in  all  probability,  have  been  then  much  greater 
in  extent.  Although  the  Emu  now  strides  over  the  pkins  of 
Australia,  and  is  of  kindred  family  to  the  wingless  birds  so  com- 
paratively recently  roaming  over  the  fern-land,  yet  the  latter 
country  may  have  stretched  far  eastward  and  northward,  as  well 
as  westward. 

A  most  important  additional  evidence  has  been  brought  by  a 
recent  mail  from  Australia.  We  learn  that  the  diggers  of  the 
Peak  Downs  Gold-field,  Queensland,  found  what  is  pronounced 
by  Mr.  Gerard  Krefft,  the  Curator  of  the  Sydney  Museum,  to 
be  the  right  femur  of  a  monster  bird,  allied  to  the  Moa  ! 

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Jambs  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  qf  the  Ta^manians.     125 

It  may  properly  be  asked,  Why  seek  to  prove  the  connexion 
of  New  Zealand  with  the  Australian  shores,  when  no  correspon- 
dence of  human  race  is  known  ?  The  Blacks  of  New  Guinea 
and  Australia  are  similar ;  but  the  inhabitants  of  New  Zealand 
are  Poljmesian,  not  Papuan. 

The  Maori  confesses  himself  a  stranger,  an  immigrant;  he 
has  traditions  of  the  canoes  that  brought  his  forefathers  to  the 
foreign  coast.  But  in  those  very  tales  are  stray  references  to 
the  aboriginal  inhabitants,  most  of  whom  the  savage  visitors  were 
said  to  have  devoured.  Five  hundred  years  only  are  assumed 
by  the  one  great  authority,  the  able  and  benevolent  friend  of  the 
coloured  races.  Sir  George  Grey,  as  the  limit  of  the  residence  of 
the  Maories.  Who  were  there  before  them  ?  Several  travellers 
have  spoken  of  the  presence  of  two  distinct  races ;  in  spite  of  in- 
termarriage, the  dark  skin>  crisp  hair,  thick  lip  of  the  one  would 
indicate  a  Papuan  character. 

The  islands  to  the  south  and  east  of  New  Zealand  present 
some  interesting  features  that  help  out  the  theory.  It  is  suf- 
ficient now  to  allude  to  the  Chatham  Isles  of  the  east ;  here  the 
volcanic  element  comes  out  in  strong  force,  and  furnishes  us, 
doubtless,  with  a  key  to  the  enigma  of  the  present  isolation  of 
the  place.  But  the  ethnological  remains  are  more  convincing 
than  in  the  parent  island  :  Broughton  and  Dieffenbach  are  clear 
in  their  testimony  that  the  inhabitants  were  dark,  with  crisp 
hair,  and  with  aU  the  other  peculiarities  of  a  people  wholly  di- 
stinct from  the  Maories. 

There  needs  no  argument  to  affirm  the  former  connexion  of 
Tasmania  with  South-eastern  Australia;  the  granite  of  the  for- 
mer is  led  to  the  granite  of  the  latter  by  a  succession  of  ocean 
granite-steps, — the  isles  of  Bass's  Strait.  Raised  beaches  in  the 
Straits  show  other  changes.  Wilson's  Promontory  has  a  flora 
peculiarly  Tasmanian.  Even  the  distinctive  Devil  (the Dasyurus) 
has  been  discovered,  with  other  remains  of  extinct  Australian  life, 
in  a  cave  of  Mount  Macedon,  in  Victoria ;  while  both  Devil  and 
Tiger  {Thylacinus)  have  been  seen  among  the  osseous  curiosities 
of  Wellington  Cave,  New  South  Wales,  along  with  monster 
Kangaroos  and  huge  marsupial  oxen.  Its  Omithorhynchus  is 
seen  in  South-eastern  Australia.  By  its  isolation  it  retained 
some  original  inhabitants  a  little  longer  than  the  continent  did. 

In  proceeding  to  the  specific  object  of  the  paper,  the  tracing 
of  the  progress  of  the  tribes  geologically,  I  must  assume  the 
now  generally  accepted  belief  of  the  allied  character,  at  least, 
of  the  dark  race  of  the  Indian  hills,  of  Malaya,  of  Cochin  China, 
of  the  Andaman,  and  of  the  Papuan  Isles  proper,  with  the  Abo- 
rigines of  New  Holland  and  Van  Diemen's  Land.  But,  as  it  is 
well  known  that  the  natives  of  those  two  last-named  countries 


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126     James  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians. 

have  peculiarities^  especiaUy  of  hair^  distinguishing  them  from 
one  another^  I  would  endeavour  to  indicate  the  probable  path- 
way of  the  woolly-haired  Tasmanians  in  contradistinction  to  that 
of  the  kindred^  but  more  flowing-haired^  men  of  the  continent. 

Mr.  Logan,  who  had  so  many  opportunities  at  Singapore  of 
noticing  a  variety  of  races,  teaches  this  respecting  the  two  in 
question  : — "  The  spiral-haired  Papuans  of  South  New  Guinea 
and  Torres  Strait  are  often  more  Africo-Semitic  and  South 
Indian  in  their  physiognomy  than  the  Australians,  while  the 
latter  have  the  fine  hair  of  the  South-Indian  and  some  Mid- 
African  nations,  and  a  linguistic  formation  which  resembles  the 
South  Indian  more  than  any  other  in  the  world/' 

To  raise  the  sunken  continent,  so  as  to  connect  the  woolly- 
haired  men  of  the  Southern  Isle  with  the  crisp-haired  Hill-men  of 
India  and  Malaya,  the  Veddas  of  Ceylon,  the  corkscrew-ringlet 
men  of  New  Guinea,  the  Blacks  of  New  Caledonia,  and  the  Va- 
zimbas  of  Madagascar,  we  may  be  obliged  to  go  back  through 
the  Pleistocene  to  the  Tertiary,  and  even  advance  considerably 
into  the  latter.  But  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  geologists 
place  the  Australian  flora  with  the  Oolitic  age  of  Europe ;  and 
Mr.  Huxley  has  prepared  us  for  enlarged  conceptions  of  anthro- 
pology by  asking,  "  Was  the  oldest  Homo  sapiens  Pliocene  or 
Miocene,  or  yet  more  ancient  ? "  At  any  rate,  if  unprovided 
with  this  extent  of  time,  we  see  no  other  way  of  deliverance 
from  the  dilemma  than  that  of  the  polygenestic  theory  of  sepa- 
rate creations  of  distinct  species  of  man  at  various  epochs.  No 
sea-migration  idea,  no  climatic  change,  no  intermarriages  can 
account  for  White  and  Black,  for  English  and  Tasmanians,  dur- 
ing the  limited  space  of  six,  or  even  twenty,  thousand  years. 

The  so-called  Oriental  Negroes,  having  the  crisp  and  woolly 
hair,  though  found  in  New  Guinea  on  the  north  and  Tasmania 
on  the  south,  have  left  some  representatives  on  the  mainland  of 
Australia.  Cape  York,  with  the  Murray  Islands,  show  this  pecu- 
liarity. Mr.  Earl  has  this  striking  report  of  Coburg  peninsula, 
to  the  north-west, — "  The  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  this  part  of 
Australia  very  closely  resemble  the  Papuans  of  New  Guinea,  or, 
which  is  almost  the  same  thing,  the  aborignes  of  Van  Diemen's 
Land.''  Mr.  Oldfield,  the  naturalist,  has  something  similar  to 
relate  of  a  part  of  Western  Australia.  ''  The  tribes,"  says  he, 
"  inhabiting  the  country  from  Murchison  River  to  Sharks'  Bay 
possess  more  of  the  characteristics  of  the  Negro  family  than  the 
aborigines  of  any  part  of  Australia." 

Although  the  Tasmanians  can  be  shown  to  be,  excepting  in 
their  hair,  so  much  like  their  continental  neighbours, — sdthough 
they  live  in  the  same  manner,  have  similar  customs,  and  cherish 
the  same  superstitions, — yet  they  evidently  form  two  distinct 

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James  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmamans.     127 

streams  of  population.  The  interesting  question  to  arrive  at  is^ 
whether  the  former  took  the  same  track  as  the  New  Hollanders^ 
and  whether  they  were  first  or  last  on  the  field  of  their  present 
locality. 

The  Australians^  as  a  rule^  are  physically  different  from  the 
Tasmanians;  but  the  fact  of  some  being  found  with^  at  leasts 
Tasmanian  tendencies^  and  these  at  three  comers  of  the  conti- 
nent furthest  removed  firom  Van  Diemen's  Land^  may  throw 
some  light  upon  the  former  distribution  of  the  people.  They 
would  thus  appear  to  have  come  somewhat  upon  each  other's 
track  at  one  period.  Had  they  approached^  it  would  have  been 
without  doubt  to  come  into  collision.  In  two  places  where  the 
curly-haired  people  remain  on  the  mainland^  they  are  in  compa- 
ratively inaccessible  retreats^  and  in  not  too  favourable  a  country, 
thus  furnishing  as  little  opportunity  as  temptation  for  the  Austra- 
lians proper  to  dislodge  them.  It  is  just  possible  that  the  crisp- 
haired  race  had  been  thrust  outward  on  all  sides  by  those  who 
possessed  the  rivers  and  the  interior,  as  we  find  them  all  round 
the  Australian  continent. 

Mr.  Logan  is  of  opinion,  chiefly  on  linguistic  grounds,  that 
the  Australian  was  a  prior  migration.  I  should  feel  disposed  to 
think  it  more  probable  that  the  Tasmanian  and  his  kindred  were 
first,  from  their  being  discovered  over  a  larger  area,  and  at  so 
many  distant,  isolated  spots.  The  New  Hollander  finds  his  allies 
in  India;  but  the  Tasmanian  has  his  in  Africa,  Ceylon,  India, 
Malaya,  the  Indian  archipelago,  and  far  onward  in  the  Pacific. 
When  a  comparison  is  made  between  the  two,  it  is  usually  to  the 
advantage  of  the  former,  in  point  of  civilization,  as  though  he 
had  been  more  recently  disconnected  from  the  parent,  or  less 
separated  from  his  fellow  tribes,  than  the  other. 

Australia  is  admitted  by  naturalists  to  be  one,  at  least,  of  the 
most  ancient  parts  of  the  world.  As  its  fossil  mammalia  have 
been  found  identical  in  family  with  the  present  forms,  and  these 
latter  are  pronounced  to  be  more  ancient  than  others,  it  may 
reasonably  be  assumed  that  the  land  is  of  a  greater  relative  an- 
tiquity, and  especially  possesses  the  least  changed  developments 
of  life. 

Again,  if,  as  can  be  proved  by  references  to  both  flora  and 
fauna.  Northern  Australia  has  no  unknown  types  of  life,  it  must 
be  more  recent  than  other  parts  of  the  New-Holland  continent. 
As  South  Australia,  according  to  Dr.  Hooker,  has  such  deficiency 
of  peculiar  plants,  and,  as  asserted  by  Mr.  Murray,  has  only 
four  peculiar  species  of  mammals  out  of  twenty-eight,  it  would 
surely  be  inferior  in  geological  age  to  South-western  Australia, 
where  the  specific  ones  are  as  28  to  39.  Pursuing  the  argument, 
Tasmania  with  part  of  Victoria  and  New  South  Wales  would 

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128    James  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tastnanians. 

rank  high  in  term  of  years,  as  the  land  holds  41  peculiar  species 
out  of  60.  Of  Tasmania  alone,  twelve  species  of  its  twenty  mar- 
supials are  peculiar  to  itself. 

Geology  substantiates  the  position  of  the  naturalists.  The 
main  chains  of  South-eastern  Australia,  with  Tasmania,  have 
reared  their  bold  fronts  from  very  early  times,  forming,  with  the 
angle  of  South-western  Australia,  the  original  islands  of  the 
Australian  seas. 

Following  the  guidance  of  such  observations,  there  seems  no 
occasion  to  halt  in  our  supposition  that  the  inhabitants  of  the 
older  portion,  Tasmania,  were  older  than  those  of  most,  if  not 
all,  of  Australia. 

At  the  time  of  the  existence  of  the  former  continent  south- 
ward of  India,  tribes  would  pass  onward  and  outward.  In  all 
probability  the  Hottentots  of  Africa  and  the  woolly-haired 
Papuans  were  the  first  to  retire,  'followed  soon  by  the  Eastern 
Africans ;  for  Mr.  Huxley  has  pronounced  the  similarity  of  the 
three.  The  Hill-men  of  India  &c.,  preserving  so  much  of  the 
mental  characteristics  of  the  Tasmanians,  may  have  then  passed 
into  their  present  homes.  The  New  Hollander,  who  is  conjec- 
tured to  have  more  of  the  South-Indian  development  than  the 
Tasmanian,  may  have  proceeded  later  from  the  northern  side  of 
the  old  continent,  through  or  near  the  country  then  inhabited 
by  the  Dravidians,  and  so  have  subsequently  passed  overland 
into  New  Holland  on  the  western  side.  As,  probably,  a  broad 
sea  separated  Eastern  from  Western  Australia,  their  possession 
of  the  whole  land  was  a  work  of  time. 

The  curly-headed  Papuans,  with  their  strange  African  type, 
had  a  wider  range,  as  I  have  said,  being  now  found  east,  west, 
and  north  of  the  site  of  their  supposed  original  seat.  As  the 
more  ancient,  they  would  have  had  a  longer  time  to  ramble. 
They  are  not  found  in  Borneo  and  Java,  as  the  flora  and  fauna 
of  those  islands  indicate  a  more  Indian  character,  and  that  of 
a  more  recent  period  than  the  time  of  the  great  dispersion. 
From  their  presence  in  Papua  proper,  round  to  New  Caledonia, 
and  most  probably  in  New  Zealand,  the  subsidence  of  the  South- 
western Pacific  land  took  place  subsequently  to  their  arrival. 
The  New-Zealand  flora  may  date  after  that  period.  They  were 
in  Tasmania  when  that  country  had  connexion  both  with  New 
Zealand  on  the  one  hand,  and  with  the  southern  prolongation 
of  Western  Australia  on  the  other. 

As  the  Rev.  E.  Woods  assumed  that  the  Murray  country  of 
South  Australia  and  part  of  Victoria  was  formed  in  warm,  deep, 
and  tranquil  waters,  the  current,  doubtless^  brought  the  material 
from  Northern  Australia  when  partly  a  coralline  sea.  This  would 
make  the  land  between  Tasmania  and  Western  Australia  in  early 


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James  Bonwick— On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians.     129 

days  run  southerly,  so  as  to  leave  space  for  the  deep  South- 
Australian  Bay.  Tasmania,  being  then  part  of  Eastern  Austra- 
lia, the  natives  may  be  presumed  to  have  passed  upwards  along 
the  Cordillera  there,  as  they  had  extended  further  eastward  and 
northward.  It  is  true  that,  with  the  exception,  as  has  been 
stated,  of  some  remnants  of  their  blood  at  Melville  Island,  Cape 
York,  and  Sharks^  Bay,  no  Papuan  tribe  of  crisp  curly  hair 
exists  on  the  main  continent.  They  had  been  extirpated  by 
the  subsequent  migration  of  Australians,  who  had  less  of  the 
African  and  more  of  the  Mongolian  characteristics.  The  dis- 
connexion of  New  Guinea,  New  Caledonia,  and  Tasmania  from 
the  mainland  preserved  in  those  three  islands  the  int^rity  of 
the  woolly-haired  and  aboriginal  people,  while  the  continent  re- 
tained its  own  homogeneous  population. 

May  I  be  pardoned  the  indirigence  of  further  speculation  con- 
cerning the  lost  continent,  or  continents,  to  the  south  ?  Could 
such  possibly  have  been  the  birthplace  of  our  race  ? 

It  is  somewhat  singular  that  the  most  peculiar  languages  are 
found  with  the  Chinese,  Hottentots,  Australians,  and  Tasma- 
nians ;  these  are  all  believed  to  be  among  the  most  ancient  of 
human  tribes,  and  they  are  flung  around  the  lost  continent.  When 
Prof.  Owen  examined  the  curious  Andamaners,  he  was  unable 
to  class  them  with  existing  peoples,  and  was  compelled  to  range 
them  as,  "  The  repreeentativee  of  an  old  race  belonging  to  a  for- 
mer continent  that  had  almost  disappeared"  The  Andamaners 
are  the  same  as  the  Negritos;  and  of  the  latter  Mr.  Murray 
informs  us, ''  The  Negritos  of  the  Philippine  Islands  cannot  he 
separated  from  the  other  Papuan  Blacks.^'  The  latter,  therefore, 
of  New  Ouinea,  Australia,  and  Tasmania,  may,  as  to  origin,  be- 
long to  the  continent  that  has  "  almost  cUsappeared.'^ 

Assuming,  then,  that  these  races  belonged  to  that  lost  land,  to 
what  other  conclusions  are  we  led?  If  the  volcanic  band,  ex- 
tending over  so  large  an  arc,  from  Arabia  to  the  Philippines, 
or  to  Melanesia,  were  the  means  of  the  gradual  submergence 
of  the  southern  continent  between  Africa  and  Australia,  and  if 
it  were  connected  with  those  movements  of  India,  which  foot  by 
foot  had  elevated  the  Himalayas,  declared  by  Owen  to  be  "  the 
site  of  one  of  the  latest  of  the  greatest  systems  of  upheaving 
forces  that  resulted  in  the  formation  of  new  continents,^'  the 
submergence  of  that  southern  region  must  have  commenced  at 
a  period  when  most  parts  of  Europe  and  Asia  were  under  the 
ocean,  and  its  former  human  inhabitants  must  have  existed  be- 
fore the  primitive  men  of  the  caves  of  France,  or  the  wild  hun- 
ters  of  Kent's  Cavern.  While  man  is  known  to  have  lived  with 
Mammoths,  Rhinoceroses,  and  Cave  Lions  in  Europe,  these  very 

VOL.  II.  K 

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130    James  Bonwick — On  the  Origin  of  the  Tasmanians. 

animals  are  acknowledged  to  be  of  a  less  ancient  type  than 
those  associated  with  the  Tasmanians. 

Why^  then^  should  it  be  thought  merely  a  wild  conjecture  to 
contemplate  the  lost  continent  (the  early  home  of  the  Anda- 
man^ Hottentot^  and  Australian  races)  as  one  of  the  earliest 
scenes,  if  not  actually  the'first  scene  of  man's  existence  here  ? 

Discussion. 

Dr.  HooKBB,  C.B.,  made  some  remarks  on  the  floras  of  the  south- 
ern hemisphere. 

The  President  showed  that  the  conditions  which  affect  the  distri- 
bution  of  j)lants  and  of  animals  are  not  the  same.  If,  for  example, 
an  island  were  separated  from  the  coast  of  Australia  by  only  a  few 
miles  of  sea,  that  island  might  become  covered  with  Australian 
plants,  while  the  arm  of  sea,  although  extremely  narrow,  would  form 
an  effectual  ban*ier  to  the  passage  of  any  terrestrial  mammal  But, 
if  the  distribution  of  land-animals  be  compared  with  that  of  man,  it 
will  be  found  that  the  argument  tells  in  the  other  direction ;  for  man 
is  a  being  capable  of  using  artificial  means  to  effect  his  distribution. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  fauna  of  Australia  is  closely  akin  to  that 
of  New  Guinea  and  the  neighbouring  islands.  Thus  the  genus 
Casuarius  is  found  in  Australia,  the  New  Hebrides,  New  Guinea,  and 
as  far  westward  as  '^  Wallace's  line.*'  Facts  such  as  these  tend  to 
prove  that  New  Guinea  has  recently  been  connected  with  Australia. 

Turning  to  New  Zealand,  it  is  found  that  the  fauna  is  extremely 
different  from  that  of  Australia.  In  fact,  New  Zealand  constitutes 
a  distinct  province ;  it  has  no  emus,  no  cassowaries,  and  none  of 
those  types  of  mammals  which  would  certainly  be  found  had  land- 
communication  existed  between  New  Zealand  and  Australia.  The 
barrier  of  sea  between  the  two  may  have  been  extremely  narrow, 
but  there  could  not  have  been  absolute  contact.  A  similar  argument 
might  be  applied  to  the  islands  north-west  of  Australia,  and  would 
tend  to  show  that  no  direct  communication  could  have  extended  be- 
tween Borneo,  Sumatra,  New  Guinea,  and  Australia. 

The  type  of  the  Australian  man  is  entirely  distinct  from  that  of 
the  Tasmaniau.  The  speaker  had  seen  the  Australian  at  Cape  York, 
at  Port  Essington,  on  the  south-east  coast,  and  in  Victoria.  Every- 
where  the  native  presents  similar  characters,  being  distinguished 
especially  by  his  dark  skin,  heavy  brow,  and  smooth  hair,  never  crisp 
or  woolly.  It  is  true  that  a  Negrito  type  may  be  found  at  Cape 
York  and  in  the  adjacent  islands  in  Torres  Strait ;  but  this  is  evi- 
dently due  to  a  Papuan  race  which,  having  come  to  Australia  from 
New  Guinea,  has  brought  its  civilization,  and  introduced  the  use  of 
the  bow  and  arrow  and  the  construction  of  canoes. 

Although  the  speaker  had  not  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the 
Tasmanians,  there  is  evidence  that  they  are  extremely  like  the  peo- 
ple of  New  Caledonia ;  and  these  resemble  the  inhabitants  of  the 
iiouisiaile  Islands,  whom  he  had  often  seen,  and  who  are  extremely 


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H.  H.  HowoRTH — On  a  Froniier-line  of  Ethnology.     131 

different  from  the  AusfcraliaDS.  The  Tasmanian  had  no  throwing- 
Btick,  and  neither  in  language  nor  in  appearance  did  he  resemble  the 
Australian. 

It  seemed,  therefore,  physically  impossible  that  the  Tasmanian 
could  have  come  from  Australia,  and  apparently  the  only  way  of 
accounting  for  the  presence  of  the  Tasmanian  was  to  assume  his 
migration  from  New  Galedouia  and  the  neighbouring  islands.  It 
would  appear  that  at  one  time  a  low  negrito  type  spread  eastwards, 
and  reached  Tasmania  not  by  means  of  direct  and  uninterrupted 
land-communication  between  New  Caledonia  and  Tasmania,  but  ra- 
ther by  means  of  broken  land  in  the  form  of  a  chain  of  islands  now 
submerged,  similar  to  that  which  at  present  extends  between  New 
Caledonia  and  New  Gruinea. 


The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  Hon.  Secretary : — 

XIV.  On  a  Frontier-line  of  Ethnology  and  Geology. 
By  H.  H.  HowoRTH,  Esq. 

Buckle  reduced  many  problems  of  history  to  questions  de- 
pending on  fixed  laws.  Fanciful  and  crotchetty  sometimes  no 
doubt^  we  cannot  but  follow  him  with  approval  in  many  of  hia 
speculations.  He  first  taught  as  a  system  that  man  is  the 
creature  of  the  physical  surroundings  in  which  he  finds  himself^ 
that  his  life  is  only  the  subject  of  choice  within  very  narrow 
limits^  and  that  even  these  limits  depend  a  good  deal  on  his 
culture^  and  while  very  appreciable  in  a  philosopher^  are 
almost  absent  in  the  savage.  If  we  confine  this  remark  to  one 
subject  only^  namely^  the  migrations  of  different  races,  we  shall 
not  be  slow  to  accept  it. 

A  very  superficial  survey  of  ethnology  is  sufficient  to  satisfy 
any  inquirer  that  its  grand  divisions  coincide  remarkably  with 
the  great  zoological  and  botanical  provinces.  I  am^  of  cotirse^ 
excluding  at  present  the  vast  colonizations  of  different  parts  of 
the  earth  which  have  taken  place  since  the  16th  century.  Neg* 
lecting  these^  we  find  Australia  (that  remnant  of  one  of  the 
most  ancient  land-horizons  in  geology^  with  a  fauna  and  flora 
of  a  very  primitive  type)  occupied  by  the  humblest  and  most 
degraded  type  of  man.  The  forests  and  hills  of  India^  and 
parts  of  South  Africa^  which  form  another  province,  are  in- 
habited by  a  black  race  which  connects  the  Australian  with  the 
purer  negro.  Central  and  South  America,  including  Mexico, 
nave  another  type,  as  they  form  another  province;  China  and 
Indo-China  another;  Southern  Asia  and  the  Mediterranean 
border-land  another;  Northern  Europe,  Siberia,  and  North 
America  yet  another.     I  now  wish  to  call  attention  to  the 

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132  H.  H.  HowoRTH — On  a  Frontier-line 

effects  of  tlie  invasion  of  one  ethnological  province  by  a  race 
belonging  to  another — ^perhaps^  rather,  the  coincident  and  ac- 
companying circumstances  than  the  effects.  The  readiest  ma- 
terials at  our  command  for  the  purpose  are  famished  by  the 
wide- spread  migration,  in  recent  times,  of  that  race  collectively 
known  as  Indo-European  or  Iranian.  It  is  a  trite  and  undeni- 
able fact  that  this  migration  has  been  accompanied  by  a  very 
great  change  in  the  fauna  and  flora  of  the  country  to  which  it 
has  tended,  A  portion  of  the  ancient  fauna  and  flora  haa  been 
driven  out  or  extinguished,  and  a  portion  of  the  rest  is  fighting 
a  losing  battle.  The  victors  are  the  invaders, — a  new  fauna 
and  a  new  flora,  brought  with  them  by  the  invading  race,  and 
apparently  as  superior  in  vigour  to  the  ancient  fauna  and  flora 
as  the  new  race  of  men  is  to  the  old.  It  is  not  sufficiently  con- 
sidered that  such  changes  may  not  be  the  effects  of  man's  mi- 
gration at  all,  save  in  that  he  is  the  immediate  instrument  of 
their  being  brought  about,  but  that  they  are  the  results  of  an 
invariable  law  to  which  man  is  as  subject  as  the  lower  animals, 
and  which  has  held  good  in  all  geologic  time,  namely,  that  the 
fauna  and  flora,  including  the  higher  and  the  humbler  classes, 
change  together.  The  fact  is  no  less  true  of  other  races  than 
the  Indo-European.  Indeed  I  hold  it  to  be  a  general  law, 
that  where  the  man  of  one  ethnological  province  bodily  invades 
and  drives  out  the  former  inhabitants,  he  is  merely  the  fore- 
runner of  a  great  change  in  the  fauna  and  flora  of  the  new 
country, — such  a  change  as  in  geology  would  mark  the  advent 
of  a  new  period ;  and  that,  in  fact,  such  a  new  period  in  geo- 
logy is  being  at  this  moment  inaugurated  in  every  country 
where  the  Indo-European  race  is  occupying  the  soil ;  and  fur- 
ther (but  I  am  rather  forestalling),  that  this  new  life-period  is 
coincident  with  new  climatic  and  other  conditions,  not  the  mere 
handiwork  of  man,  but  the  necessary  unfolding  of  a  fresh  leaf 
in  the  history  of  the  world,  of  which  the  creatures  more  im- 
mediately dependent  on  man,  and  the  plants  and  animals  more 
necessary  to  his  existence  and  pleasure,  are  to  form  the  palseon- 
tological  differentliB,  I  wish  to  apply  this  reasoning,  which,  so 
far  as  I  know,  is  new,  to  a  more  limited  area  of  inquiry. 

Siberia  and  North  America  form  perhaps  one  of  the  best  de- 
fined provinces  we  have,  zoologically  and  botanically.  In  these 
respects  it  coincides  ahnost  exactly  with  the  fauna  and  flora 
of  the  prehistoric  period*.  The  Megaceros  hardly  differs  from 
the  Moose,  or  the  Felis  spebea  from  the  Mandchurian  Tiger; 
and  the  rest  of  the  animals  are  equally  related.     It  is,  in  fact, 

♦  T  use  the  word  "  prehistoric"  us  Mr.  Boyd  Dawldns  uses  it,  to  repre- 
sent the  period  intervening  between  the  pleistocene  deposits  and  the  purely 
historical  ones. 


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of  Ethnology  and  Geology,  133 

the  yearly  diminisliing  but  still  vast  remnant  of  the  world  of 
yesterday,  or  rather  of  our  world  of  yesterday.  In  climate  and 
conditions  and  products  we  may  there  study  that  world  just  as  it 
was  with  us.  The  boundary  line  of  this  province  on  the  south 
follows,  as  is  natural  enough,  an  isothermal  line,  which  girdles 
the  northern  hemisphere  along  the  same  parallel  of  latitude, 
except  at  one  point.  It  is  weU  known  that  the  isothermals  of 
Western  Europe  have  a  very  abnormal  course.  Twisted  from 
the  horizontal  direction  they  maintain  across  the  Atlantic,  they 
turn  gradually  as  they  approach  Europe,  and  on  the  coast  of 
Norway  pass  almost  due  north,  and  enclosing  a  finger-like  projel^- 
tion,  they  return  again  as  rapidly  through  Central  Russia.  If 
we  ignore  the  European  emigrants  to  America,  and  the  as 
recent  Russian  emigrants  to  Siberia,  and  fix  upon  the  beginning 
of  the  16th  century  when  neither  of  these  events  had  occurred, 
we  shall  be  startled  to  find  what  a  decided  boundary  line  this 
isothermal  is  in  ethnology,  as  well .  as  in  zoology  and  botany 
even,  after  the  generalization  we  commenced  with.  North  of  it 
we  find  races  whose  physical  resemblance  is  unmistakable, — 
Ugnans,  Samoiedes,  Gilyaks,  Kamskatki,  and  North-American 
Indians.  In  America  the  ethnological  boundary  is  not  so  well 
defined,  perhaps,  more  because  we  have  not  yet  discriminated, 
as  we  shall  do  some  time,  the  various  divisions  of  the  American 
tribes,  than  because  of  the  want  of  a  real  frontier.  In  Asia 
and  Europe  the  case  is  different. 

In  Asia  the  great  succession  of  deserts  that  extend  from  the 
Caspian  to  the  Khingan  mountains  are  inhabited  by  mixed 
races  whose  history  points  a  curious  moral.  They  are  all  di- 
stinct from  the  races  north  of  these  deserts,  and  their  history  I 
have  epitomized  in  a  series  of  j)apers  I  am  writing  for  this 
Society.    In  Europe  the  contrast  is  still  greater. 

South  of  the  great  frontier  line  are  the  races  whose  fame  is 
wide  spread,  under  the  name  of  Indo-Europeans, — ^races  stretch- 
ing from  the  Hindu- Kush  to  the  Atlantic,  and  forming  a  power- 
ful ingredient  in  the  blood  of  the  Hindoos.  Most  of  the  in- 
tervening races  who  inhabit  the  Asiatic  deserts  are  compounded 
of  these  Iranians,  the  Chinese,  and  the  original  occupants  of 
Siberia,  whom  one  cannot  call  by  a  better  name  than  Ugrians. 
Our  evidence  goes  to  show  that  the  Tungus,  the  Mongols,  and 
the  Turks  all  originated  in  such  a  mixture,  and  that  they  chiefly 
occupy  ground  once  held  by  the  same  Ugrians,  of  whom  relics 
and  wrecks  are  found  in  every  comer  of  NorthemAsia.  The 
Ugrian  race,  then,  is  the  race  identified  with  those  climatic  and 
other  conditions  which  in  geology  constituted  the  prehistoric 
period. 

If  we  complete  the  isothermal  line  we  have   mentioned  along 

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13  4«  II.  II.  Ho  WORTH — On  a  Frontier-line 

its  normal  course,  and  make  it  traverse  Europe  at  the  same 
latitude  that  it  crosses  Asia,  we  shall  enclose  between  it  and 
the  present  isothermal  the  European  area  characterized  by 
remains  of  the  prehistoric  fauna.  This  enclosed  area  is  also  one 
of  infinite  interest  to  the  ethnologist.  During  the  last  2000 
years  (a  period  well  within  the  reach  of  close  criticism)  we 
find  that  amidst  the  ceaseless  and  confusing  emigrations  that 
have  occurred  in  this  area,  there  has  been  a  constant  move  in 
one  direction  at  least, — a  gradual  encroachment  by  the  Celtic, 
Germanic,  and  Slavic  races  upon  the  humbler  races  on  their 
frontiers,  and  these  latter  invariably  of  the  Ugrian  family. 
The  Basques  in  Spain  are  now  penned  in  a  small  corner  of 
their  ancient  patrimony  in  the  time  of  the  Romans.  The  Fins 
and  Laps  have  been  pushed  back  in  Scandinavia  to  a  very 
small  portion  of  their  ancient  holding.  In  Livonia,  in  Esthonia, 
and  in  three-fourths  of  European  Russia  the  Ugrians  were, 
even  in  the.  11th  century,  the  preponderating  population. 
Proofs  are  now  accumulating  that  before  the  Christian  era 
this  process  of  displacement  was  taking  place  even  at  a  greater 
rate,  the  area  to  be  occupied  having  been  much  more  fertile 
and  inviting.  I  have  attempted  to  show,  in  a  paper  read  before 
the  British  Association,  that  a  very  great  element  in  the  Celtic 
language  is  Ugrian,  and  I  believe  the  same  to  be  true  of  the  Latin 
and  Greek.  The  German- speaking  race  can,  I  believe,  be  shown 
to  have  occupied  Central  Europe  since  the  3rd  century  B.C.,  the 
Celts  and  the  Slaves  to  have  arrived  since  the  9th,  and  the 
Indo-European  element  of  Italy  and  Greece  since  the  10th  or 
11th.  If  this  be  so,  then  we  get  a  very  recent  date  compara- 
tively for  the  period  when  the  Basques  in  Spain  and  the  Fins 
in  Sweden,  now  mere  wrecks  and  waifs  of  the  original  popula- 
tion, were  close  neighbours ;  and  one  homogeneous  people  occu- 
pied, if  not  a  ring  round  the  world,  at  least  one  reaching  from 
Britain  to  Kamskatka,  when  Europe  was  overrun  by  fishermen 
and  hunters,  such  as  we  find  in  Siberia,  where  we  ought  to  go  if 
we  are  to  study  the  religion^  the  manners,  and  government  of 
the  so-called  stone-folk.  If  the  result  of  our  ethnological  in- 
quiry be  to  discover  so  recent  an  occupation  of  Western  and  Cen- 
tral Europe  by  the  Ugrian  races,  what  about  the  palseontological 
and  botaniccd  evidence?  During  the  last  2000  years  huge 
forests  have  disappeared  firom  IiYance,  Germany,  and  Britain, 
and  have  been  replaced  by  cultivated  land  in  some  instances,  in 
others  by  bogs  and  heath.  At  a  not  remotely  earlier  day,  Den- 
mark and  Prussia  and  Ireland  were  similarly  covered.  The 
gradual  extinction  of  the  bear,  the  wolf,  the  beaver,  the  elk,  the 
reindeer,  and  the  urus  in  Western  Europe  can  all  be  dated  in 
various  areas.     We  hear  of  the  reindeer,  the  urus,  and  the  elk 

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of  Ethnology  and  Geology.  135 

in  Gennany  in  the  days  of  Csesar,  and  the  reindeer  is  mentioned 
in  Caithness  by  the  Norse  Saga  writers.  The  urns  survives  in 
Lithuania^  and  has  only  disappeared  from  Transylvania  within  a 
century.  Eastern  Grcrmany  still  has  in  its  forests  some  of  the 
ancient  animals^  and,  as  we  approach  the  Siberian  area,  they 
increase  in  numbers:  their  course  of  extinction  has  followed 
lliat  of  the  Ugrian  races.  As  we  have  the  Basques  still  remain- 
ing in  Spain,  so  do  we  find  a  few  bears  and  wolves,  and  a  lynx 
or  two  in  the  Pyrensean  mountains  and  the  larger  forests  of  the 
peninsula.  Man  more  readily  and  quickly  occupies  a  new  area, 
the  animals  take  a  longer  time  to  replace  one  another,  and  the 
plants  a  longer  time  still  -,  but  the  story  is  equally  true  of  all 
three  classes.  This  change  in  the  fauna  and  flora  of  a  countiy 
is  preceded  by  a  change  in  climatic  and  other  conditions.  We 
cannot  read  the  accounts  given  by  the  ancients  of  Thrace,  of 
the  northern  shores  of  the  Euxine,  of  the  Hercynian  forest, 
and  of  Gaul,  without  seeing  at  once  what  a  rigorous  climate 
there  was  in  those  areas  formerly  as  compared  with  that  climate 
now-a-days.  Among  the  remains  of  the  stone-folk  found  in 
Switzerland  are  bunches  of  reindeer  moss,  which  will  grow 
only  in  a  very  severe  climate.  To  my  mind,  the  disappearance 
of  the  reindeer  was  caused  chiefly  by  the  disappearance  of  this 
its  food,  just  as  the  elk  was  extinguished  in  Ireland  when  the 
forests  in  which  it  is  alone  at  home  were  demolished.  The 
whole  evidence  goes  to  show  that  the  isothermal  lines  in  Europe 
have  been  gradually  twisted  further  to  the  north.  We  have 
been  told  that  this  is  due  to  the  forests  having  been  cut  down, 
and  to  other  minor  influences  of  man's  occupation;  but 
this  is  a  ridiculously  inadequate  cause ;  nor  would  it  account  for 
the  facts  in  Norway,  where  the  ancient  forests  remain,  nor  for 
Switzerland,  where  the  same  holds  good.  There  is  only  one 
adequate  cause, — ^a  cause  which  has  been  a  good  deal  pooh- 
poohed  of  late  years,  namely,  the  Gidf-stream^  or  some  body  of 
equatorial  water  drifting  northward.  We  have  been  told  that 
no  such  stream  exists  beyond  the  mid- Atlantic,  and  that  it  there 
is  gradually  absorbed  and  dies  away;  but  the  existence  and 
influence  of  the  stream  has,  to  my  mind,  been  triumphantly 
established  in  the  communication  made  by  Admiral  Isbister  to 
Sir  R.  I.  Murchison,  Bart.,  and  even  better  by  the  dredging- 
expeditions  of  Dr.  Carpenter.  The  presence  of  West-Indian 
fruits  on  the  coasts  of  Iceland  and  the  open  fiords  of  Norway  in 
winter  can  have  no  other  explanation ;  nor  the  belt  of  warm  sea- 
bottom,  so  clearly  distinguished  by  its  faima  from  the  surround- 
ing cold  waters  in  the  North  Atlantic.  I  have  not  the 
slightest  doubt  that  the  flexion  of  the  European  isothermal  is 
caused  mainly  by  the  presence  of  this  stream.     If  this  be  so. 

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136     H.  H.  HowoRTH — On  a  Frontier-line  of  Ethnology. 

then  the  reasoning  I  have  endeavoured  to  lay  before  yoa 
in  this  paper  would  tend  to  prove  that  the  gradual  advent 
of  such  a  stream  may  be  traced  from  no  earlier  period  than 
about  the  12th  century  b.c,  when  the  Ugnan  race  and  its 
associated  animals  and  plants  began  to  give  way  to  the  Indo- 
Europeans,  and  when  the  isothermals  of  Europe  began  to  be 
twisted  towards  the  north;  and  we  thus  get  an  approximate 
date  for  one  revolution  in  geology  which  is  susceptible  of  being 
more  accurately  gauged  as  our  evidence  increases. 

That  the  Gulf-stream  is  a  very  new  influence  it  is  not  diffi- 
cult to  believe.  Apparently^  after  it  reaches  the  banks  of  New- 
foundland, it  follows  the  line  of  least  resistance,  that  is,  of  the 
deepest  water;  for  we  must  never  forget  that  the  Gulf-stream  is 
an  actual  river  of  warm  water  padded  round  on  every  side  by 
cold.  This  line  of  least  resistance,  which  it  follows  on  its  way 
to  the  Pole,  makes  it  skirt  the  Bahama  banks  on  the  northj 
and  come  almost  due  west  to  the  Cape- Verde  islands.  Now 
these  Cape- Verde  islands,  in  common  with  the  Canaries  and 
other  Atlantic  islands,  are  subject  to  constant  earthquakes ;  the 
sea-bottom  is  never  long  quiescent,  but  constantly  altering  its 
level.  If  this  be  the  case  on  the  southern  frontier  of  the  Gulf- 
stream,  we  can  well  believe,  from  the  evidence  we  have  col- 
lected about  the  coasts  of  France,  Holland,  and  Britain,  that  the 
bed  of  the  North-west  Atlantic  is  also  constantly  altering  its 
level.  It  has  long  been  said  that  the  ice-fringe  of  the  Green- 
laud  coasts,  and  the  pack  in  Baffin's  Bay,  is  now  much  greater 
than  it  used  to  be,  nrlule  the  climate  of  Greenland  itself  is  appa- 
rently becoming  more  rigorous  every  year.  It  may  be  that  in 
all  this  we  have  evidence  that  the  Gulf-stream  formerly 
made  its  way  to  the  pole  on  the  western  rather  than  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Atlantic,  and  left  Greenland  on  its  right  hand  rather 
than  its  left,  as  it  does  at  present.  If  the  Gulf-stream  be  held 
to  be  an  inadequate  cause,  the  same  results  would  foUow  from 
the  distortion  of  some  other  body  of  warm  water  from  its 
normal  course  towards  the  pole  by  the  upheaval  or  sinking 
of  portions  of  the  Atlantic  sea-bed.  Either  one  or  the  other 
seems  to  me  to  be  necessary  to  explain  the  facts.  The  advent  of 
this  body  of  warm  water  has  introduced  two  new  sets  of  depo- 
sits,— one  subaqueous,  that  now  being  correlated  by  Dr.  Car- 
penter with  the  ancient  chalk,  and  the  other  terrestrial. 

In  concluding  this  very  disconnected  paper,  I  cannot  avoid 
one  somewhat  romantic  moral.  If  my  reasoning  be  sustained,  is 
it  not  wondrous  strange  that  the  area  where  these  latest  geological 
changes  are  in  progress  is  also  the  area  where  man's  culture  is 
most  developed,  and  where  the  focus  of  the  moral  world  also 
exists  ?     Can  it  be  that  we  have  in  this  correlation  an  example 

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G.  M.  Atkinson — On  the  Nicobar  Islanders,  137 

of  a  law  of  progress^  by  which  the  moral  empire  of  mankiud 
moTes  in  unison  with  the  spread  of  a  geological  and  physical 
wave  of  progress  ? 


Mr.  6.  M.  Atkinson  exhibited  a  collection  of  grotesque 
figures  carved  in  teak-wood^  obtained  by  Captain  Edge^  B.N., 
firom  the  Nicobar  Islands  in  1867;  and  read  the  following 
notes: — 

XV.  Notes  on  the  Nicobar  Islanders. 
By  G.  M.  Atkinson^  Esq.* 

In  July  1859  Captain  Mackenzie  first  visited  these  islands^  in 
command  of  a  barque  called  the  '  Aallotar.'  On  the  first  day 
of  his  visit  about  one  hundred  of  the  natives  came  off  to  the 
ship  in  canoes.  These  were  made  from  trees  hollowed  partly  by 
fire  and  partly  by  the  axe ;  they  were  firom  10  feet  to  30  feet 
in  length,  and  contained  on  an  average  from  6  to  8  men  each. 
After  the  natives  came  on  board,  the  pipe  of  peace  was  lighted 
by  the  interpreter,  and  passed  from  mouth  to  mouth  among  the 
chiefs,  who  washed  it  down  with  arrack.  The  goods  for  barter 
were  then  exhibited — axes,  iron  pots,  rice,  calico,  glass  beads, 
bangles,  &c ;  and  the  tariff  was  arranged,  so  mdny  cocoa-nuts 
for  each  article. 

On  the  followii^  days  it  was  judged  prudent  to  allow  only 
twelve  of  the  natives  on  board  the  ship  at  one  time.  Military 
duty  was  kept  up  on  board ;  sentinels  were*  stationed  on  deck ; 
armed  men  were  posted  on  the  tops ;  guns  were  all  loaded ;  and 
one  of  the  cannon  was  discharged  at  sunset  and  at  eight  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  until  urgently  requested  by  the  natives  to  stop 
the  practice  on  account  of  the  fright  which  the  noise  caused  to 
the  women  and  children. 

The  chiefs  were  known  as  Captain  Jack,  Captain  Tom,  &c., 
names  assumed  from  previous  intercourse  with  Europeans. 
Although  they  had  no  perceptible  mark  of  distinction,  they 
always  regulated  the  barter.  No  women  ever  came  to  trade. 
This  was  looked  on  as  a  cause  of  suspicion,  as  no  dependence 
was  to  be  placed  on  their  professions  of  friendship,  but  the 
interpreter  said  that  if  the  women  came  there  would  be  no  fear 
of  hostility. 

Noncowry  and  Trincutte  are  the  largest  of  the  Nicobar 
Islands ;  they  are  very  hilly,  and  probably  volcanic.  Captain 
Mackenzie  noticed  blue  slate-like  rocks.      They  are  densely 

*  From  information  given  to  me  by  Captain  James  Mackenzie. 

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138  G.  M.  Atkinson — On  the  Nicobar  Islanders. 

covered  with  tropical  vegetation^  even  to  the  water  s  edge.  The 
rise  and  fall  of  tide  is  about  six  feet,  and  the  soundings  very 
deep.  The  islands  produce  fine  timber,  mangroves,  iron-bark, 
cocoa-nut  and  betel-nut  trees  :  the  grass  is  in  some  places  up- 
wards of  six  feet  in  height.  The  crew  cut  down  a  poon  tree,  26 
inches  in  diameter  at  base,  70  feet  long  from  root  to  the  first 
branch,  and  perhaps  90  feet  in  total  length.  The  huts  are  built 
like  bee-hives,  circular  or  octagonal,  and  elevated  on  poles  about 
10  feet  high.  Access  to  the  huts  is  gained  by  a  rung  ladder,  up 
and  down  which  the  native  dogs  run  with  facility.  This  ladder 
is  drawn  up  on  the  approach  of  an  enemy  or  suspicious-looking 
folk,  and  the  bottom  of  the  huts  have  open  spaces,  through 
which  the  spear  may  be  used.  The  huts  are  all  close  to  the 
margin  of  the  shore,  and  are  shaded  by  cocoa-nut  trees :  they 
are  thatched  with  cocoa-nut  or  banana-leaves,  and  terminate 
each  in  a  little  cone  or  ball.  Their  height  inside  is  perhaps 
about  six  feet. 

The  only  apology  for  dress  was  a  string  or  narrow  ribbon-like 
strip  of  red  or  blue  cloth  round  the  waist,  passing  between  the 
legs  and  tied  in  a  knot  behind,  the  ends  hanging  down  to  the 
heels  (Fl.  XIV.  fig.  1).  The  women,  as  seen  through  the  glass 
on  shore,  wore  a  little  mat  apron.  On  procuring  any  article  of 
clothing  it  was  immediately  put  on :  one  strutted  about,  to  the 
great  delight  of  the  rest,  in  an  old  black  hat.  They  would  not, 
however,  receive  in  barter  any  article  that  was  cracked  or  had  a 
hole  in  it. 

Captain  Mackenzie  was  invited  to  a  feast  by  the  chiefs.  He 
left  the  ship  about  eleven  o'clock  at  night,  and  all  the  boat's 
crew  were  fiilly  armed.  On  landing  they  found  that  the  feast 
had  commenced :  men,  women,  and  children  were  dancing  and 
singing  to  the  music  of  a  tum-tum,  sometimes  going  round  hand 
in  hand,  then  jumping  up  and  down  separately,  but  still  pre* 
serving  a  circle  about  15  feet  in  diameter.  There  was  nothing 
within  the  circle.  Several  parties  were  thus  engaged.  Appa- 
rently a  pig  had  been  killed,  and  sections  of  the  flesh,  fat,  and 
blood  in  circles  had  been  cut  off  and  placed  round  their  necks 
like  a  necklace.  It  was  a  most  filthy  spectacle.  They  drank 
toddy  (the  juice  of  the  cocoa-nut  palm)  out  of  cups  made  from 
the  shell  of  the  cocoa-nut  very  nicely  carved. 

This  dance-festival  was  held  in  the  centre  of  the  enclosure  of 
huts.  Torches  made  from  a  resinous  substance,  the  product  of 
some  of  the  trees,  were  burning  all  round.  These  torches  are 
also  used  when  spearing  fish  by  night  with  rods,  having  a  barbed 
end  of  iron- wood.  Even  the  children  are  exceedingly  expert  at 
this  description  of  fishing,  and  will  pierce  with  unerring  accu- 

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G.  M.  Atkinson — On  the  Nicobar  Islanders.  139 

racy  a  fish  quite  indiscernible  to  a  European.  Captain 
Mackenzie  stopped  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  (a  most  anxious 
time)^  and  then  respectfnUy  retired. 

Their  weapon  is  a  spear  and  paddle  (PI.  XIY .  fig.  2),  measur- 
ing about  five  feet  long,  and  made  of  iron-wood.  It  is  always 
carried  in  the  right  hand.  While  climbing  up  the  ship's  side^ 
it  was  passed  through  the  girdle  on  the  back. 

The  only  evidence  of  religion  observed  was  that  outside  the 
encampment  of  huts  were  placed  small  sticks  about  five  feet  in 
height,  each  cleft  at  the  top  into  three  parts,  and  containing  in 
the  cleft  the  youngest  and  sweetest  cocoa-nut  (PI.  XIV.  fig.  3). 
Under  each  nut  was  placed  a  spark  of  fire  in  a  small  reed-like 
tube,  and  a  little  tobacco  in  the  form  of  either  a  suspended  cigar 
or  a  pipe,  and,  it  is  thought,  also  a  few  grains  of  rice.  This  was 
offered  to  appease  an  evil  spirit.  The  interpreters  spoke  to  the 
natives  in  what  was  judged  to  be  the  Malay  language. 

While  loading,  information  was  received  that  a  white  woman 
was  captive  on  the  island,  and  my  friend  made  efforts  to  rescue 
her.  Before  daybreak  he  went  in  with  his  crew  fully  armed. 
They  entered  the  hut  which  was  pointed  out  as  her  prison,  but 
it  was  empty ;  and  a  second  time  he  went  to  the  back  of  the 
island,  but  had  no  better  success.  He  thinks  that  information 
of  his  movements  was  given  by  the  rascally  interpreters.  While 
pursuing  the  search  on  shore,  two  Calcutta-built  copper-fastened 
boats  were  found,  carefully  hidden  under  leaves.  From  certain 
European  chests,  clothing,  &c.  it  was  evident  that  many  ships 
had  been,  captured  and  plundered.  On  the  second  voyage  the 
interpreter  got  into  difficulties  amongst  the  natives,  was  chased 
to  the  boat,  and  had  to  swim  for  his  Ufe,  crying  out  to  the  officer 
in  charge  to  fire ;  but  as  the  natives  did  not  attempt  to  follow, 
the  officer  did  not  think  it  necessary.  The  supercargo,  on 
reaching  the  ship,  immediately  ordered  the  vessel  to  leave, 
fearing  that  an  attack  would  be  made  by  the  natives. 

In  consequence  of  their  propensities  for  plunder,  the  authorities 
at  Singapore  were  compelled,  in  July  1867,  to  despatch  an  expe- 
dition to  the  islands.  The  wooden  figures  which  I  had  the  plea- 
sure of  exhibiting  to  the  meeting,  and  one  of  which  is  represented 
in  PI.  XIV.  figs.  4  &  5,  were  taken  during  this  expedition  by  Cap- 
tain Edge,  R.N.,  Commander  of  H.M.S. '  Satellite.'  The  follow- 
ing memorandum  accompanied  these  figures :  — ''  Reports  hav- 
ing reached  the  authorities  at  Singapore  that  several  vessels  had 
from  time  to  time  been  attacked  by  the  savages  upon  these 
islands,  and  their  crews  barbarously  murdered,  it  was  determined 
to  despatch  an  expedition  to  that  spot,  and  accordingly,  in  July 
1867,  H.M.S.  'Wasp,'  Captain  Bedingfield,  R.N.,  and  H.M.S. 

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140  G.  M.  Atkinson — On  the  Nicobar  Islanders. 

*  Satellite/  Captain  Edge,  R.N.,  proceeded  thither.  The  savages 
fled  on  the  approach  of  the  vessels  of  war;  and  upon  landing  at 
Enonnga,  one  of  the  largest  of  the  villages.  Captain  Edge  dis- 
covered these  figures  in  their  huts,  and  upon  his  return  to 
Singapore  he  gave  them  to  Major  M^^air,  B.A.,  for  presentation 
to  a  museum/' 

Figs.  4  and  5  (PL  XIV.)  represent  the  front  and  side  view  of 
the  most  characteristic  of  the  figures.  The  original  is  made  of 
teak-wood,  and  is  3  feet  4  inches  high,  and  14  inches  broad.  It 
has  short  legs  and  long  arms,  and  the  back  is  armed  with  the 
form  of  the  shell  of  a  tortoise  for  a  shield.  The  eyes  are  formed 
of  pieces  of  pearl  shell,  and  the  pupils  of  some  gummy  substance. 
The  face  and  front  of  the  hood  are  painted  red,  and  the  teeth 
white,  while  a  stripe  of  white  surrounds  the  mouth.  The  dress  is  a 
bundle  of  tropical  grass  worn  round  the  neck.  One  arm  is  lost. 
The  imitative  power  of  the  natives  is  shown  by  the  representation 
of  one  of  the  Indian  deities,  an  abomination  made  of  teak,  8  feet 
high :  the  sceptre  and  spear  in  the  hands  are  wanting.  They 
have  also  made  a  figure  of  a  lady  in  European  dress,  to  them 
very  fascinating,  and  several  most  comical  imitations  of  Euro- 
peans, soldiers  and  sailors,  with  red  jackets  and  round  black 
hats.  Two  pieces  of  board  (one  with  a  procession  of  natives 
meeting  Europeans,  the  other  with  a  number  of  different  fishes) 
show  the  character  of  native  art  in  another  direction. 

The  natives,  as  shown  by  the  photographs  of  the  three  cap- 
tured, are  of  a  very  low  type.  Their  stature  is  from  5  feet  to 
5  feet  6  inches. 

Several  of  the  figures  and  the  photographs  are  now  in  the 
Christy  Collection  of  the  British  Museum,  and  the  others  have 
been  sent  to  the  Science  and  Art  Museum  in  Edinburgh. 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATE  XIV. 

Fig.  1.  Form  of  dress  worn  by  the  male  natives  of  the  Nicobar  Islands. 
2.  Implement  used  as  both  spear  and  paddle. 

d.  Cocoa-nut  in  deft  stick,  with  fire  below ;  probably  an  emblem  of 
religion. 

4.  Fiffure  in  teak- wood,  with  ejes  of  mother-of-pearl,  8  feet  4  inches 

nigh.    Taken  from  the  Nicobar  Islands  by  Captain  Edge,  K.N., 
and  now  in  the  Christy  Collection. 

5.  Side  view  of  fig.  4. 


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W.  Boyd  Dawkins — On  Flints  from  a  Submerged  Forest.    141 

Ordinary  Meeting^  Feb.  8th,  1870. 
A.  Campbell,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Viee-JPresident,  in  the  Chair, 

New  Members. — Sir  Charles  Wbntworth  Dilke,  Bart., 
M.P.;  Rev.  A.  S.  Farrar,  D.D.;  Morton  Coates  Fisher, 
Esq.;  Francis  Kerridoe  Munton,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.;  and  F. 
Berbspord  Wrioht,  Esq. 

The  following  paper  was  read  by  the  author : — 

XYI.  On  the  Discovery  of  Flint  and  Chert  under  a  Submerged 
Forest  in  West  Somerset.  By  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Esq., 
M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 

The  submarine  forest  exposed  between  the  tide-marks  on  the 
coast  of  West  Somerset  has  long  been  known.  That  portion  of 
it  visible  at  Porlock  was  described  in  1839  by  Sir  Henry  de  la 
Beche  *,  and  more  recently  by  Mr.  Godwin-Austen  in  an  essay 
read  before  the  Geological  Society  in  1865.  It  was  shown  by 
the  latter  to  be  rooted  on  '^  an  angular  detritus,''  and  to  be  over- 
laid by  the  following  deposits  : — 

1.  A  blue  freshwater-mud  deposit,  resulting,  probably,  from 
the  depression  of  the  laud. 

2.  A  surface  of  plant-growth  {Iris). 

3.  A  marine  silt  with  Scrobicularia  piperata. 

4a.  Shingle  that  forms  a  ridge  which  is  at  the  present  time 
encroaching  on  the  level  water-meadows  behind. 

The  physical  changes  manifested  by  the  section  he  interprets 
thus  : — The  accumulation  of  angular  detritus,  in  which  the  trees 
are  rooted,  belongs  to  subaerial  conditions,  which  were  in  ope- 
ration while  the  boulder-clay  of  the  centre  and  north  of  Britain 
was  falling  from  the  melting  icebergs.  ''  It  is  a  condition  of 
surface  presenited  everywhere  by  that  portion  (t.  e.  the  west  of 
England  and  of  Europe)  which  was  not  submerged  during  the 
great  subaqueous  depression  of  the  northern  hemisphere.  In 
geological  history  it  belongs  to  the  subaerial  phenomena  of  the 
glacifd  period,  and  represents  the  whole  of  the  variable  condi- 
tions of  that  long  interval  of  time.''  This  was  followed  by  the 
epoch  of  the  growth  of  the  forest,  and  of  th^  accumulation  of 
vegetable  matter.  The  overlying  blue  clay  (no.  1)  marks  the 
time  during  which  the  trees  were  kiUed ;  the  surface  of  marsh- 
growth  (no.  2),  covered  with  Iris,  marks  the  epoch  when  the 
trees  fell ;  the  Scrobicularia'CleLj  (no.  3)  indicates  a  depression 
below  the  sea-level ;  and,  lastly,  the  clay  was  elevated  and  the 
shingle  thrown  up  on  its  surface  to  form  the  barrier  at  high- 
water  mark. 

•  Geol.  Report  on  Cornwall,  Devon,  and  West  Somerset. 

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142      W.  Boyd  Dawkins — On  the  Discovery  of  Flint  and 

Mr.  Godwin- Austen's  valuable  essay  recalled  to  mind  a  worked 
flint  that  I  had  found  in  the  angular  detritus  in  1861.  On  its 
reexamination  I  found  that  it  had  been  chipped  by  the  hand  of 
man.  In  the  autumn  of  1869^  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Winwood  and 
myself  resolved  to  verify  the  discovery  by  a  thorough  examina- 
tion of  the  forest-bed.  On  digging  through  the  layer  of  undis- 
turbed  vegetable  matter,  we  met  with  ample  traces  of  man's 
handiwork  in  flint  and  chert  chippings,  and  in  one  very  well- 
formed  flake  which,  apparently,  had  never  been  used.  They 
were  imbedded  in  the  upper  ferruginous  portion  of  the  angular 
detritus,  and  evidently  had  been  dropped  upon  the  surface-soil 
of  the  period,  and  not  transported  by  water.  On  searching  the 
shingle  we  found  only  one  water- worn  flint-pebble,  which,  pos- 
sibly, may  have  been  washed  out  of  the  angular  detritus ;  it  is 
therefore  probable  that  the  presence  of  flint  and  chert  in  that 
neighbourhood  is  owing  to  their  transport  by  man. 

Encouraged  by  these  results  we  resolved  to  explore  the  sub- 
marine forest  in  the  nearest  bay  to  the  east  close  to  Minehead. 
It  there  consists  of  oak,  ash,  alder,  and  hazel,  which  grow  on  a 
blue  clay,  full  of  rootlets,  that  thickens  considerably  seawards. 
The  blue  clay  in  its  lower  part  is  full  of  angular  fragments  of 
Devonian  rocks,  which,  as  at  Porlock,  constitute  a  land-wash 
and  not  a  shingle.  At  the  point  between  tides,  where  the  an- 
gular fragments  began  to  appear,  the  flint  chippings  were  found. 
The  exact  spot  where  we  dug  was  to  the  east  of  the  little  stream 
that  enters  the  sea  between  Minehead  and  Warren  farm,  and 
close  to  a  large  stump  that  is  generally  exposed  at  one-third 
tides,  about  200  yards  from  the  shore  and  50  from  aline  of  posts 
for  nets.  Th6  splinters,  which,  as  at  Porlock,  clearly  had  been 
struck  ofi*  by  the  hand  of  man  in  the  manufacture  of  some  tool, 
consisted  of  flint  and  chert,  the  latter  of  which  was  derived  from 
the  greensand  of  Blackdown,  on  the  borders  of  Wiltshire ;  they 
were  imbedded  in  a  ferruginous  band  as  at  Porlock,  aaid  occurred 
as  deep  as  one  foot  from  the  surface  of  the  bed.  We  dug  in 
several  other  spots  without  flnding  any  other  traces  of  man's 
presence. 

In  both  these  localities  it  is  clear  that  man  had  been  living  on 
the  old  land-surface,  and  that  the  remains  of  his  handiwork  had 
been  dropped  in  the  angular  detritus  which  Mr.  Godwin- Austen 
believes  to  be  glacial.  If  the  latter  were  accumulated  under 
Bubaerial  conditions,  during  the  great  depression  of  land  in  the 
northern  hemisphere,  the  traces  of  man  contained  in  it  must  be 
of  a  like  antiquity.  But  I  cannot  admit  that  the  premises 
warrant  any  such  conclusion.  The  angular  detritus  at  Porlock 
and  Minehead  may  have  been  the  result  of  the  action  of  snow 
and  ice  during  hard  winters  at  any  time.     The  hills  that  over- 


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Chert  under  a  Submerged  Forest  in  West  Somerset.      143 

hang  both  those  loculities  are  very  precipitous,  and  therefore 
the  accumulation  of  angular  detritus  might  naturally  be  expected 
in  the  valleys.  It  is,  indeed,  the  result  of  the  natural  disinte- 
gration of  the  Devonian  rocks,  under  temperate  rather  than 
arctic  conditions,  and  at  the  present  day  in  that  area  constitutes 
the  surface-soil.  It  therefore  by  no  means  follows  that  man 
lived  on  the  land  in  the  south  of  England  during  the  glacial 
submergence  of  the  north ;  but  that  some  time  during  the  accu- 
mulation of  the  detritus,  and  before  the  deposit  of  the  blue  fresh- 
water clay,  he  occupied  the  district,  very  possibly  during  the 
time  when  the  forest  still  overshadowed  the  valley  now  sub- 
merged beneath  the  Bristol  Channel,  and  certainly  not  later 
than  that  remote  period. 

These  fragments  of  submerged  forest  are  mere  scraps,  spared 
by  the  waves,  of  an  ancient  growth  of  oak,  ash,  and  yew  that  is 
found  everywhere  in  the  Somersetshire  levels,  underneath  the 
peat  or  alluvium.  At  Porlock  Quay,  on  the  west,  it  dips  under 
the  freshwater  and  marine  strata,  that  have  been  described,  at 
high-water  mark,  and  is  stripped  of  its  superjacent  deposits  firom 
the  line  of  half-tide  down  to  low  water.  Opposite  the  precipi- 
tous headland  of  North  Hill  it  has  not  yet  been  found.  At 
Minehead  it  reappears  under  the  same  conditions  as  at  Porlock, 
and  thence  it  is  represented  in  an  easterly  direction  by  several 
patches,  visible  at  extreme  low  water,  as  far  as  Stolford,  where 
the  angular  detritus  rests  on  the  Liassic  reefs.  Then  it  passes 
under  the  alluvium  of  Stert  Point,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river 
Parret,  to  join  the  large  forest  that  lies  buried  in  the  basins  of 
the  Axe,  the  Tone,  the  Parret,  and  the  Yeo.  At  Weston-super- 
Mare  it  can  be  seen  under  the  alluvium.  Throughout  this  wide 
area  the  trees  have  been  utterly  destroyed  by  the  growth  of 
peat,  or  by  the  deposits  of  the  floods,  except  at  a  few  isolated 
spots,  which  stand  at  a  higher  level  than  usual,  in  the  great 
flats  extending  between  the  Polden  Hills  and  the  Quantocks. 
One  of  these  oases,  a  little  distance  to  the  west  of  Middlezoy,  is 
termed  the  Oaks,  because  those  trees  form  a  marked  contrast  to 
the  prevailing  elms  and  willows  of  the  district.  In  the  neigh- 
bouring ditches  that  gradually  cut  into  the  peat  and  then  into 
silt,  prostrate  oak  trees  are  very  abundant.  As  we  approach  the 
river  Parret  the  silt  gradually  increases  in  thickness  until,  at 
Borough  Bridge,  the  forest  is  struck  at  a  depth  of  18  feet  below 
the  present  surface,  or  about  the  same  distance  below  the  line 
of  high-water  mark  in  the  river. 

The  destruction  of  the  forest  seems  to  have  been  brought 
about  by  the  stagnation  of  water  consequent  on  the  deposit  of 
silt  in  the  rivers,  by  which  their  beds  were  raised  until  the  sur- 
rounding district  became  flooded;   then   the  peat  grew  and 

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144  W.  Boyd  Dawkinb — On  Flints  from  a  Submerged  Forest, 

gradually  changed  the  surface  into  a  spongy  morass,  in  which 
the  trees  died,  and,  as  the  latter  decayed,  they  were  blown  down, 
the  lines  of  their  trunks  pointing  away  from  the  prevalent  winds. 
But  while  this  was  going  on,  the  rivers  were  depositing  silt  in 
quantities  greatest  at  the  line  where  their  currents  impinged  on 
the  slack  water,  and  gradually  reaching  a  minimum  in  passing 
away  from  their  courses ;  and  in  this  way  the  fertile  alluvium 
of  the  vales  of  Taunton,  Bridgewater,  Highbridge,  and  Wes- 
ton-super-Mare was  deposited,  while  around  Shapwick  the 
peat  comes  up  to  the  surface,  and  attains  a  depth  of  at  least 
16  feet. 

The  conditions,  therefore,  under  which  the  forest  at  Porlock 
Quay  and  Minehead  was  destroyed  are  not  merely  confined  to 
those  isolated  spots,  but  are  constant  over  the  whole  of  the 
Somerset  levels.  If,  then,  we  can  approximately  fix  the  date  of 
the  destruction  of  the  forest,  we  have  a  clue  to  the  antiquity  of 
the  traces  of  man  found  in  the  land-surface  underneath.  And 
this  we  are  able  to  do  by  the  discoveries  made  by  the  late  Mr. 
Stradling  at  the  bottom  of  the  peat,  in  the  great  marsh  that  ex- 
tends from  Highbridge  to  Glastonbury.  From  time  to  time, 
between  the  years  1^0  and  1851,  he  obtained  sundry  flints, 
celts,  and  spear-heads  of  the  neolithic  type,  a  bronze  celt,  and 
three  paddles  from  the  top  of  the  subturbary  marl.  A  lax^ 
canoe  also,  formed  out  of  an  immense  oak,  and  known  as 
''  Squire  Phippen's  big  ship,"  made  its  appearance  in  dry  sea- 
sons, and  eventually  was  broken  up  for  firewood  by  the  cot- 
tagers. It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  at  least  as  early  as  the  neo- 
lithic age  the  forest  beneath  the  turbary  had  been  destroyed,  and 
its  area  occupied  by  a  lake  and  possibly  also  by  peat.  The 
atest  date,  therefore,  which  we  can  assign  to  the  traces  of  man 
in  the  submerged  land-surface  at  Porlock  and  Minehead  is  an 
early  stage  in  the  neolithic  period.  Possibly,  even  like  the  re- 
mains of  Rhinoceros  tichorhinus  dug  out  of  a  similar  deposit 
underneath  a  forest  that  underlies  Taunton  Oaol,  they  may  be 
of  Quaternary  or  Postglacial  age. 

I  have  brought  this  note  before  the  Ethnological  Society 
because,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  cases  are  on  record  of  the  occur- 
rence of  traces  of  man  underneath  any  submarine  forest  on  the 
shores  of  Britain.  They  do  not  add  to  our  knowledge  of  pri- 
meval man,  or  extend  his  range  frurther  than  we  already  know 
into  the  past ;  they  merely  prove  that  he  dwelt  in  the  district 
probably  before  and  possibly  during  the  growth  of  the  forest, 
and  before  those  physical  changes  began  to  be  felt  by  which  its 
destruction  and  submergence  were  brought  about, — changes  of 
great  magnitude  and  probably  of  long  duration. 


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Dr.  Campbell — On  Prehistoric  Remains,  145 

Discussion. 

Dr.  Nicholas  said  that  Mr.  Boyd  Dawkins's  interesting  analysis 
of  this  sea-coast  section  suggested  several  points  of  inquiry  bearing 
on  the  antiquity  of  man.  One  question  was  as  to  the  time  it  might 
take,  under  given  conditions,  to  amass  the  several  beds.  The  rapi- 
dity of  the  growth  of  peat  was  scarcely  subject  to  any  rule  of  calcu- 
lation ;  but  it  was  matter  of  observation  that  in  one  man's  lifetime 
considerable  changes  of  the  surface  of  marsh-lands,  through  accumu- 
lation of  flood-deposits  and  vegetation,  often  took  place.  Groves  of 
trees  within  a  comparatively  short  time  disappeared  through  too 
great  a  saturation  of  the  ground  with  wet,  or  other  causes,  and  the 
trunks  of  these  were  soon  covered  over  with  moss  and  peat,  and  by 
the  next  generation  might  be  discovered  a  foot  or  more  under  ground. 
He  himself  knew  a  place  on  the  sea-coast  where,  in  twenty  jears,  the 
shingle  bar  gathered  by  the  waves  had  considerably  grown  in  height, 
and  the  litue  valley  to  the  interior  had  perceptibly,  through  the 
causes  alluded  to,  had  its  surface  raised.  The  mere  existence  of  these 
accumulated  layers,  therefore,  did  not  argue  necessarily  any  very 
great  antiquity.  But  then  they  had  to  deal  with  another  fact,  viz. 
the  finding  of  those  flint  implements  in  these  deposits  ;  and  it  was 
necessary,  in  order  to  determine  how  long  it  took  to  accumulate  the 
strata  from  the  point  where  the  flints  were  found  upwards,  to  have 
fiome  definite  idea  as  to  the  period  when  the  formation  of  such  im- 
plements ceased  in  this  island.  Were  they  sure  that  none  such  were 
formed  within  historic  times  ?  The  same  kind  of  weapons  were  known 
to  be  still  formed  and  used  by  savage  or  half-civilized  nations ;  and 
it  was  just  possible  that  such  rude  contrivances  continued  long  in 
use  by  the  less  cultured  portions  of  even  civilized  communities  long 
after  bronze  and  even  iron  instruments  had  been  introduced. 

Mr.  BoTD  Dawkiks  said  in  reply,  that  implements  of  stone  were 
used  in  Britain  gun-flints  and  '^  strike-a-li^hts  "  being  put  out  of  the 
Question)  far  later  than  was  generally  believed.  He  had  discovered 
nakes  both  in  the  cinder-heaps  of  the  Wealden  Ironworks,  and  in  a 
Bomano-British  Cemetery  at  Hardham,  in  Sussex.  A  club  or  axe 
armed  with  stone  was  even  used  at  the  Battle  of  Senlac.  A  cargo 
of  stones  to  be  used  as  missiles  formed  an  important  part  of  a  Vi- 
king's equipment. 


The  Assistant-Secretary  then  exhibited  and  described  a 
stone  hammer-head  found  by  Mr.  R.  Mouat  in  the  ancient 
workings  of  the  copper-mine  of  Ruy  Gomes,  in  the  Province  of 
Alemtejo,  Portugal.  The  specimen  is  now  in  the  Museum  of 
Practical  Geology. 

The  Chairman  then  read  a  Note  introductory  to  a  paper  by 
the  Rev.  R.  J.  Mapleton  on  the  prehistoric  remains  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  Crinan  canal,  Argyllshire. 

He  said  that  his  attention  was  first  directed  to  the  occurrence 
VOL.  II.  x>  , 

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146         Rev.  R.  J.  Mapleton — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

of  these  remains  by  Sir  James  Simpson^  of  Edinburgh^  when  on 
board  the  '  lona'  steamer  last  autumn,  in  going  up  Loch  I^ne. 
The  tract  of  country  in  which  they  are  found  is  peculiar;  it  is 
situated  between  Loch  Fyne  and  Loch  Crinan  on  the  one  hand, 
and  between  the  former  and  the  head  of  Loch  Awe  on  the  other. 
Loch  Crinan  and  Loch  Fyne,  both  salt-water  lochs  or  inlets  of 
the  sea,  are  united  by  the  Crinan  canal,  which  is  nine  miles  long, 
and  by  which  navigation  is  carried  on  to  the  west  coast  of 
Argyllshire.  The  country  between  the  two  lochs  is  very  level 
and  productive,  and  although  it  is  not  thickly  peopled  in  the 
present  day,  it  may  have  maintained  a  heavier  population  in 
olden  times.  The  tract  lying  between  Lochs  Fyne  and  Ford  at 
the  head  of  Loch  Awe,  which  is  a  freshwater  loch  30  miles 
long,  and  is  estimated  to  cover  52,000  acres,  is  also  compara- 
tively rich  and  productive.  It  is  in  the  vicinity  of  Kilmartin 
in  this  tract  that  the  greatest  number  of  upright  stones  with 
carvings  are  met  with. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Mapleton,  of  Duntroon,  having  been  indicated 
as  the  best  authority  on  the  antiquities  of  this  district.  Dr. 
Campbell  had  applied  to  him  for  a  paper  on  this  subject,  and  he 
had  kindly  forwarded  the  following  communication. 

The  following  paper  was  then  read : — 

XYII.  Report  on  Prehistoric  Remains  in  the  Neighbourhood 
of  the  Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.  By  the  Rev.  R.  J. 
Mapleton. 

In  attempting  to  give  some  account  of  the  remains  of  the 
ancient  inhabitants  of  this  district,  I  think  that  perhaps  it  will  be 
the  better  plan  to  divide  the  subject  into  various  heads,  so  as 
to  be  able  more  readily  to  mark  any  differences  that  may 
occur.  I  shall  therefore  offer  some  remarks  upon — I.  Petro- 
glyphs ;  2.  Menhirs ;  3.  Cairns  and  other  sepulchral  remains ; 
and  4.  Residences. 

1.  Petroglyphs. — ^There  are  four  distinct  groups  of  these  still 
existing  in  the  glen  that  extends  from  Lochgilphead  to  the 
village  of  Kilmartin, — ^two  on  each  side  of  the  glen.  I  may  men- 
tion that  it  is  the  opinion  of  good  geologists  that  Loch  Awe 
at  one  time  emptied  itself  at  this  south  end,  instead  of  at  the 
north  end,  as  at  present.  There  are  evident  signs  that,  at  one 
time,  a  strong  and  rapid  river  ran  through  the  glen :  thus  the 
glen  would  have  been  of  more  importance  then  than  now.  The 
chief  peculiarity  in  these  specimens  is  that  the  markings  are  all 
circular,  none  are  square.  A  fifth  group  was  accidentally  de- 
stroyed a  few  years  ago  in  making  a  road,  and  I  have  heard  of 
a  sixth,  which  I  have  been  unable  to  find,  as  it  is  overgrown 


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in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.     147 

with  grass  'and  moss.  Thus  six  distinct  groups  at  least  have 
existed  in  this  neighbourhood^  three  on  each  side  of  the  glen ; 
they  are  all  situated  upon  the  ice- worn  crowns  of  rock,  and 
engraven  upon  the  solid  stone.  No  remains  of  camps  have  as 
yet  been  ascertained,  but  the  glen  is  one  mass  of  sepulchral 
remains.  These  petroglyphs  therefore  would  seem  to  be  con- 
nected  with  burials  or  religion  rather  than  with  war,  especially 
as  several  of  the  menhirs  are  sculptured  with  "  pits''  or  "  cups,'' 
some  of  which  are  surrounded  by  the  circle,  exactly  similar  to  a 
marking  that  I  saw  upon  a  stone  among  the  Carthaginian  re- 
mains in  the  British  Museum. 

The  only  variation  from  the  circle  is,  first,  a  kind  of  horse- 
shoe pattern ;  and,  secondly,  a  kidney-shaped  pattern,  formed  by 
a  line  drawn  into  a  kind  of  spiral  at  each  end.  The  number  of 
concentric  circles  varies  from  one  to  nine,  whereas  on  the  men- 
hirs only  one  circle  is  to  be  found ;  and,  as  is  common  in  the 
markings  in  other  districts,  several  are  connected  together  by  a 
groove. 

The  number  of  figures  in  the  groups  varies  from  nine  or  ten 
(excluding  the  pits  or  cups)  to  thirty- nine.  Near  Lochgilphead 
are  three  groups  at  least,  but  so  close  to  each  other  that  I 
reckon  them  as  one.  In  all  cases,  menhirs  and  sepulchral 
remains  are  not  far  off. 

2.  Menhirs. — Very  great  numbers  of  these  interesting  hoary 
stones  are  found  in  various  localities  about  this  district,  and 
many  more  existed  a  few  years  ago.  It  is  said  that  at  one 
time  an  avenue  of  them  extended  fit>m  Lochgilphead,  just 
below  the  largest  group  of  petroglyphs,  up  to  the  spot  near  Kil- 
martin  where  there  is  a  range  of  cairns.  Several  pairs  of  these 
are  to  be  seen  in  this  route,  till  we  arrive  at  a  field,  in  the  very 
midst  of  burials,  where  seven  are  now  standing.  These  seven 
do  not  form  part  of  a  circle,  but  are  arranged  in  three  patches, 
four  in  one  patch,  two  in  another,  and  one  by  itself;  they  are 
very  high  and  broad,  and  two  of  them  are  marked  with  pits  and 
circles.  The  one  standing  by  itself  is  perforated,  such  as  are 
often  called  "  Odin  stones."  Not  far  from  these  is  another 
patch,  if  possible,  more  surrounded  with  burials.  Some  of  these 
also  have  the  cup-  and  circle-markings.  No  menhirs  have  yet 
been  found  with  the  symbols  so  common  on  the  east  coast,  viz. 
the  "  spectacles,"  the  "  mirror,"  &c. ;  neither  have  any  Ogham 
inscriptions  as  yet  been  discovered. 

8.  Cairns  and  Burials. — ^There  are  several  forms  or  modes 
in  which  the  cists  &c.  have  been  made :  some  are  found  in 
large  cairns,  some  are  situated  above  and  some  below  the  sur- 
face. In  only  two  instances  have  I  found  unmistakable  evi- 
dence of  unburnt  bodies ;  but  several  cists  have  been  so  much 

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148        Rev.  R.  J.  Mapleton — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

disturbed  at  an  early  period  that  it  is  hard  to  say  what  was  the 
original  use. 

(a)  The  first  form  that  I  shall  describe  is  one  in  which  the 

body  had  been  placed  unbumt ;  and  it  seems  to  me  to  be  the 

oldest  form,  unless  the  chambered  sepulchre  should  be  the 

oldest.     The  common  forms,  made  of  four  slabs,  with  a  cover, 

are  found  in  various  stages  of  neatness  and  perfection,  and 

some  associated  with  well-made  bronze  implements.     Some  of 

these  also  are  found  in  the  edges  of  large  cairns,  containing 

either  the  "  sepulchre  "  or  the  "  toulder  "  cist,  so  that  they  were 

in  use  at  a  later  date  than  the  others,  though  there  does  not 

seem  to  be  proof  as  to  whether  they  might  not  have  been  used 

before.      In   the   ''boulder"    cist,    the    grave  is  placed   just 

below  the  surface  of  the  natural  soil;  it  is  dug  out  of  the 

ground.     The  sides  and  two  ends  are  formed  of  large  boulders 

set  in  clay,  and  the  shape  is  a  long  oval.     The  grave  is  covered 

with  a  large,  heavy,  rough  slab,  in  one  instance  9  feet  long,  and 

4  feet  7  inches  wide ;  in  another  14  feet  long,  8  feet  wide,  and 

1  foot  3  inches  in  its  thickest  part.     The  first  of  these  two  cists 

was  in  the  centre  of  a  large  cairn,  which  still  shows  evidence  of 

having  been  110  feet  in  diameter,  and  is  still  13  feet  6  inches 

high.    There  was  not  the  slightest  trace  of  burnt  bones  or  of 

charcoal ;  but  a  thin  layer  of  clay,  which  covered  the  boulders 

at  the  bottom,  was  very  unctuous  and  discoloured,  and  it  was 

clear  that  the  body,  bones,  and  flesh  had  all  melted  away.    No . 

implement  of  any  kind,  and  no  chip  of  flint  could  be  discovered, 

except  a  broken  urn  of  red  half-baked  pottery,  roughly  but 

highly  ornamented,    which  had  fallen  to  pieces  through  the 

damp.     At  the  S.W.  comer  of  this  cairn  was  found  an  ordinary 

cist,  containing  urn  and  necklace,  and  surrounded  by  a  double 

circle  of  stones,  which  most  clearly  was  built  after  the  other,  as 

there  were  wallings  and  props  between  the  stones  of  the  circle, 

towards  the  interior  of  the  cairn,  to  preserve  the  cist  from  the 

pressure  on  that  side. 

The  other  example  of  this  form  of  cist  at  present  occupies  the 
edge  of  the  cairn,  in  which  another  cist  is  situated  in  the  centre, 
as  the  cairn  now  stands ;  but  a  great  deal  of  the  cairn  on  that 
side  has  been  removed  to  make  dykes,  and  so  many  cairns  have 
been  altogether  taken  away,  that  very  probably  it  was  the  pri- 
mary burial.  The  interior  of  this  grave  is  7  feet  6  inches  long, 
3  feet  2  inches  wide,  3  feet  6  inches  high.  It  had  been  dis- 
turbed long  ago;  for  it  contained  several  deposits  of  burnt 
bones,  most  carelessly  and  negligently  placed,  separated  from 
each  other  by  small  rough  fragments  of  stone.  Here  were  de- 
posits of  perhaps  eight  or  ten  bodies.  The  cist  is  so  exactly 
similar  to  the  one  above  described,  that  we  must  suppose  that 
at  first  it  was  constructed  for  one  body  unbumt.      r^.         i 

^  .gitizedbyLjOOgle 


in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.    149 

(6)  Chambered  Sepulchre. — Two  examples  of  this  form  of 
barial  are  still  existing,  about  two  miles  apart,  but  I  have  a 
suspicion  that  two  others  were  destroyed  not  long  ago.  Both 
are  built  on  a  very  similar  plan.  Both  were  covered  with  a 
large  cairn,  one  of  which  we  can  trace  to  have  been  at  least 
134  feet  in  diameter,  with  a  circle  of  great  stones  just  within 
its  edge.  The  sepulchre  itself  is  dug  some  3  or  4  feet  into  the 
ground,  but  part  of  the  building  is  above  ground,  as  the  interior 
of  one  is  8  feet  3  inches  high,  of  the  other  10  feet.  The  style 
of  building  is  similar,  though  differing  in  some  slight  respects. 
The  walls  are  formed  of  rough  slabs  of  various  sizes ;  in  one 
they  are  placed  horizontally,  like  a  rough  wall;  in  the  other 
they  are  upright,  and  the  spaces  filled  in  with  other  pieces. 
Each  is  covered  in  by  three  or  four  large  slabs.  The  entrance 
to  each  is  at  the  N.E.  end,  and  is  formed  in  one  hj  two  upright 
stones  slightly  converging,  so  as  to  narrow  the  entrance ;  in 
the  other  by  two  upright  stones,  not  converging,  but  placed 
a  few  feet  apart,  so  as  to  admit  a  passage,  and  yet  be  readily 
blocked  up  by  a  slab,  by  way  of  a  door.  The  interiors  are 
very  similar,  being  about  15  or  16  feet  long,  and  divided  into 
three  compartments;  or  perhaps  we  might  say  that  one  of  them 
has  four,  as  there  is  a  small  compartment  by  the  side  of  the 
passage  near  the  door.  The  compartments  are  formed  by  large 
slabs  running  across  the  tomb,  which  appear  to  have  been  placed 
there  at  first,  as  in  one  of  the  tombs  they  are  regularly  built 
into  the  rough  wall,  and  seem  necessary  for  the  support  of  the 
fabric. 

One  of  the  tombs  had  undergone  very  great  disturbance  and 
alteration.  The  compartments  were  fiUed  up  with  stones  and 
rubbish,  among  which  were  found  the  fragments  of  two  urns, 
one  of  the  usud  form  and  material,  the  other  of  a  black  pottery 
and  unusual  shape,  and  very  tender  from  age  and  damp.  On 
the  top  of  one  of  the  compartments,  a  small  cist  of  the  usual 
construction  had  been  built,  which  probably  had  contained  the 
red  urn  whose  fragments  we  found.  This  is  another  proof  that 
the  ordinary  cist  was  in  use  later  than  the  chambered  tomb. 
At  the  very  bottom  of  the  compartments  we  found  deposits  of 
burnt  bone,  flint  blocks,  and  chips,  and  some  very  delicate  well- 
made  arrow-heads  of  flint  that  I  thtnk  were  made  for  use,  not 
for  show;  there  was  also  one  well-made  flint  scraper.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  that  the  tomb  was  built  for  burial  after  crema- 
tion, and  probably  for  a  family  or  tribe. 

The  same  may  be  said  of  the  other  tomb.  Among  the  rub- 
bish was  found  a  portion  of  a  very  large  urn,  flint  chips,  and 
blocks;  and  in  the  natural  soil  at  the  bottom  were  found  several 
deposits  of  burnt  bones,  some  in  the  comers,  and  some  in  the 

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150        Rev.  R.  J.  Maplkton — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

middle.  A  great  deal  of  charcoal  was  there^  and  the  sand  was 
reddened  by  fire,  and  in  some  places  almost  nm  together. 
Several  fine  flint  scrapers  were  found  of  various  shapes  (knife- 
shaped^  round,  oval,  leaf-shaped,  oblong),  all  evidently  made  for 
use.  This  part  had  never  been  disturbed.  These  two  tombs 
seem  to  have  been  made  for  family  burial,  and  not  for  a  single 
interment,  especially  as  some  of  the  flint  implements  were  found 
fixed  to  the  wall  by  clay,  just  above  the  deposit  of  bones,  like 
a  slab  or  tombstone  of  the  present  day. 

{c)  Another  form  of  cist  is  that  made  of  four  side-slabs  and  a 
cover,  on  the  ground  or  just  above  it.  These  vary  somewhat 
in  size,  but  the  average  is  about  3  feet  6  inches  x  2  feet  4  inches, 
and  1  foot  9  inches  deep.  The  largest  is  6  feet  4  inches  X  3  feet 
1  inch,  and  4  feet  4  inches  deep ;  the  smallest,  1  foot  6  inches 
X  1  foot  3  inches  X  1  foot  3  inches. 

They  are  found  in  different  situations,  some  being  in  the 
centre  of  a  cairn,  with  a  circle  of  stones  round  them,  some  on 
the  outside  of  a  cairn  that  contains  other  cists,  some  standing 
in  circles  formed  by  a  rampart  of  earth  (and  in  these  cases 
several  cists  are  in  the  same  circle),  and  some  standing  in  sand- 
banks, with  a  cover  just  below  the  surface.  These  are  associ- 
ated with  flint,  urns,  &c.,  but  no  bronze,  except  that  in  one 
cairn,  where  we  obtained  three  cists,  each  of  different  construc- 
tion, we  found  among  the  stones  a  '^hone-stone,''  as  it  is 
called,  which  might  seem  to  imply  bronze,  though  close  to  it 
was  a  stone  axe  of  hard  green-stone.  In  this  cairn  we  found 
three  cists, — one,  a  small  one,  near  the  outside,  contained  a 
fine  urn ;  the  second  was  the  '^  boulder''  cist,  described  above, 
with  a  cover  14  feet  long ;  and  the  third,  occupying  the  present 
centre  of  the  cairn,  was  raised  a  few  feet  from  the  ground.  This 
cist  is  remarkable  from  its  containing  the  remains  of  two 
bodies.  On  opening  the  cist,  we  found  on  the  surface  an  urn 
of  the  same  make  and  pattern  as  that  in  the  small  cist,  and 
burnt  bone.  A  rough  pavement  seemed  to  form  the  bottom  of 
the  grave;  but  on  removing  it  we  found  the  remains  of  an  unbumt 
body  buried  in  clay.  The  bones  of  the  leg  and  some  of  those 
of  the  arms  were  p^ect.  The  skull  was  quite  gone,  except  one 
tooth.  The  bones  were  of  the  consistence  of  butter  or  new 
cheese,  and  seemed  almost  to  melt  between  the  thumb  and  fin- 
ger. The  clay  was  unctuous  and  discoloured.  From  their  size 
I  should  judge  the  bones  to  be  those  of  a  full-grown  and  rather 
tall  man. 

In  the  cairn  where  the  other  *'  boulder"  cist  occurs,  a  cist 
was  discovered  at  the  S.E.  end,  surrounded  by  a  double  circle. 
This  contained  a  very  beautifril  mm,  of  the  ordinary  materia], 
but  better  baked  and  larger  than  usual,  with  four  small  ears  or 

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in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.    151 

liandles^  having  a  hole  through  them,  as  though  for*  the  passage 
of  a  string  for  the  purpose  of  suspension.  Several  beads  and 
two  blocks  of  polished  jet,  forming  part  of  a  necklace,  were 
lying  over  the  urn,  which  was  sunk  in  the  soil  up  to  its  rim. 
It  did  not  contain  bones.  Several  cists  have  been  found  just 
below  the  surface  of  the  soil,  placed  by  themselves,  of  the  ordi- 
nary type,  and  containing  urns. 

(rf)  Another  form  of  making  or,  rather,  "  placing"  the  cist  is 
when  a  cist  of  ordinary  size  and  build  is  placed  some  2  or  3  feet 
below  the  surface,  in  a  sand  or  gravel  bank.  In  two  of  these, 
that  I  did  not  see,  but  was  told  of  by  a  man  who  opened  the 
cist  while  trenching  the  ground  for  a  plantation,  bronze  was 
found.  The  man  took  a  bronze  dagger,  with  six  rivets  still  in 
the  handle,  but  was  forced  to  replace  it  in  the  cist  by  his  wife, 
who  feared  that  the  ghost  of  the  buried  man  woidd  haunt  him. 

(e)  There  is  another  slightly  different  form,  viz.  that  in  which 
the  two  side-slabs  have  rough  grooves  in  them,  to  admit  the 
two  end-slabs.  Bronze  was  found  in  these ;  a  dagger  and  part 
of  another  are  still  in  the  house  of  a  farmer  in  this  neighbour- 
hood. 

Perhaps  I  ought  to  add  that  burials  are  found  occasionally  on 
tops  of  hills.  I  examined  one  hill  that  had  a  small  cairn 
on  the  top,  that  was  disturbed  a  few  years  ago  to  make  a  seat, 
and  at  that  time  '^  something'^  was  found  and  taken  away.  I 
rather  suspect  that  this  "something"  was  an  urn. 

I  found  the  remains  of  an  ordinary  cist,  i.  e.  there  were  slabs 
that  seemed  as  though  they  had  been  used  for  that  purpose ; 
but  I  found  also  two  burials  in  a  rough  kind  of  cist,  formed  by 
a  comer  of  the  rock,  and  supplemented  by  two  slabs  to  form 
the  square;  both  contained  burnt  bone.  I  have  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  burials  still  exist  on  other  hill-tops.  A  few  I  know 
to  have  been  destroyed.  The  labour  of  carrying  the  boulders 
and  slabs  up  these  hills  must  have  been  very  great;  but  for  what 
reason  the  cists  were  placed  in  such  situations  I  know  not, 
unless  the  spot  was  sacred  from  having  been  used  for  burial- 
fires.  As  the  glen  contains  such  a  number  of  burials  of  all 
forms,  and  probably  of  many  ages,  the  hill-top  could  not  have 
been  selected  simply  for  security's  sake.  No  sculpture  has  been 
found  in  the  cists,  except  in  one  instance,  where  a  lozenge- 
shaped  pattern  was  found  cut  in  the  cist-cover. 

(/)  On  the  moss,  and  throughout  the  hills,  are  several  small 
circles  of  stones.  These  contain  burials,  but  I  have  not  found 
"  cists."  In  one  I  found  a  sling-stone,  in  another  a  large  block 
of  flint ;  in  another  there  was  a  perfect  burial,  consisting  of 
burnt  bone,  hastily  and  rather  imperfectly  burnt,  deposited  in 
a  very  small  heap  of  stones,  together  with  sphagnum  and  other 
bog-plants,  charred  and  burnt.  ^  I 

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152         Rev.  R.  J.  Mafleton — On  Prehistoric  Remains 

4.  Residences. — I  have  not  seen  any  "Piets'  houses/'  nor 
have  I  heard  of  any ;  but  we  have  crannogs,  duns,  vitrified  forts, 
one  brough,  one  cave-dwelling,  and  two  or  three  flint-manu- 
factories. 

(a)  Crannogs. — I  have  reason  to  believe  that  crannogs  have 
existed  in  most  of  the  lochs,  even  in  those  of  very  small  extent ; 
but  they  have  not  anywhere,  that  I  know,  assumed  the  form  of 
villages,  but  are  simply  separate,  solitary  dwellings  or  forts. 
They  seem  to  have  been  built  in  various  ways,  according  to  the 
nature  of  their  position  and  the  material  that  was  most  readily 
to  be  obtained.  In  two  that  I  have  examined,  the  structure  dif- 
fered from  that  of  those  described  by  Mr.  John  Stewart,  Secretary 
to  the  S.  A.  of  Scotland,  which  appears  to  be  the  general  form  in 
the  Lowlands.  In  one  case  the  structure  was  entirely  of  stone,  in 
the  other  of  wood,  or  rather  trunks  of  trees  placed  alternately 
upon  each  other.  The  stone  structure*  was  formed  by  walling, 
placed  between  projecting  points  of  rock,  and  the  interior  filled 
in  with  stones,  giving  the  whole  building  the  appearance  of  a 
cairn  under  water.  The  walls  were  examined  by  divers,  whom 
I  employed  for  the  purpose.  They  represented  the  walls  to  be 
most  beautifully  laid,  more  regular  and  strong  than  any  dry  wal- 
ling or  dykes  at  the  present  day.  No  mortar  or  cement  was  used, 
and  the  stones  bore  no  marks  of  tools.  At  ordinary  levels,  the 
present  top  of  the  cairn  is  from  1  foot  6  inches  to  2  feet  below 
the  surface  of  the  water.  I  have  never  seen  the  top  of  the  cairn 
above  water  in  the  driest  season.  The  loch  itself  is  about  one 
mile  and  a  half  in  length,  and  about  a  quarter  in  width.  The 
wall  varies  in  height,  according  to  the.  rock  on  which  it  is  built ; 
one  portion  is  8  feet  high,  another  6  feet,  and  another  4  feet  6 
inches. 

Near  to  the  cairn  the  divers  brought  up  some  charred  and 
broken  deer-bone,  and  a  very  beautiful  paddle,  shaped  like  an 
arrow-head ;  but  the  exceeding  depth  of  mud  prevents  the  hope 
of  finding  other  things. 

The  crannogt  made  of  logs  is  situated  in  a  much  flatter  part 
of  the  country,  where  stone  is  not  so  readily  obtained.  I  could 
only  dig  down  to  the  depth  of  three  layers  of  logs,  but  I  could 
feel  them  nearly  12  feet  down,  by  means  of  an  iron  rod.  Some 
of  the  trunks  were  40  feet  long  and  4  feet  6  inches  in  circum- 
fCTcnce.  We  found  two  or  three  fire-places  on  the  surface  of 
the  crannog,  with  a  great  deal  of  charcoal,  and  several  charred 
hazel-nuts. 

Both  the  crannogs  agreed  in  having  a  rampart  of  sharpened 

*  In  Loch  Kielziebar,  \\  mile  from  Bellanoch^  on  the  Crinan  Oanal. 
t  In  Loch  Ariflaigy  now  nearly  drained ;  but  the  crannog  still  exists,  and 
can  he  easily  examined. 


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in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  Orinan  Canal,  Argyllshire.     153 

stakes  round  them.  We  fished  up  several  pieces  from  the  mud 
round  the  stone  building,  and  nearly  all  the  stakes  are  in  situ 
round  the  log  structure;  they  are  arranged  about  3  feet  dis- 
tant from  the  crannog,  and  other  logs  ran  horizontally  round 
the  ends  of  these,  and  were  fastened  by  grooves  at  the  comers. 
In  Loch  Awe  there  are  several  cairns  under  water,  which  I  feel 
sure  are  crannogs.  In  one  that  is  some  distance  down  the  loch, 
the  timbers  are  visible  at  low  water. 

Altogether,  in  this  district,  I  think  that  stone  buildings  were 
the  rule,  as  in  most  lochs  there  are  islands  and  cairns  under 
water,  which  are  most  clearly  artificial,  and  have  not  been  made 
for  ornament. 

{b)  Duns. — Bough  forts,  built  of  stone  without  mortar,  mostly 
(if  not  entirely)  circular,  are  very  common,  generally  situated 
on  the  top  of  some  marked  eminence  commanding  the  smaller 
glens  among  the  hills.  I  have  never  heard  of  any  implement 
being  found  near  any  of  them ;  and  they  have  been  so  much 
disturbed  and  robbed  of  their  stones,  that  it  is  hard  to  ascer- 
tain anything  beyond  their  extent. 

(c)  One  Vitrified  Fort  exists  close  to  this  place  and  very  near 
the  sea ;  it  occupies  an  eminence  that  probably  was  once  almost 
surrounded  by  the  sea,  perhaps  at  the  time  of  the  40-foot  beach. 
It  was  simply  a  wall  enclosing  the  crown  of  the  hill,  occupying 
a  space  of  40  yards  in  diameter.  The  stones  are  very  strongly 
run  together,  and  apparently  cemented  by  some  vitrified  sub- 
stance. 

Another  specimen  that  I  examined,  not  far  from  Ardnamur- 
chan,  was  a  long  triangular  building  enclosing  a  long  narrow 
neck  of  hiU,  not  far  from  the  sea.  Its  length  is  342  feet,  the 
width  33  feet,  and  the  wall  in  some  places  is  8  feet  high,  and 
6  feet  9  inches  thick ;  within  the  enclosed  space  are  two  small 
round  hollows  or  pits,  surrounded  by  a  vitrified  wall. 

(d)  We  have  one  hrough  situated  on  low  ground,  close  to  the 
sea ;  it  is  not  more  than  one  mile  from  a  Dun  up  the  little  glen ; 
the  building  stands  at  the  end  of  a  bay  or  sea  loch ;  the  walls 
are  7  or  8  feet  thick,  very  strong,  built  without  mortar  j  one  of 
the  chambers  in  the  wall  is  still  in  existence,  and  there  are  ap- 
pearances of  where  another  may  have  been.  We  partly  exa- 
mined the  floor  near  the  chamber,  and  found  great  quantities 
of  deer-,  cow-,  and  pig-bones  among  sand,  but  nothing  to  show 
the' time  when  these  were  placed  there.  I  am  informed  that 
broughs  are  more  common  towards  the  east  or  north-east  of 
Scotland,  and  were  once  considered  peculiar  to  that  side  of  the 
island. 

(e)  In  a  sea-cave  just  above  the  level  of  the  25-foot  beach, 
a  few  years  ago,  we  discovered  the  remains  (or  part  of  the  re- 
Digitized  by  LjOOQIc 


154        Rev.  R.  J.  Mapleton — On  Prehistoric  Remaitu 

mains)  of  a  family  of  nine  persons^  of  various  ages^  as  was 
evident  from  the  characters  of  the  teeth  &c.  The  rock  over- 
head had  fallen  in  and  fiUed  the  cave>  and  thus  kiUed  the  family. 
Bones  of  red  deer  and  shells  of  various  sorts  were  found  inside 
and  just  outside  the  cave.  A  flat  round  stone^  charred  and 
reddened^  was  found  imbedded  in  charcoal  and  ash^  and  near 
this  the  burnt  leg-bone  of  a  red  deer.  The  family  must  have 
occupied  the  cave  for  a  long  time ;  no  vestige  of  metal  or  pottery 
could  be  found.  The  only  implements  were  two  flint  scrapers 
and  a  block  of  flint ;  a  third  scraper  was  afterwards  brought  to 
me  by  a  workman^  but  as  I  did  not  see  it  taken  out,  I  cannot 
vouch  for  it.  The  cave  is  not  more  than  200  yards  from  the 
vitrified  fort.  The  only  perfect  skull  was  pronounced  in  London 
to  be  a  genuine  Celtic  skull. 

(/)  Perhaps  under  the  head  of  Residences  should  be  placed 
a  flint  manufactory  that  was  discovered  in  the  moss  not  far 
from  the  large  groups  of  Petroglyphs.  I  did  not  see  it ;  but  we 
have  some  flakes  of  flint  and  flint  scrapers  that  came  from  it : 
as  far  as  I  can  learn,  it  was  a  small  pit,  narrower  at  the  bottom 
than  the  top ;  the  remains  of  an  oak-stump  was  close  to  it.  I 
did  not  hear  of  any  tool  being  found  there;  and  as  the  place  was 
discovered  by  a  labourer,  who  appropriated  the  flint  to  strike 
fire  for  his  pipe,  there  may  have  been  all  the  requisite  tools. 

The  fiint  was  in  large  flakes,  very  like  the  flint  that  is  brought 
over  here  from  Ireland ;  the  flakes  had  been  prepared  and  care- 
fully broken  off  from  the  mass,  with  the  view  of  making  scrapers 
and  other  implements;  they  were  long,  narrow,  and  thin. 
Several  implements  were  found  in  various  stages  of  perfection ; 
I  believe  the  quantity  found  was  very  great.  If  this  spot  had 
been  examined  by  some  one  who  understood  the  matter,  it  would 
have  been  a  most  interesting  dbcovery. 

Several  deposits  of  flint  have  been  found  in  various  spots, 
though  I  believe  without  signs  of  a  dweUing ;  several  dozens  of 
rough  pieces,  of  the  size  and  shape  to  make  scrapers,  were  found 
in  draining  a  deep  moss.  Another  lot  was  found  in  the  hills ; 
but  unfortunately  I  never  hear  of  these  things  till  a  short  time 
afterwards,  and  then  I  am  not  able  to  ascertain  the  exact  spot. 
As  we  have  no  flint  anywhere  about  here,  the  flakes  must  have 
been  imported  ready  for  use. 

I  have  very  little  to  say  about  the  implements  that  have  been 
preserved  from  this  locality,  as  most  of  them  were  taken  away 
some  years  ago. 

The  flint  implements  seem  to  be  of  two  characters ;  first, 
those  made  caretully  and  for  use,  and,  secondly,  those  imperfectly 
made  and  found  in  the  more  ordinary  cists.  A  few  articles 
that  have  been  found  elsewhere  than  in  cists  are  usually  elabo- 

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in  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  Crinan  Canal,  Argyllshire,      155 

rately  made.  In  the  cists^  those  found  in  the  chambered  sepul- 
chres were  beautifully  finished;  the  arrow-heads  were  exceedingly 
fine  and  delicate  and  of  somewhat  diflFerent  shapes.  The  scrapers 
from  the  other  chambered  tomb  were  also  very  well  made  and 
of  yarious  shapes^  so  that  I  cannot  suppose  that  ^'  shape  ^'  had 
any  thing  to  do  with  the  period  of  deposit.  The  people  seemed 
to  have  used  any  likely  bit  of  flint ;  for  we  have  found  pieces  of 
flint  of  no  regular  shape,  but  yet  nicely  chipped  on  the  edges, 
and  bearing  marks  of  having  been  used.  Those  in  the  commoner 
cists  are  very  rough,  and  seem  to  have  been  made  for  the  occa- 
sion, for  form's  sake,  hardly  fit  for  use. 

I  should  mention  that  unbumt  cows'  teeth  are  nearly  always 
found  in  the  cists,  and  in  such  positions  as  to  show  that  they 
were  placed  there  at  the  time  of  burial ;  they  are  not  foimd 
among  burnt  bones  of  animals,  as  if  a  part  of  a  funeral  feast, 
but  as  a  part  of  the  ceremonial. 

A  lump  of  white  quartz  is  another  article  nearly  always  foimd ; 
the  people  here  still  use  this  for  striking  fire  when  flint  cannot 
be  obtained.  The  frequency  of  this  gave  us  the  impression  of  its 
being  also  a  part  of  the  ceremonial,  perhaps  an  emblem  of  fire. 

The  urns  do  not  vary  much.  One  type  is  the  commonest,  in 
shape  somewhat  like  an  old-fashioned  finger-glass;  they  are 
better  baked  and  in  better  preservation  than  most  of  those  foimd 
by  Canon  Greenwell.  The  roughest  and  the  unusual  shapes 
are  found  in  solitary  cists,  without  cairns,  and  one  from  a  rough 
cist  in  a  circle  of  earth. 

Discussion. 

Dr.  Nicholas  observed  that  the  menhirs  (long  stones)  described 
in  the  paper  differed  from  those  which  he  had  examined  in  Brittany 
in  one  very  striking  respect ;  for,  judging  from  the  transverse  sections 

fiven  on  the  diagram-board,  they  had  evidently  been  formed  by 
uman  labour  into  a  regular  shape ;  and  it  was  difficult  even  to 
imagine  the  amount  of  labour  it  required,  with  such  tools  as  were 
then  in  use,  and  the  bard  materials  to  work  upon,  to  bring  those 
great  masses  of  rock  into  any  regular  form.  The  menhirs  of  Brit- 
tany (he  referred  especially  to  that  wonderful  assemblage  of  them  at 
and  near  Camac)  had  been  erected  as  they  were  found,  as  great 
boulders  or  masses  of  dislocated  rock.  Ko  effort  had  been  made  to 
give  them  any  uniformity  of  shape.  But  he  observed  on  many  of 
them  certain  stri©,  which  were  not  the  effects  of  the  action  of  glaciers 
or  icebergs,  but  seemed  to  be  the  work  of  human  hands.  It  was 
observable  that  this  paper  confirmed  the  conclusions  of  Dr.  Lukis  as 
to  the  sepulchral  character  of  most  of  these  gigantic  monuments  ;  but 
this  was  by  no  means  inconsistent  with  the  idea  that  they  had  also 
a  religious  significance. 

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156         George  Busk — On  an  Ancient  Chinese  Calva. 

Ordinary  Meeting,  Feb.  22iid,  1870. 
Professor  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
New  Member, — ^Edward  Backhouse,  Esq. 
The  following  note  was  read  by  the  author : — 

XVIII.  Supplementary  Remarks  to  a  Note  on  an  Ancient 
Chinese  Calva.     By  George  Busk,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

SiNCE.my  former  communication  was  read^  I  have  been  favoured 
through  Mr.  Mummery  with  some  additional  information  on  the 
subject  of  these  prepared  skulls  from  China,  derived  from  Mr. 
W.  Lockhart  and  Mr.  Swinhoe,  both  authorities  of  the  greatest 
weight  in  matters  connected  with  Chinese  customs. 

In  a  letter  to  Mr.  Mummery,  Mr.  Lockhart  observes  that  he 
has  been  informed  by  his  friend  Mr.  Wylie  that  the  frx>ntal  let- 
ter is  the  Tibetan  character  for  the  vowel  sound  a  as  m  father j 
and  that  it  is  also  used  as  a  numeral  for  thirty.  The  trefoil 
symbol  he  regards  probably  as  an  emblem  of  the  Buddhist 
Trinity.  Mr.  Wylie  is  of  opinion  that  the  skull  is  of  Mongol 
origin,  and  was  taken  from  a  lama  temple  near  Peking. 

Mr.  Lockhart  himself  is  acquainted  only  with  the  lamds 
among  the  Mongols  and  Tibetans  at  Peking;  and  says  that  the 
cadets  of  the  families  of  the  Mongol  Princes  are  often  made  into 
Lamas  or  Priests,  and  retained  at  Peking  in  monasteries  at  the 
public  expense  as  hostages  for  the  fealty  of  the  other  members 
of  the  family. 

As  Mr.  Wylie's  opinion,  above  cited,  appeared  to  cast  some 
doubt  upon  the  statement  that  the  gold-mounted  calva  had  been 
taken  at  the  sack  of  the  Summer  Palace,  I  endeavoured  to 
ascertain  from  Mr.  Lockhart  the  probable  grounds  upon  which 
it  was  founded,  and  he  was  good  enough  to  procure  from  Mr. 
Swinhoe  the  following  interesting  particulars. 

Mr.  Swinhoe  writes,  "  that  when  the  British  army  was  lying 
oflf  the  North  Wall  of  Peking,  the  military  train  were  housed 
in  the  'Hih-Sze'  (a  Lama  Temple).  I  went  there,^'  he  says, 
^'  and  saw  in  the  inner  shrine  two  of  the  gold-mounted  calvarim 
in  question.  Each  was  a  skull  of  itself,  without  the  lower  jaw 
and  the  teeth  of  the  upper.  The  skull  was  cut  in  two,  so  that 
the  crown  lifted  off;  and  both  the  upper  and  lower  portions  of 
the  skull  thus  divided  were  lined  with  gold.  This  temple  was  a 
purely  Tibetian  one,  where  the  priests  spoke  no  Chinese,  and  I 
could  get  no  information  from  them.  It  was  full  of  designs  of 
skulls  and  bones  on  hanging  cloths  ranged  round  the  Central 
Hall,  and  was  filled  with  ^Avenging  Gods;'  and  I  was  of  the 

•  Journ.  Ethn.  Soc.  vol.  ii.  p.  73. 

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C.  MoNRMAN — Discoveries  in  Recent  Deposits.  157 

opinion  that  the  skulls  were  those  of  enemies  slain  by  the  Ti- 
betans. The  calvaruB,  so  far  as  I  could  learn,  were  used  for 
pouring  libations  into  the  fire  which  was  kept  burning  before  the 
shrine^.  I  heard  of  other  calvaria  being  found  in  other  parts 
of  the  same  temple ;  but  I  myself  only  saw  the  two  above  men- 
tioned. As  soon  was  it  as  discovered  that  they  were  lined  with 
the  precious  metal  they  became  objects  of  theft  and  concealment, 
BO  that  there  was  no  seeing  any  more  of  them.  I  did  not  hear 
of  any  having  been  found  in  the  '  Yuen-ming-yuen.^  The  gold- 
mounted  ones  would  probably  be  the  skulls  of  prominent  ene- 
mies, whilst  those  lined  with  copper  might  be  those  of  inferior 
chieftains.^' 

From  the  above  description  of  the  two  gold-mounted  skulls  seen 
by  Mr.  Swinhoe  in  the  Buddhist  temple,  it  would  appear  scarcely 
probable  that  either  of  them  could  have  been  that  which  was 
exhibited  on  the  last  occasion,  and  which  consisted  solely  of  the 
calva  or  upper  portion  of  the  skull.  Consequently,  if  Mr.  Swinhoe 
in  his,  perhaps  hurried,  view  was  not  deceived  in  what  he  saw  of* 
the  mounted  skulls,  and  did  not  mistake  the  gold  lid  or  cover  for 
a  second  portion  of  the  calvaria,  it  would  appear  that  the  Tibe- 
tan or  Chinese  Buddhists  are  in  the  habit  of  preparing  skulls  in 
two  different  manners.  But  it  seems  to  me,  in  the  absence  of 
further  evidence  to  the  contrary,  more  probable  that  Mr.  Swin- 
hoe may  have  been  deceived,  and  that  the  specimen  exhibited  in 
1862  was  in  all  probability  one  of  those  seen  by  him  in  the 
temple  of  "  Hih-Sze.'' 

Mr.  Lockhart  has  also  been  kind  enough  to  afford  me  the 
opportunity  for  exhibiting  a  second  calva  prepared  in  the  same 
way  as  the  former,  and  like  that,  as  I  am  informed,  mounted  on 
a  tripod  stand  and  furnished  with  a  lid.  There  is,  however,  this 
important  difference,  that  the  lining  and  rest  of  the  mount- 
ings are  of  copper  instead  of  gold,  and  that  neither  the  metal  nor 
the  bone  is  sculptured.  The  skull  itself  in  the  present  instance 
is  rather  larger  and  considerably  thicker,  and  with  stronger 
muscular  impressions  than  the  former  one,  but  otherwise  of  the 
same  shape  and  proportions. 


The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  Assistant-Secre- 
tary:— 

XIX.  On  Discoveries  in  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire. 
By  C.  MoNKMAN,  Esq. 

The  following  paper  contains  a  record  of  discoveries  of  the 
later  prehistoric  period  in  Yorkshire.      The  districts,  lying 

♦  This  is  in  curioua  accordance  with  what  Livy  states  respecting  the  JBoii, 

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158  C.  MoNKMAN — On  Discoveries 

wide,  are  taken  in  separate  sections,  viz. — I.  The  Kelsea-Hill 
Clay;  II.  The  York  Sands;  and.  III.  The  Vale  of  Pickering. 

I.  The  Kelsea^mU  Clay. 

The  discovery  of  "struck-off^^  flints,  since  1864  (some  of 
which  show  chipping  and  sign  of  use),  in  the  clay  of  Kelsea 
Hill  (then  supposed  to  be  the  postglacial  ^'Hessle^^  clay),  in 
the  East  Biding  of  Yorkshire,  has  lately  aroused  considerable 
attention.  The  occurrence  of  the  flint  flakes  and  tools  in  this 
early  clay  was  first  observed  by  Mr.  J.  R.  Mortimer,  of  Pimber ; 
but  it  was  not  until  midsummer  of  1868  that  a  systematic 
search  was  instituted.  In  December  of  the  same  year  I 
accompanied  Mr.  Mortimer  to  the  place,  and  we  were  rewarded 
by  the  discovery  of  "  hand-struck  "  flints,  protruding  from  the 
clay  at  various  depths.  One  implement  was  half  of  a  "  finger- 
flint"  or  "  flaking-tool,"  chipped  finely  along  the  edges,  and 
smoothed  at  the  end  by  use  (PL  XV.  fig.  1).  This  was  picked 
*  down  from  the  face  of  the  day  cliflp  by  Mr.  Mortimer,  who,  as 
well  as  I,  saw  it  protruding  at  a  depth  of  fully  five  feet  irom 
the  surface.  This  is  the  best  chipped  tool  yet  found,  the 
remainder  being  cores,  one  of  which  shows  seventeen  facets 
(fig.  2)  ;  and  struck-off  flakes  of  all  shapes,  from  the  most 
delicate  to  the  coarsest,  some  of  which  latter  have  been  worked 
into  '^  scrapers  ^^  (figs.  3,  4,  5).  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
Kelsea  Hill,  near  Keyingham,  in  Holdemess,  where  the  flints 
are  found,  is  fast  disappearing,  the  North-Eastem  Railway 
Company^s  ballast-pit  being  there.  The  flints  have  become 
rare,  the  main  yielding  site  having  been  already  taken  away. 

The  "  Hessle  clay,"  of  which  the  flint-yielding  deposit  at 
Kelsea  Hill  was  at  first  supposed  to  be  a  part,  is  so  named 
from  the  evidence  furnished  at  Hessle  on  the  Humber,  near 
Hull,  of  the  overlap  and  unconformity  of  this  clay  to  the  true 
boulder-clay  of  Holderness ;  and  the  world  is  indebted  to  Mr. 
Searles  V.  Wood,  jun.,  F.G.S.,  and  the  Rev.  J.  L.  Rome,  F.G.S., 
for  the  knowledge  of  its  existence  as  a  separate  and  distinct 
deposit,  and  of  its  position,  relative  to  the  glacial  series,  as  a 
postglacial  formation  ^. 

The  fact  that  the  flint-bearing  clay  of  Kelsea  Hill  was  not  a 
member  of  the  Hessle-clay  series,  which  clay  caps  the  hill,  was 
completely  made  out  on  the  occasion  of  the  visit  of  Sir  Charles 
Lyell,  Bart.,  to  the  East  Riding,  in  the  spring  of  1869.  Pre- 
viously the  Rev.  J.  L.  Rome  had  paid  a  hurried  visit  to  the 
pit,  in  company  with  Mr.  Symonds ;  and  the  aspect  of  the  cliff 
suggested  a  suspicion  that  the  stiff,  flint-yielding  clay  which 
remained  on  the  west  side  of  the  pit  was  quite  different  from 
•  See  paper  in  Quart.  Joum.  Qeol.  Soc.  Lond.  vol.  xxiv. 


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in  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire.  159 

the  true  Hessle-clay  capping  on  the  face  of  the  pit  which  looks 
south.  The  latter  had  the  unfailing  characteristics  of  the 
Hessle  clay, — the  blue  or  ash-coloured  fracture,  and  the 
pyramidal-shaped  blocks  into  which  it  breaks.  The  former 
wanted  these;  and  a  more  leisurely  visit  and  examination 
confirmed  the  suspicion  that  the  flint-yielding  clay  represents 
a  very  difiPerent  condition  of  things  from  that  represented  by 
the  Hessle  clay,  and  may  belong  to  any  part  of  the  later  pre- 
historic epoch.  Mr.  Rome  called  the  attention  of  Sir  Charles 
Lyell  to  the  difference  iu  the  two  clays,  who  entirely  agreed 
that,  while  one  was  the  true  Hessle  clay,  the  other  was  not 
(fig.  6) .  How,  then,  was  the  flint-bearing  clay  to  be  accounted 
for  ?  Sir  Charles  Lyell  and  Mr.  Rome  concur  in  this  answer : 
they  think  the  flint-bearing  clay  to  be  a  wash  from  old  Kelsea 
HiU,  which  has  now  (from  railway  needs)  disappeared,  the  top 
of  which  used  to  be  as  high  as  the  vane  of  Keyingham  church- 
steeple  on  the  opposite  hill.  In  recent  times,  and  traditionally, 
old  Kelsea  HiU  was  a  place  of  popular  resort,  where  feasts  and 
games  were  held.  It  would  probably  have  similar  attractions 
in  the  later  prehistoric  times  * ;  and  on  its  green  slopes,  or  on 
the  wave-like  ridges  at  its  foot  (such  a  one  as  now,  in  part, 
remains  on  the  western  side  of  the  pit,  where  Mr.  Mortimer 
and  I  made  our  discoveries),  the  old  flint-usiug  folks  played 
their  games  and  chipped  their  flints.  In  the  course  of  a 
lengthened  period  these  chippings,  and  with  them  occasional 
worked  flints,  were  covered  by  the  derivative  clay,  formed  by 
the  washings  of  the  Hessle  clay  proper  on  the  hill-top ;  and, 
instead  of  their  being  of  that  enormous  age  first  supposed,  they 
may  be  in  reality  no  older  than  the  flints  from  the  York  sands, 
or  from  the  Ryedale  fluviatile  beds,  afterwards  to  be  mentioned. 
Thus  the  opinion  expressed  at  the  time  by  Mr.  John  Evans, 
'^  that  the  sands  and  clays  at  York  and  Kelsea  are  either  of  very 
recent  age,  as  compared  with  the  old  river-gravels,  or  that  the 
implements  found  in  them  are  not  of  the  same  age  as  the  beds,'' 
is  frdly  borne  out.  The  implements  from  Kelsea  are,  as  Mr. 
Evans  further  observed,  "  identical  in  character  with  the  stone 
implements  found  on  the  surface,  and  which  probably  remained 
in  use,  at  all  events,  as  late  as  3000  years  ago,  if  not  to  consi- 
derably later  times.''  The  flints  are  certainly  not  insertions ; 
they  are  found  at  all  depths,  without  any  regard  to  the  law  of 
gravitation. 

II.  The  York  Sands. 
A  large  find  of  flint  implements  occurred  in  the  York  sands 
in  the  autumn  of  1868,  while  the  men  of  the  North-Eastem 

•  The  Rev.  William  Greenwell  suggests  that  the  place  may  have  been 
used  for  defensive  purposes,  and  so  contain  signs  of  occupation.  " 


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160  C.  MoNKMAN* — On  Discoveries 

Railway  Company  were  excavating^  on  the  east  of  the  line^  for 
the  erection  of  new  gas-works  about  one  mile  north  of  York. 
Unfortunately  I  did  not  bear  of  the  discovery  till  the  end  of  the 
year,  by  which  time,  if  recent  reports  are  to  be  relied  on,  most 
of  the  implements  had  become  dispersed,  and,  except  in  one 
case,  cannot  now  be  traced.  Fortunately  the  resident  engineer, 
Mr.  Thomas  Cabry,  had  secured  part  of  the  find,  and  these  he 
presented  to  me.  They  are  one  stone  adze  (PL  XV.  fig.  7),  one 
fiiie  flint  hatchet  (fig.  11),  four  oval  flint  knives  or  spear-heads 
(figs.  8,  9,  10,  12),  and  two  flint  flakes  (figs.  13,  14).  The 
implements  were  described  to  me  by  the  Rev.  J.  L.  Rome,  who 
first  saw  them  and  the  place,  as  having  come  out  of  the  undis- 
turbed sands  of  the  postglacial  Ouse,  of  the  wide-river  period ; 
and  thus,  as  their  type  is  neolithic,  there  arose  an  archaeological 
puzzle  to  solve.  On  visiting  the  place  with  Mr.  Sharpe,  an 
engineer  in  Mr.  Cabry's  department,  who  had  charge  of  the 
works,  and  in  whose  presence  part  of  the  find  took  place,  I 
found  the  bank  had  been  remov^  for  some  distance  beyond  the 
point  where  the  implements  were  deposited ;  but  the  remaining 
face  showed  that  the  sand-beds  contained  horizontal  bands  of 
marly  clay,  indicating  a  still-water  deposition,  in  one  of  which 
bandfi  the  implements  were  imbedded,  about  five  feet  above  the 
present  railway  level,  and  therefore  from  nine  to  ten  feet  below 
the  former  surface  (fig.  15.)  Singularly,  the  whole  of  the 
flints  were  close  together,  as  if  carefully  deposited  in  one  heap, 
it  being,  however,  stated  that  no  sign  of  disturbance  was  visible 
in  the  overlying  beds  of  loamy  clay  and  sand.  Had  the  imple- 
ments been  of  a  palieolithic  type,  their  presence  there,  as  having 
been  contemporaneously  deposited  with  the  sands,  could  have 
been  understood.  Subsequently  the  Rev.  Canon  Green  well, 
the  Rev.  J.  Robertson,  Mr.  G.  W.  Slater,  and  Mr.  Sharpe 
accompanied  me  to  the  place,  and  we  were  met  there  by  the 
''ganger^'  (or  foreman  of  the  workmen  when  the  find  was 
made),  who  gave  his  version,  differing  only  slightly  from  that  of 
Mr.  Sharpe.  So  far  as  the  evidence  went,  we  could  not  make 
out  that  any  sign  of  disturbance  had  been  noticed,  nor  had  any 
discoloration  of  the  upper  sand,  or  the  presence  of  other  manu- 
factured articles  than  the  flints  (which  would  have  shown  a  later 
insertion  in  the  beds),  been  observed.  The  ganger  particularly 
remembered  that,  at  the  time,  there  was  a  patch  of  rough  gravel 
near  the  top,  which  did  not  show  any  sign  of  having  been  broken 
through. 

The  difficulty  of  receiving  the  alleged  contemporaneousness 
of  the  deposit  of  the  sands  and  implements  is  this  : — first,  the 
implements  are  neolithic  in  type,  the  axes  being  ground  and 
polished,  and  are  therefore  without  precedent  as  belonging  to  the 

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in  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire.  161 

deposits  of  the  wide-river  period ;  secondly^  they  are  not  in  any 
d^^reeiirater-wom^  but  are,  on  the  contrary,  beautifully  fresh  and 
sharp,  and  have  evidently  never  been  in  use  (one  of  the  knives 
has  lost  its  point),  which  facts,  taken  in  connexion  with  their 
being  found  together,  indicate  an  insertion  subsequent  to  the 
sand-bed  deposition ;  and,  thirdly,  no  archseologist  or  geologist 
saw  the  implements  in  situ. 

The  nature  of  the  sands  is  described  by  Mr.  Borne.  "  The 
beds,"  says  that  gentleman,  "  are  not  drift  in  any  sense  of  the 
word,  there  being  no  trace  of  drifted  materials  of  any  kind. 
When  I  first  saw  the  section  from  the  railway-train,  I  thought 
it  had  a  '  Hessle  clay'  aspect;  and  it  was  this  impression  which 
led  me  to  visit  the  place,  and  to  the  discovery  of  the  implements 
in  the  engineer's  ofBice.  The  actual  inspection  of  the  section 
showed  me  at  once  that  the  deposit  did  not  belong  to  the  series 
of  the  Hessle  beds  (deposited  when  the  vale  of  York  was  an 
inland  sea),  but  to  a  much  later  period,  when  that  old  post- 
glacial sea-bed  had  become  dry  land  and  the  present  river 
system  had  become  established.  In  the  absence  of  freshwater 
shells  it  may  seem  presumptuous  to  express  a  positive  opinion ; 
but  I  think  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  hill  through 
which  the  railway  cuts  is  a  sand-bank  of  the  later  prehistoric 
Onse,  which  was  much  larger  and  broader  than  the  historic  and 
present  river  of  that  name.''  Mr.  Sharpe  has  kindly  obtained 
for  me  the  measurements,  which  give  the  height  of  the  find 
above  the  present  river-level  at  26  feet,  and  the  distance  from 
the  river  396  yards,  the  intervening  distance  being  of  similar 
sand-hiUs,  and  the  flat,  low-lying  fluviatile  clay  of  the  Ouse. 

When  the  implements  were  given  to  me  by  Mr.  Cabry,  I  was 
under  the  impression  that  I  had  received  the  whole  of  the  find, 
Mr.  Rome  restoring  one,  which  he  had  taken  (the  broken  one) 
in  order  to  make  the  collection  complete.  I  have  since  dis- 
covered that  my  flints  represent  only  one-half  of  what  are  now 
known  to  have  come  from  the  sand-bed,  and  but  a  very  small 
part  of  what  we  are  now  asked  to  believe  were  found.  I 
learned  that  Mr.  Ed.  Allen,  of  York,  possessed  flints  from  this 
same  sand-bed,  and  that  gentleman  has  permitted  me  to  see 
them  and  to  take  outlines.  His  collection  is  all  of  flint,  and 
contains  two  axes  (one  a  very  fine  specimen  of  a  ground  imple- 
ment), three  roear-heads  or  knives,  two  chipped  scrapers,  and 
eleven  large  flakes;  but  they  are  not  equal  in  beauty,  as  a 
whole,  to  laose  in  my  possession,  though  fully  as  perfect,  and 
quite  unused.  Mr.  Allen  has  obtained  a  somewhat  difierent 
version  of  the  find  from  the  men,  and  the  new  statement  is  so 
remarkable  that  I  will  record  it  in  his  own  words.  In  a  letter, 
under   date  Nov.    15,    1869,   Mr.   Allen   writes: — '* Thomas 

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162  C.  MoNKMAN — On  Discoveries 

Chapman^  foreman  of  the  workmen^  and  Martin'  Hughes, 
labourer,  who  were  present  when  the  discovery  was  made, 
inform  me  that  the  flints  were  fonnd  in  a  sand-bed  buried 
about  six  or  seven  feet  below  the  surface,  and  lying  in  a  space 
of  not  more  than  two  feet  in  diameter.  7%ere  were  from  fourteen 
to  twenty  axe-heads,  many  spear-heads,  atid  at  least  a  bushel  of 
flakes*.  Most  of  the  axes  and  spear-heads  were  sent  to  Mr. 
Cabry's  ofBice.  The  flakes  were  not  thought  of  any  value,  and 
were  removed  along  with  the  sand,  and  used  as  ballast  for  the 
line.  No  other  flints  were  found  in  the  neighbourhood,  although 
the  sand  was  excavated  to  some  depth,  and  removed  for  several 
hundred  yards.  Chapman,  the  foreman,  states  positively  that 
there  was  a  layer  of  gravel  over  the  flints,  which  was  not  found 
in  any  other  part,  and  he  has  no  doubt  that  it  was  used  to  fill 
up  the  hole  in  which  the  flints  were  deposited'^  f.  Mr.  Allen 
further  informs  me  that  he  obtained  most  of  his  specimens 
from  the  man,  Martin  Hughes,  who  was  working  next  to  the 
man  who  made  the  discovery,  and  also  suggests  that  the  deposit 
was  the  hoard  of  a  manufacturer  of,  or  dealer  in  flint  weapons. 

I  may  remark  that,  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  Charles  Cabry, 
I  have  tried  to  discover  the  whereabouts  of  the  remaining  axes 
and  spear-heads  said  to  have  gone  to  the  engineer's  office,  but, 
beyond  those  in  my  possession,  none  can  be  traced.  Mr.  ^ 
Allen's  collection  and  mine  represent  only  four  axes  out  of 
"14  or  20,"  only  seven  of  the  "many  spear-heads"  are 
accounted  for,  and  but  thirteen  out  of  the  "  bushel  of  flakes  " 
have  been  obtained.  It  seems  likely  that  the  flints  I  received 
from  Mr.  Cabry  were  magnified  into  the  incredible  number 
mentioned  by  the  men,  and  that  Mr.  Allen's  collection  and 
mine  really  include  the  whole  find — ^important  enough,  cer- 
tainly. 

There  is  another  fact  of  interest  in  connexion  with  the  York 
sands.  Mr.  James  Cook,  of  Holgate  Lane,  York  (a  gentleman 
who  has  devoted  a  long  life  to  the  collection  of  antiquities),  in 
the  year  1847  picked  up  a  fine  stone  axe  fifom  the  sand-bed 
adjoining  the  Ouse  at  York,  near  where  the  Scarborough 
Railway  crosses  that  river.  The  axe  had  1)een  buried  in  the 
sand,  but  had  been  thrown  out  in  excavation  for  railway  works, 
and  therefore  no  further  details  could  be  obtained.  The  place 
where  Mr.  Cook's  axe  was  found  and  the  site  of  the  gas-works' 
discovery  are,  perhaps,  a  mile  apart,  but  the  beds  are  in  every 
respect  similar  deposits. 

*  This  statement  has  recently  been  read  to  the  members  of  the  Yorkshire 
Philoeophical  Society. 

t  This  version  diners  in  some  measure  from  the  information  given  to  my 
friends  and  to  me,  when  inquiring  on  the  spot 


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in  Recent  Deporits  in  Yorkshire.  163 

« 

III.  7%tf  Vale  of  Pickering. 

Lying  between  the  Wolds  and  the  Howardian  Hills  on  the 
souths  and  the  North  Riding  Moors  on  the  north,  is  the  large 
basin  known  as  the  Vale  of  Pickering,  tapering  almost  to  a 
point  at  Helmsley  on  the  west,  and  at  Filey  on  the  east,  being 
thirty  miles  in  length.  A  line  of  eight  miles,  drawn  north  and 
sonth,  from  Pickering  to  Malton,  where  the  vale  is  the  widest, 
divides  the  basin  into  two  nearly  equal  parts,  the  western  half, 
to  Helmsley,  being  drained  by  the  Rye  and  its  tributaries,  and 
from  this  called  '^  Ryedale,''  and  the  eastern  half  being  drained 
by  the  Upper  Derwent  and  its  tributaries,  and  so  called  the 
'^Derwent  valley .''  These  rivers  run  (in  opposite  directions) 
to  near  Malton,  and,  uniting,  drain  the  greatest  part  of  North- 
Eastem  Yorkshire.  Even  now  these  rivers  and  their  contri- 
butaries  are  subject  to  high  fioodings,  and  swell,  from  compara* 
tively  small  streauMs,  to  large  rivers,  some  of  a  quarter  to  half  a 
mile  in  width.  A  high  flood  is  estimated  to  submerge  32  square 
miles^,  and  this  land  is  known  in  Ryedale  as  ^^  ings,''  and  in 
the  Derwent  valley  as  '^  carrs.''  The  same  names  are  given  to 
flat  tracts,  out  of  reach  of  flood  now,  but  which,  within  the 
human  period,  have  been  the  beds  of  laige  streams,  when  in 
fact  the  Yale  of  Pickering  was  little  less  than  one  vast  lake. 
These -low-lying,  flat  tracts  have  now  from  3  to  5  feet  of  fluvia- 
tile  deposits,  locaUy  known  as  the  "  river-clay ,*'  which  in  the 
western  and  higher  parts  of  Ryedale  are  really  clay  derived  from 
the  glacial  deposits,  but  which  as  Malton  is  approached  become 
peaty  and  fibrous,  and  in  going  eastward  up  the  Derwent  from 
Malton,  getting  more  and  more  so  until  near  Filey,  where  they 
are  lacustrine  peat,  pure  and  simple,  and  of  unknown  depth. 
Belting  the  wolds  and  moors  are  beds  of  sand,  indicating  the 
shore  of  the  Vale  of  Pickering  in  the  wide-river  period;  and  in 
the  heart  of  the  vale,  in  the  Ryedale  half  particularly,  are 
numerous  prominences  of  glacial  date,  to  which  the  Saxon  name 
of ''  Holm,''  indicating  the  land  among  the  waters,  is  yet  applied. 
It  is  around  these  holms,  and  along  the  fiat,  ancient  river- 
deposits,  that  the  earlier  stone  antiquities  of  the  district  have 
been  found.  On  the  hills,  the  surface  soil  in  parts  abounds  with 
them,  but  in  the  valley  they  are  met  with  at  depths  varying 
with  the  thickness  of  the  clayey  accumulations,  from  3  ft.  to  5  ft. 
being  mostly  the  rule.  Some  are  foimd  among  the  gravel  of 
the  ancient  river-bed,  others  are  midway  in  the  fiuviatile  day 
deposit,  and  some  are  almost  at  the  surface  and  turn  up  with 
the  plough;  in  short,  they  are  discovered  at  all  depths,  and 
have,  like  the  Kelsea-Hill  flints,  been  lost  or  deposited  at  widely 

*  Malton  Messenger's  Leader,  Feb.  2, 1867. 

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164  C.  MoNKMAN — On  Discoveries 

differing  dates.  The  frequency  with  which  remains  of  the  later 
stone  period  have  been  met  with  during  the  past  six  years  (since 
they  have  been  looked  for^  and  the  labourers  have  been  educated 
to  recognize  their  forms  and  value)  is  surprising.  The  district 
seems  full  of  the  relics  of  the  ancient  people  who  inhabited  the 
hills^  and  came  down  into  the  valleys  on  himting  or  other 
expeditions.  The  axes^  when  founds  have  often  the  signs  of 
violent  use  upon  them ;  but  in  some  instances  they  have  been 
dug  out  quite  perfect^  and  in  two  or  three  cases  of  unusually 
large  size,  and  of  peculiar  form.  They  present  widely  different 
appearances.  Some  are  chipped  out  roughly,  and  ground  to  a 
cutting  edge,  with  the  least  amount  of  expended  labour  to 
answer  the  intended  use ;  others,  on  the  contrary,  are  ground 
over  their  whole  surface,  and  to  the  greatest  exactness  of  form. 
They  are  all  of  the  stones  of  the  neighbourhood,  gathered  from 
the  denuded  slopes,  or  extracted  from  the  boulder-clay,  and 
therefore  show  a  great  variety  of  the  early  rocks.  According 
to  the  position  in  which  they  are  foimd  their  surfaces  are 
affected.  Some,  in  sand  or  clay,  retain  their  polish  as  if  made 
yesterday;  others,  from  limestone  gravel,  are  thickly  coated 
with  lime  accretions ;  and  when  from  a  ferruginous  band,  the 
weapons  are  stained  of  a  deep  Indian-red  tint.  Singularly  no 
flint  axe  has  yet  been  found  in  Ryedale  or  in  the  Derwent 
valley,  the  nearest  approach  being  a  lump  of  flint  from  the  peat 
at  Flixton,  near  Filey,  which  is  in  my  possession  (PI.  XVI. 
fig.  8).  _ 

It  is  to  the  spirit  of  agricultural  improvement  now  going  on 
that  we  are  mainly  indebted  for  the  knowledge  of  the  early 
occupation  of  Ryedale,  and  for  the  discoveries  of  the  weapons. 
During  the  last  six  years  more  than  a  dozen  stone  axes  have 
passed  through  my  hands,  which  have  been  found  at  various 
depths,  and  in  most  instances  in  land-drainage  works.  In 
some  cases  the  implements  or  weapons  have  been  found  as  far 
back  as  twenty  years  ago,  and  have  been  retained  as  "  curious 
stones"  and  modem  ^'rockwork^'  ornaments.  "The  Ryedale 
axes  ^'  (for  Ryedale  has  been  most  prolific)  are  principally  in 
the  collections  of  the  Rev.  William  Greenwell,  Mr.  John  Evans, 
the  Rev.  J.  L.  Rome^  and  myself.  A  stray  one  or  two  has  got 
into  the  hands  of  the  curiosity  hunter. 

From  Slingsby,  in  Ryedale,  there  is  a  lateral  valley,  known 
as  the  Vale  of  Mowbray,  which  is  connected  with  the  great 
plain  of  York.  This  lesser  vale  has  the  same  geological  character ; 
and  the  subsidiary  valleys  of  the  Howardian  Hills  have  all 
deposits  of  the  ancient  wide-river  horizon,  and  have  yielded 
sparingly  similar  manufactured  remains.     This  valley  is  sepa- 

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til  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire,  165 

rated  from  Byedale  by  the  spur  of  the  Hambletons^  known  as 
"  Canlkless/'  on  which  flint  implements  and  ancient  earthworks 
are  found. 

The  first  event  which  led  me  to  regard  the  extensive  fluviatile 
deposits  of  the  district  as  weapon*  and  implement-yielding 
areas^  was  the  discovery,  early  in  1866,  during  drainage  opera- 
tions on  the  banks  of  the  Rye,  near  Byton,  of  a  very  good 
hammer-stone,  about  2  feet  deep  in  the  clay  (PI.  XVI.  fig.  9). 
This  is  a  pebble  of  a  fiat  egg-shape,  about  5  in.  long  and  3|  in. 
wide,  and  1|  in.  thick,  pierced  for  the  handle  with  great  care. 
Nothing  further  turned  up  until  1867,  when  the  group  of 
drainers  removed  to  the  Sleights'  Farm,  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Newsham  Bridge,  further  up  the  Bye.  Here  the  Rev.  J. 
Robertson  was  nearest  to  the  work,  and  had  the  pleasure  of  finding 
several  "used"  stones  (rubbers  or  poimders)  and  five  well- 
worked  flints,  all  of  a  red  colour  (figs.  2-6).  Singularly,  he 
had  not  the  good  fortune  to  obtain  an  axe.  The  flints  were 
from  3^  to  4  ft.  in  the  clay,  and  comprise  a  remarkably  fine 
lozenge-shaped  javelin-head,  about  2^  in.  long  (fig.  4),  a  leaf- 
shaped  arrow-point  (fig.  5),  and  three  arrow-points  of  the 
triangular  form  (figs.  2,  3,  6),  two  having  hollowed  bases 
(figs.  2,  6).  During  that  year,  and  indeed  during  each  winter 
since,  stone  axes  and  other  forms  of  weapon  have  been  obtained 
frt>m  the  drainers  and  labourers  in  the  vale,  either  found  in  the 
excavations  or  left  unobserved  upon  the  land.  One  of  the  latter 
class,  a  fine  Ume-coated  gouge  of  greenstone  (fig.  10),  was  so 
picked  up  by  Mr.  T.  E.  Satterthwaite  (Earl  Carlisle's  agent),  at 
Ganthorpe  bottoms,  near  Castle  Howard,  and  has  been  presented 
to  the  Bev.  William  Greenwell.  •  Of  the  many  others  which  I 
have  succeeded  in  obtaining,  the  best  specimens  are  those  now 
known  as  the  "  Normanby  axe  "  (fig.  11),  red  in  colour,  8  in.  in 
length,  found  in  the  bed  of  the  river  Severn  in  1864;  the 
"  GiUing  axe"  (fig.  12),  8  in.  long,  of  a  drab  colour,  found  in 
peaty  day,  4  ft.  deep,  in  1868 ;  and  the  "  Ness  axe,''  10  in.  long, 
found  in  the  clay  near  the  Bye  bank  (fig.  13.)  The  sections 
of  the  two  last  named  are  square,  or  oblong-square,  a  novel 
feature,  which  has  led  to  their  being  engraved  for  Mr.  Evans's 
forthcoming  book  on  stone  implements.  There  is  one  more 
tool  worthy  of  particular  mention,  viz.  a  pierced  stone  axe, 
6^  in.  long,  found  at  Sackleton  bottoms  in  1869  (fig.  14). 
All  the  four  relics  particularized  are  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
Greenwell.  The  remainder  of  the  axes  found  in  Upper  Byedale 
are  of  the  ordinary  form,  and  mostly  of  small  size.  There  is  an 
exception,  however,  in  a  very  fine  three-edged  cutting  imple- 
ment, evidently  for  some  domestic  use,  possibly  a  knife  for 
skinning,  founanear  Harome,  which  is  also  in  Mr.  Green  well's 


Digitized  by  VjQOQ  IC 


166  C.  MoNKMAN — On  Discoveries 

collection  (fig.  15) ''^.  No  flint  axes  have  yet  been  found  in 
the  recent  clays  of  Upper  Ryedale;  but  in  the  valley  of  the 
Derwent  proper,  below  the  confluence  of  the  Rye  and  Derwent, 
from  the  brickfield  at  Norton,  near  Malton  (now  closed),  in 
the  angle  formed  by  the  intersection  of  the  Thirsk  and  the 
Scarborough  railways,  I  have  obtained  two  dark  flint  axes, 
found  between  8  and  4  feet  deep  (flgs.  16,  17).  One  is  over 
6  in.  long,  and  is  a  very  flne  specimen.  The  two  were  found 
together,  and  have  probably  been  formed  from  the  same  block 
of  flint.  At  a  corresponding  depth,  but  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  river,  two  bone  pins  (figs.  18,  19)  and  two  flint  "  scrapers  " 
were  found.  These  were  2  to  8  feet  in  the  undisturbed 
clay,  which,  however,  was  overlain  by  3  to  4  feet  of  d&ris 
from  the  Roman  camp  at  Malton,  which  abounds  in  fragments 
of  Roman  pottery,  and  has  yielded  some  burials  of  Roman 
datet-  Going  eastward  into  the  peat  country  of  the  Upper 
Derwent,  the  finds  have  not  been  so  numerous.  They  are  not 
deserving  of  special  notice,  beyond  the  fact  that  the  axes  from 
the  peat  are  in  very  fine  preservation.  I  have  a  beautiful  one 
from  Scampston  (fig.  20),  which  has  for  some  years  been  in  the 
hands  of  Mr.  J.  R.  Mortimer,  of  Fimber.  The  flakes  are  of  a 
red  colour  when  made  of  pure  flint,  but  some  are  of  a  peculiar 
cherty  stone  (figs.  1>  7).  The  main  finds  of  stone  implements 
have  been  made  at  Oanthorpe,  Sackleton^  Oilling,  Harome, 
Coxwold,  Ryton,  Kirby-Misperton,  Newsham  Bridge,  Ness, 
Norton,  Scampston,  and  Flixton;  but  there  are  others  not 
easily  traced. 

There  have  been  two  discoveries  of  human  remains  in  the 
day,  one  at  Kirby-Misperton,  the  other  at  Malton.  The  former 
occurred  at  Kirby-Misperton  in  July  1866,  while  cleansing  the 
lake  in  the  park.  The  skeleton  was  wonderfully  perfect,  and 
much  vivianitized ;  it  was  that  of  a  strong-made  man.  The 
body  had  evidently  been  contracted,  and  was  lying  on  the  left 
side,  with  the  head  to  the  east,  and  was  about  8  feet  below  the 
surface.  The  skull  (a  most  perfect  one)  is  dolichocephalic  in 
type;  7^  in,  greatest  length,  5^  in.  breadth,  and  5-|-|  in. 
height.  The  cephalic  index  gives  breadth  to  length  -72,  height 
'78.  The  skull  is  without  any  marked  peculiarity,  and  differs  in 
no  way  from  the  ordinary  Teutonic  head,  or  fit>m  many  of  those 

*  Since  this  paper  was  in  type  I  have  procured  another  curious  skinner 
from  the  same  district,  which  is  in  Mr.  Oreenwell's  collection.  It  may  be 
described  as  an  oblong  axe  or  chopper,  the  longest  side  being  around  to  a 
most  perfect  cutting-edge  of  considerable  len^pth.  On  one  face  is  a  depres- 
sion, and  on  the  opposite  &ce  are  two  depressions,  fitting  the  thumb  ana  two 
first  fingers  of  the  right  hand.    Mr.  Evans  will  engrave  the  implement 

t  The  skulls  are  in  Mr.  GreenwelFs  collection. 

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m  Recent  Deposits  in  Yorkshire.  167 

from  the  circular  tumuli  of  the  district.  The  latter  instance 
occurred  at  Malton  in  April  1866.  In  throwing  a  new  yiaduct 
across  the  Derwent^  the  North-Eaatem  Railway  Company  made 
three  attempts  to  reach  the  Kimmeridge  clay  beneath  the  bed 
of  the  river  east  of  Malton.  At  a  depth  of  10  feet  of  day 
(fluviatile)  and  3  ft.  of  sand  a  human  skeleton  was  founds  the 
skull  being  tjrpeless.  The  only  clue  as  to  date  lay  in  the  fact 
that  in  an  adjoining  coffer-dam,  at  about  the  same  depth,  an 
unomamented  and  very  rudely  made  earthen  vessel  was  found, 
&shioned  like  British,  but  burnt  as  hard  as  Roman  ware.  The 
third  struggle  against  the  water  brought  to  light  a  pair  of  bone 
pins  (doubtless  belonging  to  the  skeleton)  made  from  the  fibula 
of  a  red  deer,  and  at  a  depth  of  18  feet  underlying  the  human 
skeleton  were  found  the  antlers  of  a  red  deer,  some  vertebrae, 
and  a  femoral  bone.  These  were  by  the  side  of  an  immense 
oak  tree,  which  had  been  overturned  in  the  direction  of  the 
present  stream.  The  relics  were  all  sent  to  the  Rev.  W. 
Oreenwell. 

A  recent  discovery  of  consequence,  as  tending  to  show  the 
lake-like  nature  of  Ryedale  in  the  early  human  period,  is  that  of 
a  boat  or  canoe  on  the  farm  of  South  Holm.  This  was  struck 
by  the  plough  in  the  summer  of  1869  while  frirrow-draining. 
The  highest  part  was  more  than  a  foot  below  the  surfSeu^e,  and  the 
lowest  more  than  5  feet  into  the  fluviatile  clay.  The  boat,  on 
being  dug  out,  was  ''  snigged ''  off  to  a  stick-heap,  and  has  been 
partly  destroyed.  It  is  formed  fi*om  a  log  of  oak,  7  ft.  in  length, 
and  3  ft.  in  diameter;  the  hollowed  part  is  5  fl.  by  2  ft.  6  in., 
and  1  ft.  4  in.  deep.  The  relic  is  in  my  possession.  Subse- 
quently, in  the  same  district,  in  deepening  the  Slingsby  beck,  a 
large  nammer-stone  was  found ;  it  is  carefully  drilled  from  each 
side  (fig.  21).     The  implement  is  in  my  collection. 

The  latest  finds  of  interest  were  during  the  last  three  months 
of  1869.  The  Malton  Board  of  Health  drove  a  deep  cutting  (for 
drainage)  through  the  main  street  of  Old  Malton ;  this,  for  a 
long  distance,  was  below  the  river-bed,  and  showed  that  the 
Derwent  at  the  place  was  once  fully  fifty  yards  wider  than  at 
present.  In  throwing  out  the  old  river-bed,  surprising  quan- 
tities of  vivianitized  bones  of  the  horse,  ox,  dog,  sheep,  pig,  and 
some  birds  were  found,  but,  singularly,  all  detached.  In  no  case 
was  anything  approaching  a  skeleton  found.  The  only  traces 
of  human  occupation  met  with  were  two  bone  pins  and  half  of 
a  horse's  shoe  of  iron.  The  section  of  the  cutting  exhibited 
the  singular  fact  that,  since  the  period  when  these  bones  &c. 
were  deposited,  the  river  had  piled  up  more  than  15  feet  of 
alternating  beds  of  sands  and  clays — ^the  clays  retaining  the 
footprints  of  oxen  and  sheep  very  distinctly,  the  impressions 


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168  .  C.  MoNKMAN — On  Discoveries 

having  been  filled  up  and  preserved  by  the  succeeding  depoeitB 
of  sand. 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES  XV.  Aitn  XVL 

Plate  XV. 

Fig.  1.  Half  of  a  fineer-flint  from  the  Kelsea-hill  daj.    i  aiie. 
2.  Flint  core,  with  17  facets,  from  ditto.    }  size. 
Sy  4,  6.  Flint  scrapere,  from  ditto.    }  size. 

6.  Sketch-section  of  KelseaHilL 

7.  Stone  adze,  from  the  York  sands.    |  size. 

8.  9, 10.  Flint  spear-heads,  from  ditto,    i  size. 

11.  Flint  hatchet,  from  ditto.    |  size. 

12.  Flint  spear-head,  from  ditto,    i  size. 
IS,  14.  Flint  flakes,  from  ditto,     i  size. 

15.  Section  of  the  railway-cutting  in  the  York  sands. 

Plate  XVL 

N.fi.  All  the  specimens  figured  in  this  Plate  are  from  the  river-day  of  the 
Vcue  of  Pickering,  Yorkshire. 

Fig.  1.  Flake  of  chert^  stone,  from  the  Upper  Derwent.    jt  size. 

2  to  6.  Worked  mnts,  from  Newsham  JBridge,  River  Rye.     ^  size. 

7.  Flake  of  cherty  stone,  from  the  Upp^i'  Derwent.    i  size. 

8.  Flint  from  peat  at  Flixton,  near  Filey.     I  size. 

9.  Hanuner-stone,  from  the  banks  of  the  Rye,  near  Ryton.     ^  size. 

10.  Qouffe  of  greenstone,  from  Ganthorpe  bottoms.    |  size. 

11.  The  Normanby  axe.    |  sLse. 

12.  The  Gilling  axe.    |  size. 

13.  The  Ness  axe.    ^  size. 

14  Perforated  stone  axe,  from  Sackleton  bottoms.    |  size. 

16.  Triangular  implement,  possibly  a  skinning  knife,  from  near  Harome. 

}  size. 
16, 17.  Flint  axes,  from  Norton,  near  Malton,  yalley  of  the  Derwent 

i  size, 
18,  19.  Bone  pins,  from  Ryedale.    }  size. 

20.  Stone  axe,  from  Scampston.    }  size. 

21.  Hammer-stone,  from  dlingsby  beck.    }  size. 

Discussion. 

Mr.  J.  W.  Floweb  obseryed  that,  of  the  several  implements 
exhibited,  there  was  not  one  that  could  possibir  be  attributed  to  the 

SalflBolithic  or  drift  type.  With  regard  to  those  which  had  been 
escribed  as  found  lying  together  under  a  solid  mass  of  gravel,  they 
were  in  all  probability  a  hoard,  or  part  of  a  hoard,  deposited  for  the 
purpose  of  concealment  by  the  maker  or  seller.  Two  of  the  imple- 
ments appeared  to  him  to  be  of  uncommon  form,  if  not  altogether 
unknown  elsewhere  in  England.  The  large  polished  axe,  squcured  at 
the  sides  (PI.  XVI.  fig.  13),  differed  decidedly  from  the  forms  usually 
found  in  England,  and  approached  closely  to,  although  not  identical 
with,  those  met  with  in  Denmark  and  Sweden.  The  bevelled  or 
gouge-shaped  axe  in  red  stone,  which  had  been  perforated  to  receive 
a  handle  (PL  XVI.  fig.  14),  appeared  to  him  to  be  perfectly  new.  The 
oval  disk-like  flints,  with  a  cutting-edge  all  round,  were  larger  and 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


Joum.  F.Lhao   So c.  Vol   U.  PJ  ^ 


Flints    from,   KtUea.  Hill   Cloff.    i  Svie 


Fig  6. 
KtUta.  mil 


*  ..»=•'''.!' 


^^^'  Vs4 

^^•■••■•v.^^^ 


■.'Ah'tt7i!l<i^>.^'liitu*^'- 


Kaihra^r 


K.Fhunt.  julding    Ciaj  :IfessU     CLaj  c.  Sanda  tc  Boulders 


Flints     from     York     Stuid    Beds    i   Size.     fN?  7  Storvt) 


Tig.  15 
York    Sand* 


a  1    r  ■  ^ 


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Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


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Pu^^tr    CU^  of  OtA    VaU    of   TUktruvg.  CM. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


in  Recent  Dytorits  in  Yorkshire.  169 

better  than  were  often  met  with.  They  were  probably  used  for 
Bhaping  or  catting  the  skinB  for  dresaes,  after  they  had  been  cleansed 
ana  prepared  by  the  flint  scrapers;  and,  indeed,  they  might  be  said 
to  bear  a  rude  and  distant  resemblance  to  implements  used  for  the 
like  purpose  by  leather-cutters  in  our  own  times. 

The  £ev.  J.  L.  Boms  remarked  that  as  none  of  the  persons  present 
on  the  occasion  of  discorering  the  neolithic  implements  in  beds  of 
the  wide-river  period  were  scientific  obserrers,  it  was  open  to  doubt 
whether  the  implements  were  there  from  original  deposition  or  from 
subsequent  disturbance  of  the  beds.  The  supposed  discovery  of  chip- 
ped flmts  in  the  Hessle  clay  of  Kelsea  Hill  oy  the  author  and  '^^, 
Mortimer  would,  if  real,  have  been  excessively  interesting,  because  it 
would  have  carried  back  the  human  epoch  much  further  than  any 
reliable  geologist,  even  of  the  most  advanced  school,  in  such  matters, 
had  furnished  geological  grounds  for  thinking  probable.  That,  how- 
ever, was  no  valid  reason  for  rejecting  the  supposed  discovery  by 
Messrs.  Monkman  and  Mortimer,  because  we  ought  to  follow  the  truth 
whithersoever  it  leads  us.  Mr.  Eome,  however,  detected,  on  his 
first  visit  to  Kelsea  Hill  afterwards,  that  a  much  later  wash  accumu- 
lated at  the  western  foot  of  the  now- vanished  hill  had  been  confounded 
with  the  Hessle  clay.  It  was  a  great  satisfaction  to  Mr.  Eome  that 
in  April  of  last  year  Sir  C.  Lyell  should  have  visited  Kelsea  Hill, 
and  snould  have  recognized  the  entire  distinction  between  the  true 
Hessle  clay  and  the  kter  wash  out  of  it,  in  which  the  chipped  flints 
were  founa. 

Mr.  Eome  also  idluded  to  the  correlation  between  the  Kelsea-Hill 
beds  and  the  Postglacial  Oyrena  beds  of  the  Thames  valley,  which 
had  been  suggested  by  Mr.  Wood  and  himself,  and  further  alluded 
to  Mr.  "Wood's  views  on  the  elevation  and  denudation  of  the  "Weald 
as  an  event  subsequent  to  the  formation  of  the  Thames  gravel- 
beds.  Could  this  view  be  substantiated,  the  archadological  interest 
excited  by  Mr.  Monkman*s  supposed  discovery  of  flints  in  the  Hessle 
day  would  be  revived  on  other  grounds ;  for  Colonel  Lane  Fox  is 
said  to  have  discovered  worked  flints  in  the  Thames  beds,  which, 
according  to  Messrs.  Wood  and  Eome,  are  the  equivalents  in  age  of 
the  Hessle-clay  series. 

Dr.  Nicholas  thought  that  the  statements  of  navvies  as  to  the 
exact  position  where  the  implements  were  found  ought  to  be  received 
with  great  caution  by  scientific  men,  especially  when  such  descrip- 
tions were  made  in  any  measure  the  basis  of  calculations  respecting 
the  age  of  their  deposit.  But  even  allowing  that  these  implements 
had  been  actually  found  at  the  rumoured  depth,  he  wished  to  point 
out  that  a  great  thickness  of  gravel  might  be  accumulated  in  a  short 
space  of  tiine.  Places  could  be  mentioned  where,  through  extraordi- 
nary floods,  the  channels  of  rivers  bad  in  a  day  or  two  been  changed 
from  one  part  of  a  valley  to  another,  and  the  old  bed  had  been  filled 
up  and  totally  obliterated  with  much  more  than  ten  feet  of  gravel,  at 
the  bottom  of  which  articles  might  be  found  which  conceivably  had 
only  been  made  a  year  before. 


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170  Dr.  Jaoob — On  the  Natives  of  Naga, 

The  following  paper  was  then  read  by  the  Assistant-Secre- 
tary: — 

XX.  On  the  Natives  of  Naoa^  in  Luzon,  Philippine  Islands. 
By  Dr.  Jagor*. 

Naga  is  the  capital  of  South  Camarines,  the  see  of  a  bishop,  and 
the  seat  of  the  proyincial  govemment.  In  official  documents  it 
is  called  Nueva  Carceres,  a  name  given  in  honour  of  its  founder 
(1578),  Greneral  Don  F.  de  Sande,  who  was  bom  at  Carceres,  in 
Spain.  Formerly  Naga  was  the  capital  of  all  that  part  of 
Luzon  which  lies  east  of  Jayabes,  and  which,  as  the  population 
increased,  was  divided  into  the  three  provinces  of  North  and 
South  Camarines  and  Albay.  The  divisioDS  between  these 
governmental  districts  are  drawn  rather  arbitrarily,  especially 
that  between  Albay  and  South  Camarines;  while  the  entire 
region  has  well-defined  geographical  limits,  and  is  still  spoken 
of  as  a  whole  under  the  name  of  Camarines. 

It  is  inhabited  by  a  race  of  Bicol  Indians  who  differ  in  lan- 
gviage  and  in  other  respects  from  their  neighbours,  the  Tagals, 
in  the  west,  and  from  the  Bisayas  in  the  south  and  east.  They 
are  limited  to  this  district,  and  to  the  islands  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood.  As  a  rule  they  are  inferior  to  the  Tagals,  both 
physically  and  intellectually,  while  they  are  superior  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  eastern  Bisaya  Isles. 

Bicol  is  sj^ken  only  in  the  two  Camarines,  and  Albay  in 
Luzon,  and  m  the  islands  of  Alabate,  Burdas,  Ticao,  Catan- 
duanes,  and  the  small  neighbouring  isles.  It  is  found  in  greatest 
purity  among  the  natives  of  the  volcano  of  Isarog  and  its  imme- 
diate neighbourhood.  Passing  thence  to  the  west,  it  becomes 
gradually  more  like  Tagal,  so  that  even  in  Mambulao  it  contains 
more  Tagal  than  Bicol  words ;  while  to  the  east  it  gradually 
passes  into  Bisaya. 

It  will  be  sufficient  to  give  the  prevailing  features  in  the  life 
of  the  Bicol  Indians,  as  most  of  these  are  common  also  to  the 
Tagals  and  the  Bisayas. 

On  the  commencement  of  the  rainy  season  the  rice-culture  is 
undertaken.  In  South  Camarines  the  sowing  of  the  rice  in  beds 
begins  in  June  or  July,  according  to  the  commencement  of  the 
rain;  but  in  fields  that  are  artificially  irrigated,  it  is  begun 
earlier,  in  order  that  the  rice  may  ripen  at  a  time  when  the  stock 
in  the  country  is  but  small,  and  consequently  the  price  high. 
Although  the  fields  artificisdly  treated  might  well  furnish  two 
crops  annually,  they  are  sown  only  once;  they  are  neither 

«  Translated  and  abridged  from  the  German  manuscript  by  the  Asaistantr 
Secretary. 


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in  Luzon,  Philippine  Islands.  171 

manured  nor  ploughed^  but  the  mud  brought  down  from  the 
mountains  by  floods  in  the  rainy  season  serves  the  purpose  of 
manure. 

Some  peculiar  points  connected  with  the  harvest  deserve 
notice.  The  rice  which  first  ripens  is  cut  at  the  rate  of  ten  per 
cent. ;  that  is  to  say^  the  reaper  takes  the  tenth  bundle  for  his 
labour.  At  this  period  rice  is  very  scarce;  there  is  often 
poverty^  and  labour  is  cheap.  But  as  more  fields  become  ripe^ 
the  value  of  labour  increases^  and  the  wages  of  the  mower 
accordingly  rises  to  20,  30,  40,  or  even  50  per  cent. 

Besides  rice,  batates,  or  sweet  potatoes,  are  cultivated.  These 
grow  readily,  and  as  the  runners,  on  strUdng  root,  form  tubers, 
they  furnish  an  inexhaustible  supply  to  the  possessor  during  the 
whole  year. 

After  the  rice-harvest,  buffaloes,  horses,  and  oxen  are  turned 
into  the  fields.  During  the  growth  of  the  rice  they  remain  in 
the  gogondles*,  or  steppes,  which  are  formed  where  cleared 
places  are  left  for  the  culture  of  mountain-rice.  The  Indian 
does  not  fodder  his  cattle,  but  leaves  them  to  starve  if  they  can- 
not find  support  for  themselves.  In  the  wet  season,  it  not 
unfrequently  happens  that  a  buffalo,  while  drawing  a  load,  falls 
down  dead  £rom  sheer  hunger. 

According  to  Morgat>  there  was  neither  horse  nor  ass  in  the 
island  until  introduced  by  the  Spaniards  from  China  and  New 
Spain.  Horses  were  also  imported  from  Japan,  and,  although 
not  swift,  they  were  strong ;  they  had  large  heads,  thick  manes, 
and  somewhat  resembled  Frise  horses. 

The  cattle  are  small  and  well-flavoured,  but  the  Indians  prefer 
buffalo-meat  to  beef.  They  eat  meat,  however,  only  on  festive 
occasions,  and  commonly  subsist  on  fish,  crustaceans,,  mollusks, 
and  wild  plants,  with  rice. 

The  old  race  of  sheep  introduced  long  ago  by  the  Spaniards 
thrive  well  and  breed  freely;  but  it  is  said  that  those  brought 
from  Shanghai  and  Australia  do  not  thrive.  In  Manilla,  mutton 
is  to  be  had  daily;  but  in  the  interior,  especially  in  the  eastern 
provinces,  it  can  rarely  be  obtained,  although  sheep-breeding 
might  be  carried  on  without  difficulty  almost  anywhere,  and  in 
many  parts  to  great  advantage.  In  the  lai^er  districts,  where 
many  Europeans  dwell,  an  ox  is  slaughtered  daily,  or  at  least 
periodically;  but  in  more  insignificant  localities  there  is  no 
animal  food  but  that  of  fowls. 

Pork  is  eaten  by  the  Europeans  only  when  the  pig  is  home- 
fed.  In  order  to  prevent  it  from  straying,  the  pig  is  commonly 
put  into  a  cage  made  of  bamboo,  or  into  a  wide-meshed  cylin- 

*  Qogo  is  the  name  of  a  cane  from  7  to  8  feet  high  (SacdMrum,  8p.). 
t  Morga, '  Suoesos  de  las  Idas  I^ipinas/  Mexico,  1609,  p.  130. 


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172  Dr.  Jaoor — On  the  Natives  of  Naga, 

drical  baaket^  and  is  killed  when  it  grows  too  big  for  this  habi- 
tation. The  pigs  of  the  natives  are  too  disgusting  in  their 
habits  to  be  eaten  by  Europeans. 

The  province  exports  about  twice  as  much  rice  as  it  consumes. 
This  is  sent  chiefly  to  the  western  provinces  of  Albay,  which  is 
not  fitted  for  the  growth  of  rice^  but  produces  only  abaca^  or 
Indian  hemp.  A  part  goes  to  North  Camarines,  which  is  very 
mountainous  and  not  fertile. 

The  exports  of  the  province  consist  principally  of  rice  and 
abaca,  whilst  the  imports  are  limited  to  the  few  products  intro- 
duced  by  the  Chinese  merchants.  Nearly  all  the  traders  are 
Chinese ;  but  the  total  capital  invested  in  their  shops  certainly 
does  not  amount  to  200,000  dollars.  In  other  parts  of  the  pro- 
vince, there  are  no  Chinese  traders,  and  the  inhabitants  must 
be  supplied  £rom  Naga. 

All  the  land  belongs  to  the  state,  but  is  let  out  gratuitously 
to  any  one  who  will  cultivate  it.  The  usufruct  goes  to  the 
children  of  the  tenant,  and  only  reverts  when  the  land  has  hdn 
unused  for  two  years ;  it  is  then  at  the  disposal  of  the  autho- 
rities to  grant  it  in  favour  of  anyone  else. 

Each  family  possesses  its  own  house.  Usually  it  is  built  by 
the  young  husband  with  the  aid  of  his  firiends.  In  many  places 
it  does  not  cost  more  than  four  or  five  dollars.  When  neces- 
sary, he  can  repair  it  himself,  without  expense,  with  no  other 
tool  than  his  forest-knife  {bolo),  and  no  other  materials  than 
bamboos,  palm-leaves,  and  Spanish  reeds. 

A  handsome  house  built  of  planks,  for  the  family  of  a  cabeza, 
may  cost  about  100  dollars.  The  property  of  such  a  family, 
including  fixtures,  furniture,  ornaments,  &c.,  may  be  worth  from 
100  to  1000  dollars;  some  are  valued  at  even  10,000,  and  the 
richest  in  the  whole  province  is  estimated  at  40,000. 

The  Indian  eats  three  meals  daily,— one  at  7  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  another  at  2  in  the  afternoon,  and  the  third  at  7 
or  8  in  the  evening.  The  strongest  workmen  will  consume  at 
each  meal  a  chupa  of  rice,  but  ordinary  individuals  only  half  a 
chupa  at  breakfast,  an  entire  chupa  at  mid-day,  and  half  a  chupa 
in  the  evening;  making  in  all  two  chupas^.  The  average 
retail  price  is  3  cuartos  for  2  chupasf. 

For  each  meal  the  requisite  quantity  of  rice  is  pounded  in  a 
wooden  mortar  by  a  woman.  The  rice  is  only  half  cooked,  at 
least  according  to  our  notions ;  but  it  appears  that  this  is  always 
the  case  where  rice  forms  an  essential  article  of  diet. 

For  seasoning  the  Indian  uses  salt  and  a  good  deal  of  Spanish 
pepper  {Capsicum) ,  which  is  grown  everywhere.    His  luxuries  are 

•  8  chupsfisd  litres.  t  160  cuartossl  doUar. 

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in  Luzon,  Philippine  Islands.  173 

buyo  and  cigars.  A  dgar  costs  1  cuarto,  and  a  buyo  0*1  cuarto. 
Buyo  is  the  fonn  in  which  betel  is  used  in  the  Philippines.  A 
leaf  of  betel-pepper  {Chavica  betel)  is  spread  over  with  lime^  and 
rolled  together  from  both  sides  towards  the  middle^  one  end  of 
the  roll  being  stuck  into  the  other  so  as  to  form  a  ring,  in  which 
is  inserted  a  flat  piece  of  areca-nut  of  corresponding  size.  The 
cigars  are  rarely  used  for  smoking^  but  are  cut  into  pieces  and 
chewed  with  the  buyo.  Wom^n  also  consume  both  tobacco  and 
buyo^  but  usually  only  to  a  very  moderate  extent.  They  do  not 
colour  the  teeth  blacky  as  the  Malays  do^  but  the  young  and 
handsome  women  constantly  polish  them  with  the  husk  of  the 
areca-nut^  the  fibres  of  which  lie  parallel  and  close  together^  so 
as  to  form,  on  perpendicular  section,  an  excellent  tooth-brush. 
They  wash  several  times  daily,  and  in  cleanliness  far  excel  the 
great  majority  of  Europeans*. 

Probably  every  Indian  keeps  a  fighting-cock,  and  even  if  he 
has  nothing  to  eat  he  manages  to  find  money  enough  for  this. 

An  earthen  vessel,  costing  about  three  or  four  cuartos,  serves 
for  all  purposes  of  cooking.  The  poor  have  no  other  vessel,  but 
the  richer  have  cast-iron  pans  and  earthen  vessels  with  covers. 
The  fire-place  in  a  small  house  consists  of  a  flat  box,  often  an 
old  cigar-box,  filled  with  sand  and  containing  three  stones  to 
serve  as  a  tripod;  but  in  the  larger  houses  the  fire-place  has 
more  the  form  of  a  bedstead.  In  small  households  the  water 
is  stored  in  stout  bamboos.  Everybody  possesses  a  bolo,  or 
forest-knife — a  imiversal  instrument,  which  the  Indian  carries 
in  a  wooden  sheath  of  his  own  make,  and  slings  round  his  waist 
by  a  cord  made  of  some  bast-fibres  carelessly  twisted  together. 
A  rice-mortar  (a  hollowed  wooden  block)  and  a  grinder,  to- 
gether with  a  basket,  form  all  the  household  implements  of  a 
poor  family.  Sometimes  there  is  a  large  snail-shell,  with  a 
rush-wick,  to  serve  as  a  lamp. 

The  wages  of  an  ordinary  labourer  for  working  from  6  to  12 
o^dock  and  from  2  to  6,  is  1  real  and  no  food.  The  women 
usually  do  no  field-work ;  but  they  plant-out  the  rice  and  help 
to  get  it  in,  and  in  both  these  cases  they  have  the  same  wages 
as  men  would  receive.  Workers  in  wood  and  stone  earn  1^ 
real  per  day. 

In  the  old  pfieblos  there  are  schools.  The  teachers  are  paid 
by  the  Government,  and  usually  receive  2  dollars  per  month, 

*  In  my  '  Reiseakizzen '  (p.  120)  I  have  remarked  that  in  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago Eoropeans  are  never  troubled  with  the  vermin  of  the  natives.  This  is 
especially  the  case  in  the  Philippines,  where  the  natives  (particularly  the 
women)  although  they  take  neat  care  with  their  hair,  are  often  infested, 
while  the  Spaniards,  althougn  offcen  neglectful,  are  probably  never  thus 
visited. 

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174  Dr.  Jaoor — On  the  Natives  ofNaga. 

without  either  board  or  lodging.  In  lai^er  pueblos  the  wages 
rise  to  3^  dollars ;  but  an  assistant  has  to  be  paid  out  of  this 
sum.  Beading  and  writing  are  taught;  copies  are  set  in 
Spanish^  and  the  teacher  is  supposed  to  speak  only  Spanish  to 
his  scholars^  but  he  often  does  not  understand  it  himself: 
hence  Spanish  is  known  almost  only  to  those  Indians  who  have 
lived  in  the  service  of  Europeans. 

On  an  average  one-half  of  the  children  go  to  school^  com- 
monly from  seven  to  ten  years  of  age ;  they  learn  to  read,  and 
a  few  also  to  write  a  little,  but  they  soon  forget  it.  Only  those 
who  afterwards  serve  as  clerks  can  write  freely.  In  some  parts 
the  boys  and  girls  are  not  allowed  to  attend  the  same  school, 
and  in  such  cases  a  female  teacher  is  engaged  at  a  salary  of 
1  dollar  per  month. 

Women  rarely  marry  before  fourteen  years  of  age.  Twelve 
years  is  the  lowest  limit  fixed  by  law.  In  the  register  of  the 
church  of  Folangui,  in  Albay,  I  found  it  recorded  that  on  the 
28th  January  1837,  marriage  was  celebrated  between  an  Indian 
and  a  female  Indian  of  eleven  years  and  six  days,  who  bore  the 
ominous  name  of  '^  Hilaria  Concepcion.^'  This  was  done  by 
licence  of  the  bishop,  as  the  girl  was  pregnant,  but  had  not 
reached  the  legal  age  for  marriage.  The  parents  died  in  1857 
of  an  epidemic  disease,  but  a  son  is  still  living. 

In  the  same  register  I  found  a  marriage  recorded  between  an 
Indian  of  twenty-eight  and  an  Indian  woman  of  twelve  years. 

The  women  are  in  general  well  treated,  and  do  only  Ught 
work,  such  as  sewing,  weaving,  and  household  duties.  All  the 
heavy  work,  with  the  exception  of  grinding  rice,  is  performed 
by  men. 

Women  remain  fruitful  until  the  fortieth  year.  Two  women, 
known  to  me,  have  borne  each  fifteen  children.  Five  or  six 
births  are  conmion. 

The  first  excrements  of  a  new-bom  babe  are  carefully  pre- 
served, and  imder  the  name  of  triaca  {theriacum)  are  regarded 
as  a  universal  remedy  against  the  bite  of  snakes  and  mad  dogs. 
It  is  applied  to  the  wound,  and  is  also  taken  internally. 

A  large  number  of  children  die  in  the  first  two  weeks  after 
birth.  There  are  no  statLstical  data ;  but  one  of  the  first  doctors 
in  Manilla  is  of  opinion  that  at  least  on^-fifth,  if  not  indeed  a 
fourth,  die  at  that  period.  According  to  him,  the  cause  is  to  be 
attributed  to  the  great  impurity  of  the  air,  for  every  opening  in 
the  house  is  stopped  up  to  exclude  draught,  for  fear  of  injury  to 
the  mother. 

Formerly  this  was  done  to  exclude  Patiana,  an  evil  spirit 
who  worked  mischief  to  the  woman  and  sought  to  hinder 
delivery.     The  custom  is  still  retained,  and  probably  the  super- 
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Major  Frederick  Millinoen — On  the  Koofds.        175 

stition  yet  lingers  with  many^  although  they  do  not  confess  it ; 
and  where  this  belief  has  died  away  the  fear  of  catching  cold 
has  been  introduced  as  a  new  cause  for  the  retention  of  an  old 
custom. 

The  disease  of  mimicking^  called  in  Java  sakU-latar,  occurs 
also  here^  and  is  termed  mali-mali.  In  Java  it  is  supposed  by 
many  to  be  merely  an  imposition,  and  that  those  who  pretend 
to  be  thus  afiict^  find  it  advantageous  to  deceiye  the  newly 
settled  Europeans.  Here,  however,  I  observed  an  example 
which  could  certainly  not  be  regarded  as  an  imposition.  Cases 
of  amok  are  also  foimd  in  the  Philippines. 

It  is  one  of  the  greatest  offences  to  cry  out  to  a  native  when 
he  is  asleep,  or  to  awaken  him  quickly.  They  arouse  one 
another,  if  necessary,  with  the  greatest  caution,  and  very  gently. 
Among  the  Juinguianes,  in  North  Luzon,  the  greatest  of  all 
curses  is — "  May  you  die  sleeping !  ''* 


XXI.  On  the  KooRDs. 
By  Major  Frederick  Millingen,  F.B.G.S. 
(Read  December  2l8t,  1869.) 
Laying  aside  traditions  and  opinions  which  are  beyond  the  reach 
of  discussion,  we  shall  find  that  the  races  mentioned  in  early 
history  as  being  the  inhabitants  of  the  high  plateau  of  Armenia 
are  the  Armenians,  the  Karduks,  and  the  Chaldeans.  Xenophon, 
the  earliest  writer  whose  authentic  description  of  that  region 
has  been  transmitted  to  us,  relates,  in  his  ^  Retreat  of.  the  Ten 
Thousand,'  how  he  entered  the  mountainous  country  occupied  by 
the  warlike  Karduks.  That  the  Karduks  of  that  period  are 
the  ancestors  of  the  race  known  in  our  days  by  the  name  of 
Koords,  is  an  opinion  universally  adopted.  If  the  difference 
etisting  between  the  modem  and  the  ancient  name  could  be 
considered  as  a  reason  strong  enough  to  justij^  some  objection 
on  this  point,  an  inquiry  into  the  way  in  which  the  Koords  are 
called  by  their  Asiatic  neighbours,  as  well  as  by  themselves,  will 
serve  to  put  this  question  b^ond  doubt.  Though  the  Turkish 
and  Persian  way  of  pronouncing  and  writing  the  name  '^  Koord  ** 
is  almost  similar  to  the  one  adopted  by  western  nations,  we  shall 
yet  find  that  the  Arabs,  who  have  generally  shown  themselves 
more  accurate  in  historical,  ethnological,  and  literary  questions, 
have  kept  that  name  under  a  form  much  more  like  to  the  old 
Greek  wa^  of  spelling  it, — Kart  in  the  singular  and  Ekrai  in  the 
plural  being  the  Arabic  name  for  Koord  or  Koords.  As  for 
their  own  way  of  calling  themselves,  it  is  different  from  any 

*  Informe  sobre  el  Estado  de  las  fUipinas,  i.  14. 

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176       Major  Fredbbick  Millinoen — On  the  Hoards, 

other^  although  it  possesses  the  Kart  sound, — ^their  national  de- 
nomination being  Kartmantche.  I  am  at  a  loss  to  explain  the 
meaning  oimantche  placed  at  the  end. 

The  Koords  belong  to  the  Aryan  race,  and  have  a  language  of 
their  own,  independent  of  either  Armenian,  Persian,  or  Turkish. 
Persian,  however,  is  very  much  mixed  up  in  their  idioms, — ^a  re- 
sult which  is  due  to  their  close  contact  with  a  race  endowed 
with  a  higher  civilization.  The  peculiarities  which  I  have  re- 
marked in  the  Koordish  idiom  are  the  following : — ^a  predilection 
on  the  part  of  the  Koords  to  shorten  and  contract  proper  names, 
a  liberty  which  a  Turk  will  never  take ;  so  that,  instead  of  say- 
ing ''  Mehemet ''  in  esienso,  the  Koord  will  say  Mukho,  Hasso 
likewise  serves  instead  of  Hassam,  Memo  instead  of  Mahmud, 
and  so  on.  Another  peculiarity  is  the  Italian-like  o  termination 
which  prevails  in  the  Koordish  idiom,  as  seen  in  the  above-quoted 
names.  The  negative  no  is,  I  think,  more  extraordinary  still, 
as  the  negative  employed  by  other  Oriental  nations  is  totally 
different.  The  Koordish  language  contains  almost  as  many 
dialects  as  there  are  tribes ;  and  it  often  happens  that  one  tribe 
does  not  understand  another.  The  Koords  of  Dersim-dagh  are 
not  able  to  understand  those  of  Beyazid  or  Suleimanieh,  and 
vice  versd. 

The  great  intercourse  which  the  Koords  have  with  the  Persians 
not  only  makes  them  familiar  with  the  language  and  customs  of 
Persia,  out  has  led  them  to  adopt  the  same  creed,  the  Koords 
being  Shiahs  like  the  Persians,  and  not  Sunnites  as  their  Os- 
manli  masters. 

The  character  of  the  Koordish  race  partakes,  in  many  of  its 
principal  features,  of  those  peculiarities  which  are  general  with 
nomads  at  large.  Compelled  to  rove  through  vast  tracts  of  ter- 
ritory in  search  of  pasturage  or  for  marauding  and  plunder,  the 
Koord  acquires  an  enterprising  instinct  with  a  spirit  of  restless- 
ness, acuteness,  cunning,  and  rapacity.  In  constant  strife  with 
their  neighbours  or  with  each  other,  they  are  essentially  a  war- 
like people,  ever  ready  to  attack  or  to  meet  an  enemy.  Unlike 
the  chivalrous  Arab,  however,  the  Koord  does  not  hesitate  to 
stain  his  hands  with  the  blood  of  the  guest  who  has  taken 
shelter  under  the  folds  of  his  tent. 

Brigandage  is  systematically  established  throughout  Koordis- 
tan,  and  is  conducted  in  two  ways, — namely,  by  means  of  sudden 
attacks  on  caravans  and  travellers,  and  by  the  more  regular  plan 
of  forced  contributions.  The  attacks  on  caravans  can  only  be 
avoided  by  a  display  of  strength.  Commercial  travellers  are 
perhaps  the  only  people  who  traverse  Koordistan  with  little  fear 
of  being  hurt,  since  it  is  to  the  interest  of  the  Koord  to  protect 
them. 

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Major  Frederick  Millingen — On  the  Koords,        177 

Forced  contributions  and  ransoms  belong  to  the  regular  form 
of  brigandage.  Whenever  a  chief  is  in  want  of  money,  or  finds 
that  he  is  running  short  of  provisions,  he  at  once  has  recourse 
to  a  ransom  or  contribution  imposed  on  the  Armenian  vil- 
lages of  the  neighbourhood.  Besides  these  ransoms  on  a 
large  scale,  there  exists  a  kind  of  cpntribution  on  a  smaller 
scale  which  every  Koord  thinks  himself  entitled  to  impose 
whenever  he  finds  it  convenient.  This  consists  of  visits  paid 
by  the  Koords  to  the  peaceful  inhabitants  of  the  towns  in 
order  to  request  them  to  take  upon  themselves  the  trouble 
and  cost  of  feeding  their  horses  or  buflFaloes  during  the  whole 
of  the  winter  season.  The  inhabitants  have  no  course  but 
that  of  complying  with  this  peremptory  request,  as  they  would 
otherwise  run  the  risk  of  seeing  their  crops  and  plantations 
destroyed. 

Amongst  the  many  acts  of  brigandage  of  which  Koords  are 
guilty,  a  peculiar  kind  of  highway-robbery  must  here  be  noted, 
the  parallel  of  which  has  probably  never  been  heard.  The 
culprits  are  in  this  case  young  women,  who  set  out  on  plunder- 
ing excursions.  A  troup  of  fair  bandits  takes  up  a  station 
at  the  side  of  the  road,  and  there  patiently  waits  for  the  arrival 
of  the  doomed  traveller;  as  soon  as  the  vedettes  announce 
his  approach,  the  fair  troup  starts  off  to  meet  the  traveller, 
giving  him  the  welcome  with  their  dances.  The  traveller  is 
compelled  to  stop,  as  a  matter  of  course ;  and  the  maids  then 
politely  request  him  to  alight  from  his  horse.  No  sooner  has 
the  bewildered  victim,  unconscious  of  his  fate,  put  foot  on  the 
ground,  than  he  finds  himself  at  close  quarters  with  the  whole 
troup,  and  is  immediately  stripped  of  all  he  has  on  his  back. 
Then  begins  a  series  of  dances  and  fascinating  gestures  in  the 
style  of  those  performed  by  the  maids  of  the  Lupercalic  era,  the 
object  of  which  is  to  make  the  unfortunate  traveller  loose  his 
reason  and  self-control.  An  attempt,  however,  on  the  part  of 
the  victim  to  reciprocate  with  the  charms  of  his  fair  tyrants  be- 
comes instantly  fatal. 

These  dances  and  the  flagellations,  which  serve  as  entr^actes, 
are  repeated  several  times,  until  the  sufferer  extenuated,  with  his 
limbs  bleeding,  is  nearly  fainting.  Then  the  female  troup  de- 
cides on  dragging  the  wretched  traveller  before  a  Court  of 
Matrons,  which  holds  its  sittings  somewhere  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. Once  there,  a  case  for  attempting  a  certain  transgression 
is  brought  against  the  pretended  culprit,  who  not  only  receives  a 
good  dose  of  upbraiding,  but  is  also  condemned  to  pay  the  fine 
stipulated  by  the  court.  This  fact  might,  for  the  extravagance 
of  its  nature,  excite  some  doubts  as  to  its  accuracy ;  I  have, 
however,  ventured  to  state  it  on  the  testimony  of  several  indivi- 

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178        Major  Frederick  Millinoen — On  the  Koords. 

duals  who  have  happened  to  pass  through  the  territory  of  the 
Bilbash  tribe^  whose  women  are  addict^  to  this  singular  kind 
of  highway-robbery.  I  may  add  that  these  statements  are  sup- 
ported by  one  of  my  colleagues  of  the  Staff,  Major  Daud  £ffendi> 
who  has  resided  a  long  time  in  the  province  of  Kerkuh^  of 
which  the  Bilbash  tribe  is  a  dependency. 

Koordistan  is  a  bare  country,  where  pasturage  is  the  only 
resource  which  can  furnish  its  inhabitants  with  the  means  of 
subsistence.  The  flock  provides  the  Koord  with  the  milk,  the 
butter,  and  the  djadjk  (cheese)  which  form  the  principal  ingre- 
dients of  his  metds.  It  is  upon  the  women  that  the  duty  de- 
volves of  manufacturing  the  butter  and  the  djadjk.  Sour  milk 
and  yatart  are  also  amongst  the  principal  ingredients  of  the 
Koordish  kitchen. 

The  Koord  seldom  eats  of  the  flesh  of  his  flock ;  indeed  few 
Koords  eat  meat  more  than  three  or  four  times  during  the  year. 
The  produce  of  the  flock  is  too  valuable;  for  it  constitutes 
the  wealth  of  the  Koord,  who  is  therefore  extremely  parsimo- 
nious in  squandering  it  for  the  satisfaction  of  his  own  appetite. 
The  wealthy  chiefs  form  an  exception  to  the  general  rule,  their 
table  being  abundantly  provided  with  the  best  of  meat  prepared 
in  various  ways.  The  wheat  necessary  for  subsistence  is  bought 
by  the  Koords  in  the  markets  of  the  country,  or  is  imported 
from  Persia.  After  having  reduced  it  to  the  state  of  flour  by 
means  of  water-mills,  the  women  make  with  it  a  very  thin  paste, 
which  is  baked  in  a  few  minutes  inside  the  tandur.  Wheat 
nicely  cleaned  and  broken  into  fragments  is  used  to  make  the 
pt/a/ called  bulffur-pilaf,  so  as  to  distinguish  it  from  the  ordinary 
pilaf  made  of  rice ;  this  dish  forms  the  principal  daily  food 
of  the  Koords. 

In  Koordistan  men  do  literally  nothing;  the  duties  of 
shepherd  and  vedette  once  fulfilled,  they  spend  their  time  in 
gossiping,  smoking,  intriguing,  plotting,  and  occasionally  in 
marauding  expeditions,  or  in  attacking  one  another.  Fiul  of 
vanity,  they  attach  great  importance  to  appearance,  and  highly 
prize  a  fanciful  costume.  Bed  morocco  boots  and  a  red  mantle 
form  the  regimental  outfit  of  a  warrior.  Persian  and  Kashmir 
shawls  are  articles  to  which  every  chief  aspires;  they  are  used 
as  turbans,  or  they  are  twisted  round  the  waist. 

The  costumes  worn  by  the  men  in  this  part  of  Koordistan 
are  of  three  sorts ;  the  first  is  composed  of  a  kind  of  morning 
gown,  and  a  long  gown,  called  djupeh^  worn  above ;  this  dress, 
common  all  through  the  east,  is  worn  by  the  Koords  in  doors, 
and  while  en  nigligi  under  the  tent.  The  second  costume  con- 
sists of  a  voluminous  pair  of  blue  breeches,  a  small  gown,  the 
scarlet  mantle,  together  with  its  lower  appendix  the  red  boots; 

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Major  Frederick  Millinoen — On  the  Koords.         179 

this  isj  strictly  speakings  a  warrior's  winter  costume.  The  third 
is  by  far  the  most  picturesque  of  all^  and  is  exclusively  Koor- 
disb ;  this  dress  is  composed  of  a  short  scarlet  jacket  with  its 


Fig.  10.  Costume  of  Koords*. 

hanging  sleeves^  a  pair  of  trousers  large  and  loose,  offering  a 
garb  and  ease  the  effect  of  which  is  difficult  to  convey  by  mere 
words.  The  usual  red  boots  and  the  big  turban,  around  which  a 
variety  of  coloured  handkerchiefs  are  careAilly  twisted,  complete 
this  elegant  costume  worn  by  the  Koordish  warriors  during  the 
hot  season.  Few  costumes  are  more  suited  to  the  service  of 
light  cavalry  than  this ;  it  possesses  the  required  qualities  of  ease, 
elegance,  and  of  presenting  a  martial  aspect. 

The  arms  used  by  the  Koords  are  these : — as  a  defensive  arm 
the  shield  made  of  elephant-,  rhinoceros-,  or  buffalo-skin.  This 
shield  is  small,  having  a  diameter  of  only  20  inches ;  externally 
it  is  covered  with  several  rows  of  brass  buttons,  which  gradually 
rise  in  thickness  from  the  circumference  to  the  centre.  The 
offensive  arms  are  a  short  carabine  with  a  wide  open  muzzle  of 
a  very  old  model,  an  old  flint  pistol,  and  scimitar  of  the  Persian 
manufacture  of  Khorasan;  some  carry  also  a  small  crooked 
Persian  dagger  {hantcher) .  The  best  of  their  arms  is  the  lance, 
in  the  handling  of  which  the  Koords  excel.   The  Koordish  lance 

*  From  Major  Millingen's  <  Wild  Life  among  the  Koords/  by  permission 
of  Messrs.  Hurst  and  Blackett. 


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180        Major  Frederick  Mtllinoen — On  the  Koards. 

is  made  of  bamboo  imported  irom  India  by  Persian  merchants ; 
the  bamboo  having  seven  knots  is  considered  to  be  the  best ;  its 
length  is  four  yards  and  a  half;  the  point  is  of  good  steel, 
and  remains  almost  concealed  inside  a  baU  made  of  long  black 
horse-hair.  The  object  of  this  ball  is  to  frighten  the  horses  of 
the  enemy,  and  to  conceal  the  deadly  weapon. 

The  Koordish  race,  both  men  and  women,  are  remarkably 
handsome,  being  far  superior  in  this  respect  to  the  Tatar-Turks 
or  to  those  of  Constantinople ;  they  are  tall,  powerfully  built, 
and  muscular.  It  is  strange  that  among  the  Koords  a  variety 
of  complexions  is  to  be  found ;  although  a  dark  complexion  with 
black  eyes  and  black  hair  is  predominant,  yet  light  hair  and 
blue  eyes  are  also  to  be  met  with ;  chestnut  is  not  uncommon. 
One  peculiar  feature  is  the  fire  and  the  power  with  which  their 
optic  organs  are  endowed.  Though  I  have  not  visited  the  inde- 
pendent district  situated  in  the  centre  of  the  Taurus  chain  (a 
region  known  to  the  Turks  under  the  name  of  Dersim-dagh), 
yet,  from  the  statements  made  to  me  by  my  fellow  officers,  I 
have  ascertained  that  the  Koordish  race  sheltered  in  that  moun- 
tainous country  can  be  looked  upon  as  a  model  of  physical 
beauty  and  power. 

Amongst  the  Koords  the  women  do  every  thing ;  they  pre- 
pare  the  meal,  wash,  and  milk  and  shear  the  flock ;  they  alone 
are  capable  of  weaving  and  dyeing  the  wool,  and  of  knitting  the 
carpets,  the  blankets,  the  tents,  and  the  other  textile  fabrics  of 
which  the  country  boasts.  I  have  seen  women  even  grooming 
and  saddling  their  husbands'  horses ! 

The  women  wear  large  oriental  trousers  {shalvar)  tied  at  the 
ankle,  a  small  jacket,  open  in  front  and  reaching  below  the 
knees,  and  a  voluminous  turban  in  the  Koordish  fashion.  This 
costume,  with  its  gay  colours,  displays  to  advantage  their  fiiU 
round  forms  and  sun-burnt  features. 

Koordish  women  are  extremely  moral,  and  their  character 
partakes  of  a  masculine  firmness  and  decision.  This  is  refer- 
able to  the  free  intercourse  between  the  sexes,  which  is  of  course 
at  variance  with  the  Mussulman  religion.  A  Koordish  woman 
is  familiar  with  all  the  affairs,  feuds,  plans,  and  conspiracies  of 
her  tribe ;  indeed  she  is  often  the  very  soul  and  moving  spirit 
in  such  matters.  As  enterprising  and  enduring  as  the  men, 
the  women  here  are  always  on  the  alert  and  ready  to  jump  into 
the  saddle. 

In  their  ideas,  manners,  and  habits,  the  Koords  are  a  rough 
and  half-savage  people;  their  knowledge  and  ideas  are  very 
limited,  and  they  are  even  destitute  of  those  national  traditions 
which  are  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation.  It  is 
worthy  of  note  that  the  Koords  have  no  ancient  traditions  of 

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Major  Frepe&ick  Millinoen — On  the  Koords.        181 

their  own,  and  anecdotes  relating  to  Persian  heroes  and  Shahs 
constitute  their  entire  stock  of  historic  lore.  The  Koords  do 
not  seem  to  have  ever  taken  much  interest  in  Turkish  history, 
and  it  is  unquestionable  that  they  find  themselves  much  more  at 
home  with  the  Persians  than  with  the  Turks. 

Buffoonery  and  jokes  of  all  sorts  are  much  in  favour  amongst 
the  Koords,  every  chief  having  some  buffoon,  whose  duty  it  is 
to  keep  the  company  merry. 

Amusements  are  not  much  in  vogue,  the  inventive  powers  of 
this  people  being  as  deficient  in  this  direction  as  in  others. 
Wrestling,  stone-throwing,  tournaments,  dances,  and  buffalo- 
fights  are  their  chief  sports ;  chess  is  also  played. 

To  do  the  Koords  justice  it  must,  however,  be  admitted  that 
they  are  often  frank  enough  to  avow  their  own  faults  and  short- 
comings; they  acknowledge  themselves  a  rough  and  wild  people 
and  therefore  consider  themselves  entitled  to  forbearance. 

One  of  the  characteristics  giving  to  the  customs  of  the 
Koords  a  certaui  European  type,  is  the  funeral  ceremony  per- 
formed  in  honour  of  a  dead  warrior  or  chieftain.  On  such  an 
occasion  special  invitations  are  sent  to  the  chiefs  of  the  friendly 
tribes,  and  to  all  those  who  are  related  to  the  defunct  by  ties  of 
consanguinity.  At  the  appointed  hour,  every  one  hastens  to  the 
house  whence  the  funeral  procession  is  to  start.  A  certain  num- 
ber of  horsemen  open  the  procession,  performing  before  the 
hearse  a  series  of  tournaments  and  evolutions ;  while  this  goes 
on  at  the  head  of  the  procession,  the  hearse  is  carried  in  the 
middle  on  the  shoulders  of  the  relations  and  friends  of  the  de- 
ceased. Just  behind  the  hearse  his  charger  follows  at  a  slow 
step,  carrying  the  empty  saddle,  the  arms,  and  the  war-costume 
of  his  late  master.  The  procession  is  closed  by  a  number  of 
warriors  presenting  an  imposing  mass  of  cavalry.  The  ladies, 
relatives  as  well  as  friends  of  the  deceased,  wear  on  this  occasion 
black  veils,  as  a  sign  of  mourning ;  at  the  moment  the  body 
is  taken  out  of  the  house  the  women  begin  to  cry  and  shriek 
wildly,  while,  in  sign  of  grief,  they  rend  their  clothes  and  throw 
handfuls  of  earth  aud  dust  on  their  heads. 

This  funeral  ceremony,  which  is  a  national  institution  with 
the  Koords,  is  the  .more  surprising  on  account  of  its  being 
utterly  opposed  to  the  principles  of  the  Koran,  as  well  as  to  the 
prejudices  of  other  Mussulman  nations.  According  to  them, 
all  men  are  reduced  by  death  to  the  same  level ;  and  hence  no 
honour  is  to  be  paid  to  any  one  after  death,  whatever  may  have 
been  his  position  while  living. 


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182      HowoRTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades, 

XXII.  On  the  Wbsteely  Drifting  of  Nomades^  from  the  Fifth 
to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  By  H.  H.  Howorth^  Esq. — 
Part  IV.  The  Circassians  and  Wliite  Khazars. 

(Part  in.  was  published  in  this  yolume^  pp.  83-06.) 

By  tracing  back  the  various  lines  of  migration^  we  have  at 
length  succeeded  in  eliminating  firom  the  ethnography  of  Eu- 
rope and  Southern  Asia  a  most  perplexing  and,  in  many  respects, 
preponderating  element.  We  have  pushed  back  the  Turks  be- 
yond the  Volga  and  the  Oxus.  Their  history  in  that  further 
region,  which  forms  the  typical  Turkestan,  I  hope  to  trace  out 
in  a  future  paper.  At  present  I  must  commence  to  make  good 
my  rash  proposition,  that  the  Petchenegs  were  the  first  Turks 
that  crossed  the  Volga.  I  call  it  rash,  because  it  is  directly  at 
issue  with  the  conclusions  of  Dr.  Latham,  the  most  patient  and 
careful  of  English  ethnologists,  and  because  it  involves  a  posi- 
tion which,  so  far  as  I  know,  is  entirely  new. 

The  northern  flanks  of  the  Caucasus  form,  in  my  opinion,  one 
of  the  best  ethnological  barometers  that  we  possess.  Its  many 
races  are  the  waifs  and  strays  of  invasions  that  have  swept  by 
and  through  the  great  marching-ground  of  all  western  invaiders, 
the  Steppes  north  of  the  Caspian  Sea  and  the  Euxine.  Each 
body  of  invaders  who  has  occupied  these  plains  has  left  a  por- 
tion of  its  race  behind,  which  remnants  have  been  pressed  for- 
ward into  the  mountains  by  succeeding  invaders.  Thus  if  we 
peel  the  mountains,  as  it  were,  and  remove  the  successive  layers 
of  population  that  occupy  them,  we  shall  have  a  series  represent- 
ing, not  unfaithfully,  the  various  tribes  and  races  which  have 
occupied  Southern  Russia. 

According  to  Mayoudi,  when  the  Gusses  crossed  the  Volga, 
they  entered  the  land  of  Eazaria.  The  Khazars,  in  the  pages 
of  Byzantine,  Arabian,  and  Russian  authorities,  were  the  pre- 
cursors of  the  Gusses,  or  Comans,  and  the  Petchenegs.  Our 
inquiry  therefore  commences  with  the  Khazars.  Who  were  the 
Khazars  ?  One  mistake  by  one  author  may  divert  the  reasoning 
on  a  whole  science  into  a  vicious  and  wrong  channel.  No  better 
example  of  this  fact  can  be  chosen  than  the  case  of  the  Khazars. 
Ebn  Haoucal's  Geography,  which  was  written  in  976-7,  was 
translated  into  EngUsh  by  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley.  His  statements 
about  the  Khazari,  with  whom  he  was  contemporary,  are  of 
course  of  the  highest  value.  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley  has  unfortu- 
nately mistranslated  the  most  important  passage,  and  his  mis- 
translation has  been  followed  by  English  inquirers.  Long  ago, 
the  greatest  authority  on  this  branch  of  Arabian  literature, 
Fraehn,  in  his  "  De  Chasans,  Excerpta  ex  scriptoribus  Arabids,'' 
published  in  the  Memoirs  of  the  St.  Petersbui^  Academy,  called 

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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  183 

attention  to  and  corrected  this  mistake;  and  the  question  has 
been  ably  discussed  by  Vivien  St.  Martin.  There  can  no  longer 
be  the  slightest  doubt  that  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley  gave  the  exact 
reverse  of  the  meaning  of  the  passage.  Ebn  Haoucal  says  the 
Khazars  differed  entirely  in  their  language  from  the  Turks. 
Ouseley  made  him  say  they  were  like  the  Turks  in  language. 
The  term  Turk  is  used  by  Ebn  Haoucal  in  a  more  limited  sense 
than  by  many  of  his  Byzantine  and  Arabian  contemporaries^ 
who  apply  it  indiscriminately  to  the  Hungarians,  Bulgarians, 
and  to  all  the  various  Nomades  of  the  Steppes,  in  an  almost 
equivalent  manner  with  the  ancient  term  Scyth.  Ahmed  ben 
Fozlan  also  says  that  the  Khazar  tongue  differs  from  the  Persian 
and  Turk.  The  Khazars,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  differed 
from  the  Turks  entirely  in  their  phyaiqtie,  their  religion,  and 
their  manners,  as  they  did,  according  to  Ebn  Haoucal,  in  their 
more  important  ethnological  differentue,  as  in  their  language. 
If  they  were  not  Turks,  what  were  they?  I  cannot  believe  that 
a  race,  so  very  important  as  they  were  for  three  centuries,  should 
have  been  wiped  out  without  leaving  a  trace  behind.  Let  us 
appeal,  experimentally  only,  to  our  ethnological  barometer,  the 
flanks  of  the  Caucasus. 

In  a  previous  paper  I  have  shown  that  the  Nogays,  and  other 
so-called  Tartar  hordes  of  the  Kuban  and  the  Caucasus,  are  the 
descendants  of  the  Petchenegs  and  Gusses.  If  we  remove  the 
Nogays,  therefore,  from  our  map,  we  shall  perhaps  meet  with 
some  clue.  The  layer  of  population  which  lies  immediately 
beyond  the  Tartars  is  that  of  the  Circassians.  What,  then,  is 
the  history  of  the  Circassians  ?  This  question  involves  a  very 
difficult  answer,  if  we  are  to  be  guided  by  orthodox  text-books. 
It  is  not  denied  that  the  Circassians  are,  and  have  been,  as  long 
as  tradition  reaches  back,  the  masters  and  leaders  of  the  Cau- 
casian Tartars,  of  the  Ossetes,  and  of  their  other  neighbours, 
supplying  the  princely  and  governing  caste  to  all  the  northern 
Caucasus.  Yet  we  are  taught  to  believe  that  these  Circassians 
have  no  history,  properly  so  called,  and  that  we  must  be  content 
to  trace  them,  perhaps,  in  the  Zychians  &c.  of  the  Greek  writers. 
I  cannot  believe  such  a  position  to  be  well  founded.  Let  us 
trace  them  back  in  some  detail.  First,  we  must  limit  the  term 
Tscherkessian,  or  Circassian,  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  two  Ka- 
bardahs,  and  the  Circassians  proper  of  the  moimtains,  described 
in  detail  by  Klaproth,  under  their  various  tribal  names  of  Bes- 
lenie,  Muchosch,  Abasech,  Kemurqudhe,  or  Tenurgoi,  Hatti- 
qu&he  Attigoi,  or  Hattukai,  Bsheduch,  Schapschik,  Shana,  or 
Shani,  and  Schegakeh.  I  exclude  entirely  the  Abassians,  or 
Abkhassians,  classed,  I  know  not  on  what  authority,  by  Dr. 
Latham  with  the  Circassians,  but  most  sharply  distinguished 

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184      HowoBTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades, 

from  them  by  Klaproth.  These  latter  have  Circassian  princes^ 
and  have  a  few  customs  and  words  in  common  with  their  mas- 
ters, otherwise  they  are  very  distinct,  and  are  really  the  rem- 
nants of  the  occupants  of  the  Circassian  area  before  the  arrival 
of  the  Circassians. 

Having  thus  limited  the  name  Circassian  to  the  Kabardiens 
and  the  Circassians  proper  of  the  mountains,  let  us  turn  to  their 
history.  First>  the  Kabardiens;  the  name  is  as  old  as  the  days 
of  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus,  as  applied  to  a  large  division  of 
the  Circassian  nation.  As  applied  to  the  district  now  occupied 
by  Kabardiens,  it  is  much  more  recent.  Their  ancient  seats 
were  among  the  Beschtau,  or  Five  Mountains,  the  most  northern 
spurs  of  the  Caucasus,  when  in  the  sixteenth  century,  in  the 
quaint  language  of  Klaproth's  translator,  "  The  Tscherkessians, 
weary  of  everlasting  war,  at  length  aljandoned  the  Beschtau,  or 
the  Five  Mountains,  and  removed  nearer  to  the  Terek,  where 
they  settled  on  the  river  Baksan,  in  the  Russian  territory.  They 
had  then  at  their  head  two  princes,  the  brothers  Kabarty-Bek, 
who,  quarrelling  on  account  of  this  change  of  abode,  parted,  and 
divided  the  Tscherkessian  nation  between  them.  The  elder 
remained  on  the  river  Baksan,  but  the  younger,  with  his  fol- 
lowers, proceeded  to  the  Terek,  and  thence  afterwards  arose  the 
division  of  their  country  into  the  Great  and  Little  Kabardah. 
The  princes  and  usdens  (nobles)  of  the  nation  professed  Mo- 
hammedanism, but  the  mass  of  the  people  and  the  peasants 
were  Christians  of  the  Greek  persuasion,  and  had  churches  and 
orthodox  priests  among  them.^'  This  story  of  Klaproth's^ 
obtained  by  him  apparently  from  the  Count  Potocki,  is  so 
reasonable,  and  happened  within  such  a  recent  period,  that 
it  may  well  be  accepted.  It  is  confirmed  by  the  traditions  of 
the  Basians,  who  relate  that  they  occupied  the  Kabardahs  be- 
fore the  Circassians,  and  were  driven  into  the  mountains  on  the 
arrival  of  the  latter.  The  subsequent  history  of  the  Kabar- 
diens is  easily  accessible ;  it  would  not  assist  us  in  our  present 
inquiry. 

Jehosaphat  Barbaro,  the  Venetian  ambassador  to  the  Persian 
court  in  1474,  calls  the  present  Kabardah  by  that  name, 
according  to  Klaprotb.  This  somewhat  antedates  the  arrivid 
of  the  Kabardiens.  It  may  be  a  mistake  of  Barbaro ;  for  in 
1497,  in  a  map  made  by  Fredutio  of  Ancona,  found  in  the  library 
of  Wolfenbuttel,  the  name  Cabardi  stands  somewhat  west  of  the 
present  Tajanrog.  Here  it  is  also  found  nearly  two  centuries 
earlier  (about  1312)  in  some  manuscript  maps  preserved  at 
Vienna;  in  the  latter  it  is  spelt  Cabari.  The  upper  part  of 
the  river  Belbek  in  the  Crimea  is  known  as  the  Kabarda. 
Lastly,  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus  places  the  Cabari  on  an 


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frwa  the  fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  185 

island  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kuban.  So  much  for  the  Kabar- 
diens. 

Since  the  Russian  extension  into  the  Caucasus,  the  Circas- 
sians of  the  mountains  have  been  driven  much  ftirther  to  the 
south.  Many  of  their  tribes  lived  formerly  on  the  Kuban.  The 
island  of  Thaman  and  the  whole  coast  of  the  Black  Sea,  as  far 
as  Anapa,  was  in  their  possession.  They  then  used  to  go  in 
numerous  caravans  to  the  lakes  between  Kislar  and  Astrachan 
to  fetch  salt.  Georgio  Interiano,  who  wrote  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  places  their  northern  limit  at  the  Don.  We  have 
already  said  that  a  river  in  the  Crimea  is  called  Kabarda. 

In  that  peninsula,  situated  between  the  rivers  Katscha  and 
Belbek,  is  a  tract  known  as  Tscherkess-TUs,  or  the  Plain  of  the 
Tscherkessians ;  there  are  also  the  ruins  of  a  castle,  called  by  the 
Tartars  Tscherkess-kjennan.  It  is  well  known  that  the  capi- 
tal of  the  Cossacks  of  the  Ukraine  was  known  as  Tscherkesh, 
a  name  also  adopted  by  the  Cossacks  of  the  Don  for  their  capi- 
tal. In  the  Russian  annals  the  Cossacks  are  frequently  referred 
to  under  the  name  Tscherkessians.  In  1500  Agatscherkess  is 
named  as  a  chief  of  the  Azof  Cossacks.  Lastly,  and  perhaps 
most  important  of  all,  the  Nogays  still  call  the  whole  country 
between  Kabardah  and  the  Katscha,  Therkestus  [vide  Pallas,  i. 
892) .  All  these  facts  show  how  wide-spread  and  important  the 
Tscherkessian  name  was  in  southern  Russia  and  the  plains  of 
the  Kuban,  before  the  Mongol  supremacy.  But  our  evidence 
is  not  yet  finished.  The  name  Tscherkess  has  been  held  by 
BJaproth  to  be  a  Turk  gloss,  compounded  of  "Tcher,''  a 
road,  and  "  Kesmek,'*  to  cut  oflT,  meaning  a  cutter-oflF  of  roads, 
i.  e,  a  brigand.  Whether  this  be  so  or  not,  I  cannot  look  upon 
the  name  Tscherkess  as  an  ancient  one  in  the  Causasus,  nor  can 
I  see  any  evidence,  save  a  similarity  of  sound,  for  identifying  it 
with  the  Kerkites  of  the  ancients.  To  the  Ossetes  and  Min- 
grelians,  the  Tscherkessians  are  known  as  Kassack,  and  the 
Ossetes  have  a  tradition  that  the  Kabardiens  were  so  called 
before  the  emigratien  from  the  North.  We  thus  get  an  explan- 
ation of  the  term  Kasachia  of  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus. 

We  also  get  the  origin  of  the  Cossack  name.  The  Cossacks 
(although  of  Polish  and  Russian  descent),  and  more  especiaUy 
the  Cossacks  of  the  Don,  have  many  customs  in  common  with 
the  Circassians,  and  succeeded  to  the  name  as  well  as  policy  of 
their  predecessors,  the  Kassacks,  or,  as  they  are  called  by  Nes- 
tor, the  Kassogi.  The  name  Kassack  appears  for  the  first  time 
in  Cons.  Por.  and  had  apparently  very  limited  use.  We  must 
search  for  the  Tscherkessians  under  some  other  name  if  we  are 
to  find  them  in  the  pages  of  the  earlier  Byzantines  and  the  Arab 
geographers.     With  both  these  latter  the  name  Khazar  is  by  far 


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186      HowoRTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades^ 

the  most  important  in  these  regions,  in  the  eighth  and  two  fol* 
lowing  centuries.  The  Caspian  was  known  as  the  Chazaiian 
Sea;  the  plains  west  of  the  Volga  as  the  land  of  Khazaria, 
while  the  same  name  was  more  particularly  applied  to  the  Cri- 
mea. As  the  name  Khazar  gradually  disappears^  the  name 
Tscherkessian  predominates.  They  both  occupied  the  same 
area,  and  we  are  led  to  the  inevitable  result  that  they  were  the 
same  people  under  two  names;  the  more  so,  as,  especially  in 
the  case  of  the  Crimea,  the  Circassians  are  the  only  race  we 
know  whose  early  history  is  compatible  with  their  being  the  de- 
scendants of  the  Khazars,  all  the  Turkish  tribes  being  excluded 
from  such  a  claim,  as  we  showed  in  starting.  This  very  rea- 
sonable position  is  abundantly  corroborated  by  other  evidence. 
Thus  the  Circassians  have  a  tradition  that  they  were  formerly 
the  masters  of  the  Nogays ;  the  Nogays,  as  we  have  shown  in 
another  paper,  are  chiefly  the  descendants  of  the  Comans  or 
Gusses.  In  the  accounts  we  have  of  the  earlier  struggles  of 
the  Comans,  we  generally  find  them  fighting  in  alliance  with 
the  Khazars.  With  the  Khazars  they  invaded  the  Russian  and 
Petchenegian  territory.  When  Klaproth  went  to  the  Caucasus 
he  was  furnished  with  a  long  list  of  names  of  the  Polowzian 
or  Comanian  invaders  of  Russia,  preserved  in  the  chronicles. 
They  were  always  the  names  of  leaders  or  chieftains :  these 
names  had  been  a  puzzle  to  previous  inquirers.  They  were 
clearly  not  Turkish ;  no  such  names  are  found  among  the  No- 
gay  hordes.  Klaproth,  to  whose  pages  I  refer  the  cr^ulous  for 
proofs,  found  that  with  very  few  exceptions  these  same  names 
are  still  the  names  of  princely  families  in  Circassia,  and  that 
they  are  confined  to  the  Circassians.  This  chain  of  argument 
seems  to  me  to  be  complete,  nor  could  a  more  crucial  test  be 
chosen.  My  only  wonder  is  that  Klaproth  never  fell  upon  the 
notion  that  the  Khazars  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Circassians : 
the  more  so,  as  the  fact  is  attested  by  still  clearer  evidence  if 
need  be,  namely,  the  testimony  of  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus, 
who  mentions  the  Cabari  as  one  of  the  tribes  of  the  Khazars, 
and  even  as  the  chief  tribe,  to  which  the  predominance  was  wil- 
lingly  allowed.  These  Cabari  can  be  no  others  than  the  Kabardi 
and  Kabari  of  later  writers. 

The  only  vestige  remaining  of  the  language  of  the  Khazars,  in 
the  shape  of  a  gloss,  is  the  name  of  their  capital,  Sarkel,  which, 
according  to  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus,  means  the  ''white 
dwelling.'^  Sarghili  in  Hungarian  would  mean  ''  yellow  place.'' 
Klaproth  says  that  in  the  Yogul  dialect  and  in  western  Siberian, 
sar,  sarni,  somi,  and  sairan  mean  ''  white.''  In  many  Samoyede 
compounds  the  same  word  is  found,  as  syr,  sirr,  and  sin. 
Among  them  a  house  is  called  kell,  kella,  kuel,  koual,  kal ;  among 

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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  187 

the  Tchuvafih,  kil.  The  significance  of  this  derivation  will 
appear  in  a  fhture  paper. 

The  Arab  geographers  Ebn  el  Ethir  and  Schems-ud-din  re- 
spectivelj  connect  the  Khazars  with  the  Georgians  and  the 
Armenians.  This  sufficiently  distinguishes  them  from  the  Turks, 
and  is  no  bad  guess  at  some  of  their  superficial  relations,  if  they 
were  Circassians.  That  the  Khazars  were  very  distinct  from  the 
Turks  physically  is  perhaps  best  proved  by  the  fact  that  the  Rus- 
sian princes  and  the  Byzantine  grandees  chose  their  wives  (one  of 
whom  was  the  mother  of  Leo  the  Khazar,  who  succeeded  to  the 
imperial  throne,  in  758)  from  among  them ;  and  so  common  was 
this  practice,  that  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus,  the  Chesterfield 
of  his  day,  severely  warned  his  son  against  such  a  pernicious 
example.  Here,  again,  we  are  reminded  of  the  popularity  of 
Circassian  beauties  even  in  our  own  day,  and  can  only  credu- 
lously smile  when  we  find  the  Khazar  brides  identified  with  the 
ancestors  of  the  repulsively  ugly  Nogay  women. 

This  accumulation  of  facts  seems  to  me  overwhelming.  On 
the  other  side  we  have  only  the  dictum  of  Zeuss,  supported  by 
the  statement  that  the  titles  in  use  among  the  Khazars,  such  as 
Bee  or  Beg,  Khan  or  Khacan,  &c.,  are  Turkish.  Now  Bee  or 
Beg  is  unquestionably  found  as  a  particle  in  Circassian  names. 
Kiiacan  or  Khan  is  a  title  common  to  the  Bulgarians,  Avares,  and 
Russians,  and  is  the  same  as  the  Norse  Hacon.  Nor  do  I  know 
of  a  tittle  of  evidence  for  making  them  peculiarly  Turkish  glosses. 

That  the  Khazars  had  no  Turkish  blood  in  them  I  will  no 
more  affirm  than  I  would  make  the  same  assertion  of  the  Circas- 
sians. The  Khazars  were  constantly  in  alliance  with  the  Turkish 
Ousses,  in  the  forays  made  by  the  latter  upon  the  Russians  and 
the  Petchenegs ;  and  further,  the  body-guards  of  the  Khazarian 
princes  were  formed,  as  those  of  the  Arab  emirs  of  Transoxiana 
were,  of  Turkish  mercenaries.  In  the  case  of  the  Khazars  these 
were  known  as  Larssiyes,  a  name  very  ingeniously  compared  by 
lyOhsson  with  Alars,  a  tribe  of  the  Kaptchaks,  according  to 
Schems-ud-din.  These  Turks  must  in  both  cases  have  corrupted 
the  language  and  race  materially.  But  such  corruptions  can  no 
more  make  either  Khazars  or  Circassians  Turks  than  Anglo- 
Saxon  corruptions  make  North  Wales  into  a  German-speaking 
province. 

The  name  Khazar  has  received  many  etymologies.  Strahlen- 
berg  made  it  identical  with  the  Hungarian  Huzzar  or  Hussar. 
I  think  it  very  probable  the  latter  may  be  derived  from  the 
former^  Chazar  in  Slave  means  an  emigrant,  according  to  Bo- 
hucz.  The  Persians  called  all  the  Sunnites,  or  followers  of  Ali, 
Chadshars ;  the  term  Chadshar,  therefore,  with  them  is  equiva- 
lent to  that  of  heretic  with  us,  and  Klaproth  derives  from  it  the 

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188       HowoBTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  NomadeSj 

German  term  for  heretic,  "  Ketzer/'  The  Lesgs  call  the  Jews 
Ghusar,  which  is  their  way  of  pronouncing  Khazar.  Ouseley 
translates  Khazrians  by  Christians.  The  Chinese  mention  a 
western  people  called  Kosa.  Vivien  St.  Martin  connects  them 
with  the  Katiars  of  Herodotus  and  the  Cotieri  of  Pliny,  Scythian 
tribes.  Whatever  the  value  of  these  suggestions,  it  is  more  to 
our  purpose  to  know  that  the  Khazars  were  divided  into  two 
sections  by  the  Arabian  geographers, — the  Black  Khazars  and 
the  White  Khazars,  distinguished  by  very  marked  peculiarities, 
the  former  situated  to  the  north  of  the  latter.  These  divisions 
correspond,  as  Zeuss,  Schlsetzer,  and  Thunmann  have  already 
pointed  out,  to  the  Black  and  White  Ughres  of  Nestor,  the 
former  of  whom  were  the  Hungarians  or  Magyars.  They  cor- 
respond also,  as  I  believe,  to  the  Black  and  White  Huns  of  other 
writers.  The  White  Huns,  or  Epthalites,  of  Priscus  (on  whom 
Vivien  St.  Martin  has  written  an  elaborate  essay,  which  I  have 
not  been  able  to  procure)  were,  as  is  well  known,  the  invaders  who 
overran  Transoxiana  about  the  sixth  century,  and  formed  a  consi- 
derable power  there.  They  were,  I  believe,  the  Khazars,  who  at 
a  later  date  (819-820)  were  assisted  by  the  Khorasmiens  against 
the  Turks  of  Khorassan,  and  converted  by  them  to  Islamism,  as 
related  by  D'Ohsson  from  £bn  el  Ethir.  This  identification  is 
very  important.  These  White  Huns  must  have  come  from  the 
Khirghiz  desert.  Even  Dr.  Latham,  whose  Turcophobia  is  so  pro- 
nounced, allows  that  the  Khirgises  are,  in  name  and  in  many 
respects,  other  than  Turks,  though  their  language  is  unquestion- 
ably Turkish.  I  believe  with  him  that  Khirgis,  a  mere  form  of 
the  ancient  Kergis  or  Kerkis,  is  the  same  word  as  Circassian  or 
Tscherkessian ;  the  more  so,  as  the  Khirgises,  like  the  Tscher- 
kessians,  are  known  as  Keseks  or  Kassaks.  I  believe  also  that 
the  almost  simultaneous  invasion  of  Transoxiana  and  Europe  by 
the  Khazars  was  a  consequence  of  their  bfsing  driven  out  of  their 
native  country  by  Turkish  invaders.  That  native  country  called 
Bersilia  by  Theophanes  and  others,  I  can  find  no  room  for  any- 
where, except  in  the  ELhirgiz  steppe,  where  it  is  actually  placed 
by  Moses  of  Chorene  {vide  infrh) .  Before  this  invasion  the  Kha- 
zars occupied  the  country  north  and  north-west  of  the  Aral  and 
the  Caspian,  and  the  Turks  were  confined  to  more  eastern  and 
northern  regions,  the  Altai  and  the  banks  of  the  Irtysch. 

We  may  now  trace  out  rapidly  the  history  of  tibe  Khazars, 
for  which  the  Arabs  and  the  Byzantines  have  left  us  abundant 
material.  I  shall  not  discuss  the  traditional  and  other  early 
invasions  of  the  Caucasus  by  the  Khazars  mentioned  ty  the 
Armenian  historian  Moses  of  Chorene,  and  in  the  Georgian 
annals,  because  it  is  very  doubtful  if  the  exploits  of  some  other 
race  have  not  been  credited  to  the  Khazars,  and  because  we  are 

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Jrfm  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  189 

going  somewhat  beyond  our  subject  (already  involved  enough) 
in  discussing  them.  I  shall  commence  with  Theophanes,  who 
is  the  first  Byzantine  who  clearly  mentions  them^  and  describes 
the  part  they  took  in  the  invasion  of  Persia  by  Ueraclius  in  626, 
when  they  forced  the  Caspian  Gates,  and  entered  Adjerbaidjan. 
This  temporary  foray  was  followed  by  a  general  invasion  in  the 
reign  of  Constantine  III.,  between  the  years  642-688,  when 
leaving  the  land  of  Berzilia,  and  driving  the  Bulgares  before 
them,  they  occupied  the  plains  east  of  the  Don,  as  far  as  the 
Euxine.  Batbaia,  one  of  the  princes  of  the  Bulgares,  was  made 
tributary.  The  country  BerzUia  has  been  a  puzzle  to  most  geo- 
graphers. Herodotus  names  the  Katiars  with  a  people  he  calls 
Basiliens  (Royal  Scyths).  Fomponius  Mela,  Fliny,  Strabo,  and 
Ptolemy  all  mention  them.  Moses  of  Chorene,  in  the  fifth  cen- 
tury, says  the  Volga  divides  itself  into  sixty  branches,  on  which 
is  settled  the  BarsUeen  nation.  We  cannot  be  wrong  in  placing 
Berzelia  in  the  Kirghiz  steppe,  east  of  the  Volga.  The  relations 
of  the  Royal  Scyths  of  Herodotus  with  the  Circassians,  through 
the  intermediate  links  of  the  White  Huns  of  Claudian  and  the 
Acatziri  of  other  authors,  is  a  promising  subject,  which  we  must 
postpone  to  another  occasion. 

The  Khazars  speedily  made  tributary  the  neighbouring  Russian 
tribes,  as  appears  from  Nestor,  and  made  incessant  incursions 
into  Armenia  and  the  other  appanages  of  the  caliphs  south  of 
the  Caucasus,  which  are  detailed  by  D'Ohsson. 

At  the  demand  of  the  Khan  of  the  Khazars,  the  emperor  Theo- 
philus  sent  engineers,.in  834,  to  build  a  fortress  on  the  Don,  as  a 
protection  against  thePetchenegs.  This  was  the  celebrated  Sarkel, 
known  to  the  Russians  as  Belaia  Wess.  Lehrberg  has  fixed  the 
situation  of  Sarkel  about  seventy  versts  from  the  month  of  the 
Don.  Another  of  their  towns  was  Phanagoria  or  Tamatarkha. 
In  the  tenth  century  their  territory  was  bounded  on  the  south  by 
the  Caspian  and  the  last  spurs  of  the  Caucasus ;  on  the  west  by 
the  Don,  which  separated  them  from  the  Petchenegs,  by  the 
Maeotis  and  the  Cimmerian  Bosphorus ;  on  the  north  by  the  Bul- 
garians of  Great  Bulgaria  on  the  Volga ;  and  on  the  east  by  the 
Baschkirs  and  Gusses.  Such  are  the  limits  fixed  by  D'Ohsson ; 
but  from  the  first  invasion  of  the  Khazars  they  must  have  occu- 
pied the  flat  country  of  the  Crimea,  which  was  known  as  Kha- 
zaria  down  to  the  times  of  the  Genoese  supremacy  at  Kafia. 
The  previous  masters  of  the  peninsula  had  been  a  remnant  of 
the  Goths.  These  were  now  driven  into  the  mountains,  where 
their  stronghold  was  known  as  Kastron  Gothia  to  the  middle- 
age  writers.  We  are  told  that  in  the  reign  of  Constantine  the 
sixth  (780-797)  the  Gothic  Bishop  St.  John  Parthenites  had  to 
flee  for  having  attempted  to  detach  the  Goths  from  their  subjection 

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190       HowoRTH — On  the  Westerly  Drifting  of  Nomades, 

to  the  Khazars.  South  of  theKuban^  the  Alana  long  contested  the 
supremacy  of  the  Khazars^  but  like  the  Gusses  and  the  Petchenegs 
they  had  to  submit  to  the  superior  energy  and  perhaps  culture  of 
the  KJiazars.  The  power  of  these  latter  seems  to  have  been  effec- 
tually broken  by  the  great  Russian  conqueror^  Sviatoslav^  who 
overran  their  country  and  took  their  capital^  Sarkel.  Thence- 
forward the  Gusses  seem  to  have  gradually  gained  ascendancy. 
The  Khazar  nation  was  divided  into  two  sections^  one  in  the 
Crimea^  the  other  pressed  beyond  the  Kuban ;  the  former  retained 
the  old  name^  came  into  constant  contact  with  the  Genoese, 
and  became  the  ancestors  of  the  Kabardiens,  whose  emigration 
we  have  already  mentioned ;  the  latter  began  to  appear  in  the 
Russian  annals  under  the  new  name  of  Kassogues,  perhaps  so 
called  from  their  chief  tribe,  for  we  are  told  by  Constantine  Por- 
phyrogenitus  that  one  of  the  tribes  of  the  Khazars  was  called 
Kosa.  So  late  as  1226,  the  Khazars  formed  the  van  of  the  Geor- 
gian armies  in  their  invasions  of  Persia.  We  have  thus  traced 
the  history  of  this  extraordinary  race,  and,  I  think,  succeeded  in 
proving  their  connexion  with  the  Circassians.  In  conclusion,  I 
would  give,  from  Fraehn's  '  Extracts  de  Chasaris,'  a  few  particu- 
lars about  the  manners  and  customs  &c.  of  the  Chazars. 

Ibn  Fozlan,  who  wrote  about  921,  a.d.,  Ibn  Haukal,  about 
976-977,  Ma90udi,  about  943-947,  and  Yakout,  about  1220,  are 
the  chief  authorities  made  use  of  by  Fraehn.  From  these  I 
take  the  following  : — 

The  Khazars  differed  entirely  from  the  Turks,  the  Persians, 
and  the  Russians  in  language.  Their  language  was  the  same  as 
that  of  the  Bulgarians.  In  their  appearance  they  also  differed 
from  the  Turks.  There  were  two  kinds  of  Khazars :  one,  the 
Black  Khazars,  of  a  dark  colour  almost  approaching  that  of  the 
Indians ;  the  other  of  a  fair  complexion,  and  a  handsome  and 
distinguished  look  (both  kinds  had  black  hair) .  The  idolaters 
among  the  Khazars  sold  their  children  into  slavery,  and  held  it 
right  to  make  one  another  slaves ;  the  Christians  and  Jews  among 
them  held  this  to  be  wrong.  Their  king  was  a  Jew ;  the  Khazars 
themselves  were  Mahommedans,  Christians,  and  idolaters ;  a  few, 
like  their  king,  were  Jews.  The  soldiers  were  chiefly  Mahomme- 
dans. According  to  Ibn  el  Asir  they  formerly  followed  the  reli- 
gion of  their  ancestors,  i.e.  idolatry.  In  the  eighth  century, 
and  during  the  reign  of  Haroun  al  Raschid,  the  Jews  were  ex- 
pelled from  the  Greek  empire ;  finding  the  Khazars  a  tractable 
race,  they  converted  them,  but  some  time  after  they  became 
subject  to  the  Khorassan  Turks.  Having  sought  assistance  from 
the  Chorezmiens  against  these  Turks,  the  latter  offered  their 
assistance  conditionally  on  the  Khazars  embracing  Islamism, 


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from  the  Fifth  to  the  Nineteenth  Century.  191 

\Fhich  most  of  them  did.  Thus  does  the  Arabian  historian  re- 
late the  conversion  of  the  Kiiazars. 

The  king  of  the  Khazari  was  called  Khakan,  or  the  great 
Khakan ;  he  was  a  mere  roi  fainSant^  kept  in  rigid  seclusion ;  he 
was  shown  on  particular  occasions^  and  held  more  the  position 
of  the  Dalai  Lama  than  that  of  an  ordinary  ruler.  He  had 
twenty-five  wives  and  sixty  concubines.  These  wives  and  con- 
cubines lived  in  a  separate  house^  known  as  the  Kubba;  each 
one  had  a  eunuch  to  wait  on  her. 

When  the  king  went  out  on  horseback^  he  was  attended  by 
all  his  army,  who  kept  off  the  vulgar  gaze.  His  throne  was  a 
rich  erection  of  gold  and  hangings;  his  commands  were  held  so 
sacred  that  any  one  turning  his  back  on  any  commission  ap- 
pointed by  him  had  his  head  taken  off.  He  was  not  allowed  to 
reign  more  than  forty  years,  and  when  that  limit  was  reached 
he  was  strangled,  or  allowed  to  commit  suicide.  Occasionally, 
in  times  of  dire  calamity,  the  king  was  required  to  sacrifice 
himself  for  the  people.  The  same  story  is  told  about  him  that 
is  told  of  Attila,  and  doubtless  true  in  both  cases,  that  on  his 
death  a  palace  was  built  in  the  bed  of  a  river,  and  his  corpse 
placed  inside,  and  the  river  then  diverted  over  it,  those  who 
took  part  in  the  erection  being  aU  killed.  His  unknown  resting- 
place  they  called  Paradise.  They  held  it  safe  from  the  attacks 
of  men  or  worms.  The  Khacan  of  the  Khazars  was  held  in  high 
esteem  at  Byzantium.  He  was  addressed  as  the  most  noble  and 
illustrious  Khacan  of  Khazaria.  Letters  addressed  to  him  were 
sealed  with  seals  of  the  value  of  three  solidi,  while  those  on  the 
letters  to  the  most  illustrious  European  potentates  were  sealed 
with  seals  of  the  value  of  two  solidi  only.  We  have  said  that 
the  Khacan  of  the  Khazars  was  a  mere  roi  faineant. 

The  real  ruler  (he  who  commanded  the  army,  made  peace  and 
war^  and  was  de  facto  the  king,  although  nominally  only  a  vica- 
rial sovereign)  was  known  as  the  Khacan-bh  (Khacan  bey  ?),  or 
simply  the  Khan.  Such  was  Ziebil,  who  assisted  Heraclius 
against  the  Persians.  Next  to  him  was  one  called  Kender  Cha- 
kan ;  next  to  him  again,  another,  who  bore  the  title  of  Tschaus- 
chian.  These  great  dignitaries  alone  had  audience  of  the  sacred 
king,  the  great  Khacan.  The  body-guard  of  the  king  consisted, 
as  we  have  said,  of  Turkish  mercenaries,  called  Larssiy^s  \  they 
were  7000  in  nimiber,  all  armed  with  bows  and  lances,  equipped 
in  helmets,  in  cuirasses,  and  coats  of  mail  (compare  this  with  the 
modem  Circassian  uniform) .  Russians  and  pagan  Slaves  also 
formed  a  portion  of  the  Khazar  army.  Justice  was  administered 
at  Itil,  the  capital  of  Khazaria,  by  seven  judges :  two  Mahomme- 
dans  administered  the  law  of  the  Prophet,  two  Khazars  that  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  two  Christians  that  of  the  Gospel.     The  seventh 


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192  Notes  and  Queries. 

for  the  Slaves^  the  Russians,  and  other  pagans  judged  by  the 
law  of  nature.  In  difficult  cases  the  latter  consulted  the  Ma- 
hometan cadhis^  and  was  ruled  by  their  decisions.  The  king 
was  in  constant  communication  with  the  judges. 

Security  of  property  and  ample  justice,  we  are  told  by  the 
Arab  authorities,  led  to  the  settlement  at  Itil  of  a  great  number 
of  merchants,  as  many  as  10,000.  Copper  and  silver  were  both 
found  in  Kliazaria;  but  its  chief  wealth  consisted  in  its  being 
the  entrepot  of  a  vast  trade :  honey,  wax,  the  roe  of  the  stur- 
geon, and  furs,  especially  otter-skins,  passed  this  way  from 
Russia  and  Bulgaria  to  Persia,  and  no  doubt  the  products  of 
Persia  and  the  East  returned  by  the  same  route.  Itil  itself  was 
a  large  city  of  wooden  houses,  containing  thiily  mosques  and  a 
large  cathedral,  with  schools  attached.  Besides  Itil,  the  Arabs 
describe  three  other  cities  of  the  Khazars, — Belendscher,  Semen- 
der,  and  Chamlidsch ;  the  Georgian  chronicles  have  several  more; 
but  this  will  suffice.  It  will  be  seen,  even  from  our  meagre 
relation,  that  the  Khazars  were  a  people  highly  advanced  in  the 
arts,  a  people  with  an  ancient  civilization,  with  customs,  such  aa 
those  attaching  to  their  king,  pointing  to  an  old  history.  We 
have  brought  them  from  beyond  the  Volga,  we  must  follow 
them  there  on  another  occasion.  It  must  suffice  us  now  to 
have  proved  them  to  have  been  the  ancestors  of  the  Circassians^ 
to  have  brought  the  latter  isolated  race  into  more  close  connex- 
tion  with  the  history  of  Eastern  Europe,  and  to  have  somewhat 
simplified  the  tangled  subject  of  the  ethnology  of  the  Caucasus. 


NOTES  AlND  QUERIES. 


Meneam, — This  people  of  cannibals,  among  whom  Dr.  Livingstone 
in  his  last  letter  announced  that  he  was  about  to  take  his  course,  and 
whom  be  stated  to  be,  on  native  authority,  notorious  cannibals,  are 
the  Niam  Niam  or  Nya  Nyas,  the  people'  in  the  western  ranges  of 
the  district  of  the  Nile.  Livingstone  has  either  carried  out  that 
intention,  or,  from  fear  of  the  Nya  Nyas,  he  has  soilght  to  return  by 
the  course  of  the  Couco,  and  may  thus  have  exposed  himself  to  the 
misfortune  alleged  to  nave  befallen  him. — ^Hini  Clares. 

Turkish  "  Know'^  and  **  Soto,'* — In  Turkish  eofftioscere  and  scire 
are  distinguished,  being  respectively  tanemaJc  and  hilmek.  Sow  and 
Seto  are  represented  by  one  verb,  dikmek. — Hydb  Clarke. 


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Journ .  Etlmo.  SocVol.lL  PLXVH 


TMhit 


AVMARA  MAN 


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THE  JOURNAL 


OF  THIS 


ETHNOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OE  LONDON. 


XXIII.  On  the  Aymara  Indians  of  Bolivia  and  Peru. 
By  David  Forbes,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  &c.* 

(Read  June  2lBt,  1870). 

The  country  inhabited  by  the  Aymara  race  of  Indians  is  nearly 
equally  divided  between  the  two  South- American  republics  of 
Bolivia  and  Peru,  forming  the  most  northern  or,  rather,  north- 
western part  of  Bolivia  and  the  southernmost  of  Peru. 

From  north  to  south  it  extends  from  about  15°  to  20®  of  south 
latitude ;  but  from  east  to  west  it  is  more  diflScult  to  define  its 
limits  with  any  approach  to  exactitude,  owing  to  the  existence 
of  several  outlying  colonies  of  these  Indians;  the  Aymara 
country  proper,  however,  may  be  regarded  as  boimded  by  the 
two  great  chains  of  mountains  called  by  the  Spaniards  the  Cor- 
dilleras de  la  Costa,  or  Coast  Andes,  and  the  Cordilleras  de  los 
Andes,  or  High  Andes,  which  in  this  part  of  South  America 
traverse  somewhat  obliquely  the  provinces  of  Peru  and  Bolivia, 
situated  between  the  lon^tudes  67*  and  72^  west  of  Greenwich. 
The  district  itself,  now  only  sparsely,  but  in  former  times  much 
more  thickly  populated  by  these  Indians,  may  be  estimated  as 
about  300  English  geographical  miles  in  length,  with  a  breadth 
of  about  150  miles,  and  consequently  represents  a  superficial 
area  of  about  45,000  square  miles. 

The  whole  of  this  country  is  situated  at  a  great  elevation,  and 
may  be  looked  upon  as  an  extensive  table-land,  having  a  mini- 
mum altitude  of  10,000  feet,  above  which  again  rise  several 
more  or  less  parallel  north  and  south  mountain  ridges,  whose 
snowy  peaks  frequently  attain  double  that  height,  or  more  than 
20,000  feet  above  the  Pacific  Ocean ;  amongst  these  might  be 
mentioned  the  volcanic  cones  of  Sajama  and  Tacora,  in  the 

•  [Special  circumstances  connected  with  this  paper  have  led  to  iU  early 
publication. — Sub-Ed.] 


VOL.  II. 


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194  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

western  range,  which,  upon  measurement,  were  found  to  be 
23,014  and  22,687  feet,  as  also  the  Silurian  moipitains  of  U- 
lampu  (Sorata)  and  lUimani,  in  the  most  eastern  chain,  re* 
spectively  24,812  and  24,155  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 

This  high  plateau  extends  further  both  to  the  north  and 
south,  but  upon  its  other  two  sides  it  terminates  abruptly  by 
rapid  descents  into  regions  but  comparatively  little  elevated 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  which  differ  very  greatly  firom  it,  as 
well  as  from  one  another,  in  both  climate  and  general  geogra- 
phical features.  On  the  east  side,  the  greatest  heights  of  the 
Andes  look  down  like  precipices  upon  the  virgin  forests  and  the 
low,  humid,  hot  valleys  and  plains,  irrigated  by  copious  rains, 
and  traversed  by  mighty  rivers,  which  divide  the  republics  of 
Peru  and  Bolivia  firom  the  empire  of  Brazil,  the  change  being  so 
sudden  that  the  traveller  descending  from  the  perpetual  snows 
of  the  Andes  finds  himself  in  the  course  of  but  a  few  hours^ 
journey  amongst  the  palms  and  luxuriant  hothouse  v^etation 
of  the  tropics. 

On  the  western  side,  however,  the  change,  although  seen  to 
be  equally  sudden,  is  altogether  different  in  character;  for  upon 
leaving  behind  the  cold  misty  mountains  and  streams  of  the 
Aymara  highlands  and  crossing,  as  it  were,  an  almost  sharply 
defined  line,  every  thing  in  the  shape  of  moisture  vanishes ;  the 
air  becomes  all  at  once  clear,  dry,  hot,  and  scorching;  and  the 
mountain-declivities  and  sloping  plains,  which  extend  to  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  present  the  appearance  of  an  arid  and,  in  many 
parts,  saline  desert, — ^a  rainless  region,  destitute  of  water  and, 
consequently,  of  verdure,  in  which  few  living  creatures  are  to  be 
seen,  other  than  the  numerous  lizards  basking  in  the  sun,  or  the 
occasional  huanaco  which  has  strayed  down  from  the  mountains 
above.  Vegetation  is  altogether  absent,  or  at  most  only  repre- 
sented  by  a  few  solitary  cactus  trunks,  except  only  in  some  few 
favoured  small  valleys  (like  cafions)  far  distant  from  one  another, 
in  which  some  small  rivulet  or  natural  spring  exists,  frumishing 
the  basis  for  a  luxuriant  vegetation,  like  an  oasis  in  the  midst  of 
a  desert. 

If  the  latitude  of  this  country  be  alone  taken  into  considera- 
tion, and  its  altitude  above  the  sea-level  neglected,  the  climate 
of  this  high  table-land  will  be  regarded  as  an  extremely  severe 
one.  Above  17,000  feet  the  mountains  are  covered  with  perpe- 
tual snow ;  but  below  this  elevation  the  snow  seldom  remains  for 
more  than  a  few  days  at  a  time.  The  year  may  be  divided  into 
a  rainy  and  a  dry  season ;  the  rainy  season,  commencing  in  No- 
vember or  December,  continues  until  April,  with  heavy  rains 
and  occasional  snow-storms,  the  weather  usually  cold  and  raw, 
the  thermometer  indicating  between  40°  and  50°  F.,  and  not 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  195 

unfrequently  descending  to  the  freezing-pointy  or  even  some  few 
dqgrees  below  it^  whilst  the  air  is  nsually  damp^  and  the  .moun- 
tains are  enveloped  in  dense  misty  clouds. 

In  the  dry  season,  from  April  to  November,  the  climate  is 
fine  and  rather  agreeable,  the  thermometer  in  the  shade  ranging 
from  50*  to  7(f  P. ;  but  in  the  sun  the  air  is  extremely  scorching, 
and  often  accompanied  by  winds,  which  are  so  dry  and  parching  as 
to  affect  the  face  and  eyes  in  an  extraordinary  degree,  blistering 
and  drying  up  the  skin  to  the  consistence  of  horn,  and  making 
it  crack  and  peel  off,  so  as  to  cause  extreme  irritation,  and  even 
temporary  disfigurement — so  much  so  that  when  travelling  in 
the  Puna  region  it  is  customary  amongst  the  whites  to  protect 
the  face  by  masks  or  veils.  During  this  season  storms  of  rain 
and  wind,  with  thunder  and  lightning,  often  of  a  truly  terrific 
nature,  are  very  common,  and  frequently  cause  considerable 
loss  of  life  to  man  as  well  as  beast ;  these  storms  are  often  accom- 
panied by  hail  of  great  size,  and,  as  I  have  noticed,  sometimes 
of  a  peculiar  conical  form. 

Situated  near  the  northern  extremity  of  this  district  is  the 
greatest  sheet  of  water  or  inland  sea  of  South  America,  called 
the  Lake  of  Titicaca*,  covering  a  superficial  area  of  about  2500 
geographical  square  miles,  hems  100  miles  in  length  from  N.W. 
to  S.E.,  with  an  average  breadth  of  about  25  miles,  although 
it  is  some  35  miles  across  in  its  broadest  part.  The  surface 
of  this  lake  is  elevated  12,850  English  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
sea;  and  its  waters  are  somewhat  brackish.  When  not  agitated 
by  the  winds,  1  found  the  surface-waters  almost  fresh  to  the 
taste;  but  it  was  evident  that  in  depth  the  lower  stratum  of 
"water  was  much  more  saline. 

The  shores  of  the  Lake  of  Titicaca  still  remain  the  home,  and 
no  doubt  also  were  the  original  cradle  of  the  Aymara  race,  from 
^hich  neither  the  victories  of  the  Incas  nor  the  subsequent  con- 
quest by  the  Spaniards  have  succeeded  in  dislodging  them, 
notwithstanding  that  this  has  been  the  case  with  so  many  of 
the  other  tribes  of  both  North  and  South  America.  The  Ay- 
mara f  or,  as  they  were  frequently  termed  by  older  Spanish 

*  Thifl  name  is  supposed  to  have  been  derived  ficom  the  Aymara  words 
**  Uti "  and  "  Caca."  "  Titi "  is  the  Aymara  name  for  tin,  the  ores  of  which 
are  found  in  large  quantity  on  the  east  side  of  the  lake  at  Oarabuco ;  and 
*^  Caca/'  a  rock.  Titi  is  also  the  name  for  the  wild  cat  in  Aymara;  and  as 
there  is  a  tradition  amount  the  Indians  of  the  appearance  at  times  of  an 
enormous  wild  cat  on  the  island  of  Titicaca,  some  of  the  old  Spaniards  have 
accepted  this  interpretation. 

t  it  is  believed  that  the  name  Aymara  was  applied  to  this  race  of  Indians 
even  before  the  foundation  of  the  Inca  empire  (vide  Garcilasso  de  la  Veffa, 
Com.  Real,  de  las  Incas,  Book  iii.  chap.  x.  p.  84).  The  name  of  Colla  In- 
dians is  of  much  later  date,  and  is  derived  firom  their  being  inhabitants  of 

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196  David  Forbes — On  ike  Aymara  Indians 

writers,  the  "  Colla''  Indians  are  the  only  race  in  Peru  or  Bolivia 
at  all  entitled  to  the  appellation  of  the  "  Titicaca  race/'  which 
term  has  been  quite  incorrectly  applied  by  Tschudi  and  others 
to  the  Inca  or  Quechua  nation,  a  race  totally  distinct  in  lan- 
guage, character,  and  geographical  position. 

Under  the  Inca  dynasty  the  Aymaras,  although  subjugated, 
appear  to  have  remained  more  as  a  tributary  people,  without  ever 
being  actually  incorporated  into  the  empire ;  and  consequently 
they  never  became  assimilated  into  the  great  Peruvian  or 
Quechua-speaking  nation,  as  was  the  case  with  the  numerous 
Indian  tribes  both  to  the  north  and  south  of  them.  Even  to 
the  present  day  they  remain  more  or  less  isolated,  and  in  many 
respects  almost  unchanged,  retaining  their  ancient  language, 
and  a  sort  of  national  existence  more  pronounced  probably  than 
any  of  the  other  Indian  races  now  remaining  under  the  Hispano- 
American  rule. 

Most  of  the  Indian  languages  in  both  the  Americas  have 
become  all  but  extinct,  and  gradually  replaced  by  Spanish  or 
English.  The  only  ones  which,  in  Spanish  or  Portuguese  South 
America,  have  survived  are  the  Quechua  in  Northern  Peru  and 
Southern  Bolivia,  the  Aymara  in  southern  Peru  and  Northern 
Bolivia,  and  the  Guarani  in  Brazil  and  Paraguay ;  these  three 
may  still  be  said  to  remain  the  languages  of  the  countries, 
being,  like  Hindostanee  in  India,  generally  spoken  by  the  white 
inhabitants  also,  and  alone  used  by  them  in  their  intercourse 
with  their  domestics  and  with  the  mixed  and  pure  Indian  popu- 
lation. 

The  history  of  the  Aymaras  calls  to  mind  the  ancient  history 
of  the  Welsh,  where  the  inhabitants  of  Wales,  unable  to  oppose 
their  more  numerous  invaders  in  the  open  field,  retired  to  their 
mountain  fortresses,  and,  by  their  dogged  but  patriotic  cha- 
racter, managed  not  only  to  prevent  their  being  absorbed  into 
the  mass  of  their  more  powerful  neighbours,  but  to  preserve 
their  ancient  language  and  many  of  their  customs  even  down  to 
the  present  day. 

What  little  is  known  of  the  early  history  of  this  race  may 
be  stated  in  but  a  few  words.  According  to  Indian  tradition, 
from  Aymara  as  well  as  Quechua  or  Inca  sources,  the  inha- 
bitants of  this  country,  even  in  or  before  the  time  of  the  first 
Inca,  Manco  Capac  (1021-1062),  possessed  a  degree  of  civiliza- 
tion higher  than  that  of  the  Incas  themselves,  or  probably  of 

Colla-Buyo,  or  the  southern  division  of  the  Inca  empire,  which  was  divided 
into  four  grand  quarters,  known  as  the  Ohincha-suyo,  or  North ;  the  Oolla- 
suyo,  or  South;  the  Anti-suvo,  or  East;  and  the  Cunti-suyo,  or  West 
The  term  Colki  Indians  prob*'ibIy  included  many  other  Indian  tribes  in  the 
south,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a  purely  geogr^pfiical  name. 


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oj  Bolivia  and  Peru.  197 

even  any  other  of  the  South- American  tribes ;  and  evidences 
attesting  this  may  still  be  seen  in  the  ruins  of  the  grand 
temples  and  palaces  of  Tiahuanaco^  on  the  southern  shore  of 
Lake  Titicaca. 

At  this  early  period^  however,  every  thing  is  involved  in  dark- 
ness, until  Lloque  Yupanki,  the  third  of  the  Incas  (1091-1126), 
in  a  war  against  the  Aymaras,  overran  the  entire  district,  situated 
on  the  western  side  of  the  lake  of  Titicaca,  inhabited  by  these 
Indians,  and  annexed  to  the  Inca  dominion  the  whole  of  that 
portion  of  the  Aymara  country  at  present  included  in  the  re- 
public of  Peru.  Although  his  victorious  progress  was  stopped 
by  the  river  Disaguadero,  which  runs  southward  from  the  Lake 
of  Titicaca,  his  successor,  the  fourth  Inca,  Mayta  Capac  (1126- 
1156),  continued  the  war,  crossing  the  Disaguadero  and  taking 
Tiahuanaco,  which  at  that  time  appears  to  have  been  the  seat 
of  government  of  the  Aymaras,  and  extending  his  conquests 
southwards,  over  the  provinces  of  Caquiaviri,  Huarina,  Larecaja, 
Huaichu,  and  Chuquiapu,  now  called  La  Paz. 

The  victories  of  the  fifth  and  sixth  Incas  carried  their  arms  still 
further  southwards ;  and  under  the  seventh  Inca,  Yahuar  Hu- 
accac  (1249-1289),  the  subjugation  of  the  Aymara-speaking  or 
CoUa  Indians  was  completed  by  the  conquest  of  Caraugas,  their 
most  southern  province ;  after  which  his  successors  on  the  throne 
extended  the  Peruvian  empire  northwards,  westwards,  and  still 
fiirther  to  the  south,  so  as  to  annex  not  only  the  remainder 
of  Peru  and  Bolivia,  but,  traversing  the  desert  of  Atacama,  to 
include  the  greater  part  of  Chile,  as  far  south  as  the  river  Maule, 
before  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards  in  1526. 

With,  the  exception  only  of  the  Aymaras,  all  the  other  Indian 
tribes  thus  brought  under  the  rule  of  the  Incas  seem  to  have 
been  quickly  deprived  of  all  traces  of  a  separate  national  exist- 
ence, losing  even  their  language  and  adopting  that  of  their  con- 
querors, the  Quechua  or,  as  it  was  called  by  the  Spaniards,  the 
"  Lengua  general  del  Peru,^'  and  otherwise  becoming  in  every 
respect  identified  with  the  conquering  race.  The  Aymaras, 
on  the  contrary,  never  submitted  tamely  to  their  Peruvian 
masters,  but  from  time  to  time  gave  them  much  trouble  by 
attempts  to  recover  their  independence,  which,  however,  always 
proved  unsuccessful,  and  invariably  were  punished  with  extreme 
severity. 

According  to  an  old  tradition,  the  entire  population  of  the 
province  of  Aymaraes,  after  an  unsuccessful  revolt,  were  forcibly 
removed  into  exile  by  the  Incas,  and  the  country  repopulated  by 
Quechua-speaking  colonists  from  a  distant  part  of  the  Empire. 
One  of  the  last  attempts  made  by  the  Aymaras  to  throw  ofl" 
the  Peruvian  yoke  appears  to  have  been  by  the  inhabitants  of 

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198  David  Forbss — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

the  province  of  Carangas  not  many  years  before  the  arrival  of 
the  Spaniards  in  the  reign  of  the  twelfth  Inca^  Huayna  Capac 
(1475-1525)^  and  was  only  put  down  after  much  bloodshed; 
according  to  a  tradition  still  preserved  in  the  district^  a  great 
number  of  the  prisoners  taken  in  this  rebellion  were^  after  having 
had  their  throats  cut^  thrown  into  a  lake^  which  from  that  time 
has  retained  the  name  of  ''Yahuar  Cocha^'  or  the  Lake  of 
Blood. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  condition  of  the  Aymaras  under 
the  Incasj  it  became  infinitely  worse  after  the  Spaniard  con- 
quest; it  is  all  but  impossible  to  convey  in  words  a  true  picture 
of  the  barbarous  treatment  which  they^  as  well  as  the  neigh- 
bouring Indian  tribes^  experienced  at  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards. 
Treated  infinitely  worse  than  slaves^  they  were  torn  from  their 
homes  and  families  to  be  driven  like  cattle  either  to  the  coca 
plantations  and  gold- washings  in  the  Yungas^  or  hot  unhealthy 
valleys  to  the  east  of  the  high  Andes  (where  they  rapidly  fell 
victims  to  a  climate  altogether  unsuited  to  their  constitutions)^  or 
to  the  silver  mines  of  Potosi^  Chayanta,  Oruro,  &c.  (where  irom. 
forced  labour^  ill-treatment^  and  insufficient  food  they  succumbed 
ei^ually  fast^  only  to  be  replaced  by  fi^sh  supplies  similarly  ob- 
tamed). 

The  statements  made  by  some  of  the  old  writers  on  this  sub- 
ject seemed  altogether  incredible  until  a  personal  acquaintance 
with  the  country  showed  that  they  were  not  exaggerated. 
Everywhere  proofs  are  seen  of  a  former  dense  population :  de- 
serted villages  are  met  with  at  every  step ;  and  the  ndes  of  the 
mountams  even^  in  many  parts  up  to  the  very  line  of  perpetual 
snowj  are  covered  with  walled-in  enclosures,  fields,  and  terraces 
which  had  formerly  been  cultivated  but  now  lie  desert  and 
abandoned ;  and  the  traveller  who  journeys  day  after  day  through 
such  districts  cannot  but  believe  that  the  Aymara  country,  which 
does  not  now  contain  a  population  of  much  more  than  three 
quarters  of  a  million,  must  in  former  times  have  contained 
several  million  inhabitants. 

Notwithstanding  the  naturally  submissive  character  of  the 
Indians,  the  cruelties  of  the  Spaniards  at  last  drove  them,  in 
1780,  into  open  rebellion ;  the  Aymaras  under  the  Cataris,  joined 
soon  after  by  some  of  the  Quechuas  under  Tupac  Amaru,  rose 
up  against  the  whites  and  all  but  effected  their  entire  extermi- 
nation ;  as  it  was,  more  than  40,000  Spaniards  perished,  and  the 
country  was  only  saved  to  the  crown  of  Spain  by  the  arrival  of 
an  army  sent  from  Buenos  Ayres  to  the  rescue. 

The  effect  of  this  insurrection  was,  as  might  be  expected,  to 
paralyze  and  in  great  measure  destroy  the  commerce  and  in- 
dustries of  the  country,  more  especially  the  mines,  to  such  a 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  199 

degree  that  they  have  never  yet  recovered.  Soon  after,  the 
war  of  South- American  Independence  broke  out^  continuing 
until  1826,  and  foUowed  by  the  endless  civil  wars  and  internal 
dissensions  in  the  new  republic,  which  still  continue,  and  have 
resulted  in  this  rich  country  retrograding  instead  of  advancing 
with  the  age. 

In  these  wars,  the  fighting  fell  all  but  entirely  to  the  whites 
and  mixed  races,  the  pure  Indians  looking  on  and  abiding  their 
time  until  the  governing  powers  should  have  exhausted  them- 
selves :  and  as  during  this  period,  if  not  better  treated,  the 
Indians  had  at  least  been  left  more  to  themselves,  they  rapidly 
increased  in  numbers  and  became  every  day  more  confident  in 
their  own  strength.  In  1854  it  was  discovered  that  they  had 
made  preparations  for  an  immediate  rise ;  and  had  they  done  so, 
they  must  have  completely  overpowered  the  whites,  had  not, 
fortunately  for  the  latter,  a  terrible  epidemic  (a  species  of 
typhoid  fever)  broken  out  amongst  the  Indians  and,  without 
attacking  the  whites,  committed  such  havoc  amongst  them  as  to 
all  but  depopulate  entire  districts.  In  1860  an  attempt  to  rise 
was  made  on  a  small  scale  by  the  Aymara  Indians  of  Tiquina, 
in  which  some  horrible  cruelties  were  committed  on  the  un- 
fortunate whites  who  fell  into  their  hands ;  this  rising,  however, 
was  entirely  local,  and  was  very  quickly  suppressed  by  some 
Bolivian  troops  under  Colonel  Flores. 

There  can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  the  Aymara  Indians 
cherish  the  most  deep-rooted  and  inveterate  hatred  towards  their 
white  oppressors,  and  console  themselves  with  the  hope  that 
sooner  or  later  they  will  be  enabled  to  repossess  themselves  of 
the  country  of  their  ancestors. 

The  condition  of  the  Aymara  Indians  under  the  Bepublics  of 
Peru  and  Bolivia,  although  no  doubt  infinitely  better  than  in 
the  time  of  the  Spaniards,  is  nevertheless  still  very  deplorable. 
Although  declared  free  by  the  constitution,  they  in  reality  are 
only  serfs,  being  ill  treated  and  imposed  upon  in  all  manner  of 
ways*^  by  both  the  civil  and  military  authorities,  as  well  as  by 
the  white  population  in  general,  who  all  combine  to  plunder 
them  whenever  an  opportunity  occurs ;  so  that  it  is  no  wonder 
that  the  poor  Indian  is  never  happier  than  when  he  is  up 
amongst  his  mountains  far  away  from  the  white  man. 

The  Aymara  Indians  in  the  country  generally  live  in  little 
straggling  villages  or  clusters  of  houses,  and  are  associated  in 
what  are  called  "  Comunidades,''  to  which  the  governments  of 
the  Republics  have  apportioned  the  major  part  of  the  land  not 

*  Cortes,  in  his  '  Ensayo  sobre  la  bistoria  de  Bolivia,'  Sucre,  1861|  p.  800, 
says,  ''Los  indios,  a  causa  de  su  ignorancia, no  saben  hacervalersus  derechos, 
que  no  son  mas  que  un  nombre,  y  todo  el  mundo  se  cree  facultado  a  abusar  de 
aquella  clase  degradada  de  nueetra  sociedad/'  ^  .^.^^^  ^  GoOqIc 


200 


David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indiana 


occupied  by  the  whites^  and  iu  return  impose  upon  the  Indians 
an  annual  contribution  or,  as  it  is  termed,  "  tributo/^  amounting 
to  some  4  to  10  Bolivian  dollars  per  annum,  payable  half-yearly. 
At  the  head  of  each  of  these  Comunidades  is  an  Indian  (one 
of  themselves),  who  has  the  title  of  Alcalde,  and  carries,  ad  a 
mark  of  office,  a  sort  of  wand  not  unlike  a  thick  long  English 
carter^s  whip  (without  the  lash),  and  like  it  usually  decorated 
with  numerous  ferrules,  or  flat  rings,  often  of  silver.  The  Alcalde 
is  responsible  for  keeping  the  Indians  in  order,  and  is  the 
medium  of  communication  with  the  white  authorities  of  the 
district.  All  their  internal  affairs  are  managed  amongst  them- 
selves, including  the  subdivision  of  the  lands  amongst  the  families, 
in  which  the  widow  always  takes  her  share  with  ^e  others.  The 
white  population  are  exempt  from  the  "tributo;''  and  since 
about  the  year  1856,  the  Peruvian  government,  rich  from  their 
Huano  deposits  on  the  islands  of  the  coast,  have  not  enforced 
this  contribution  from  their  Indians.  In  Bolivia,  however,  it 
still  remains  one,  if  not  the,  most  important  item  of  the 
revenue. 

The  public  works  of  a  district,  such  as  roads,  bridges,  churches, 
&c.,  are  all  executed  by  the  compulsory  and  unpaid  labour  of 
the  Indians  in  the  vicinity. 

The  Aymara  population  of  Bolivia  and  Peru  together  probably 
does  not  exceed  three  quarters  of  a  million,  if  so  much ;  but 
I  have  endeavoured  to  obtain  as  near  an  approximation  as 
possible  in  countries  where  not  much  reliance  can  be  placed  in 
their  statistics. 

In  Bolivia  the  entire  population,  as  taken  in  the  census  made 
during  the  summer  of  1854,  of  the  Aymara-speaking  provinces, 
eleven  in  number,  was  as  follows : — 


Name  of 
Province. 

White  and 
mixed 

Total 
populatkm. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

La  Paz    

28,155 

41,206 

33,459 

24,111 

16,493 

13,082 

10,060 

8,793 

9,483 

21,907 

9,846 

31,974 
45,547 
82,381 
24,697 
18,319 
11,641 
10,880 
8,454 
9,822 
21,115 
10,821 

60,129 
87,758 
65,840 
48,808 
84,812 
24,728 
20,440 
17,247 
19,805 
48,022 
20,667 

29,353 
4,565 
5,870 
4,509 
6,210 
8,802 
6,067 
8,844 
6,249 
1,880 
681 

89,482 
91,318 
71,710 
53,317 
41,022 
83,625 
26,507 
21,091 
26,654 
44,352 
21,848 

Omasuyos 

Ineravi     

Sica  Sica    

Munecas    

Yungas  

Larecaja     

laquisivi     

Oruro 

Paria  

Carangas    

216,595 

226,151 

441,746 

77,480 

619,226 

of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  201 

from  which  it  will  be  perceived  that  the  total  admixture  of  whites 
and  half-castes  is  not  more  than  15  per  cent. ;  and  of  these  the 
large  portion  are  in  the  city  of  La  Paz^  Oruro^  and  some  of  the 
other  larger  towns.  Since  the  above  census  was  taken^  another 
was  made  in  La  Paz,  in  1858;  but  up  to  the  date  of  my  depar- 
ture from  Bolivia,  in  1864,  nothing  but  the  total  numbers  of  the 
inhabitants  of  each  province  had  been  published,  without 
particulars  as  to  race :  these  were  as  follows : — 

La  Paz 99,059 

Omasuyos    103,976 

Ingavi 83,699 

SicaSica 57,666 

Munecas 40,872 

Yungas    36,823 

Larecaja  31,647 

Inquisivi 19,930 

Oruro  28,340 

Paria    52,618 

Carangas 29,973 

Total    584,603 

and  if  from  this  number  we  deduct  87,236,  or  the  same  relative 
proportion  of  whites  and  mixed  races  as  were  found  by  the 
former  census,  we  shall  have  the  pure  Aymara  Indians  of 
Bolivia  as  about  497,367,  more  or  less,  in  1858. 

In  Peru  the  statistics  of  the  population  are  far  less  to  be 
depended  upon  than  in  Bolivia ;  for  there  seems  to  have  been  no 
census  pubUshed  between  1795  and  1850.  In  the  former  year 
the  Guia  de  Forasteros  gives  the  numbers  of  the  Aymaras  as 
follows : — 

o_  .    _  Pure  Aymara    Half-caflte  Aymara 

Pronnoet.  j^^^  Spanish. 

Aymaraes    10,782  2,256 

Ariquipa 5,929  4,908 

Camana  1,249  1,021 

Condesuyos     12,011  4,358 

Caylloma 12,872  1,417 

Moquegua  17,272  2,916 

Arica  12,870  1,977 

72,985  18,852 

If,  however,  we  take  the  census  of  the  population  of  these 
districts  taken  in  1850,  by  Dr.  Buenaventura  Seoane,  as 
follows : — 


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202  David  Forbbs — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

Bepartmeiit             ProTinoe.           PopuUtion.         ToCaL 
Ousco  Aymaraes  18,221         18^21. 

rCercado 60,04!0^ 

Camani 11,270  | 

Ariquipa  ...<  CayUoma    23,449  V  121,686. 

1  Condesuyos    21,170 

'^  Union; 16,669j 

f  Arica 18,6421 

Moquequa...  \  Cercado 82,380  t      61,440. 

[  Tarapaca    10,4il8J 

fAzdngaro    64,333') 

Carabaya    22,138 

Puno <  Chucuito    36,967  >  246,681. 

I  Huancand  66,766 

LLampa    76,488J 

446,927. 

and  from  this  number  we  now  deduct^  as  in  tbe  ease  of  the 
Bolivian  census^  some  16  per  cent.,  or  67,038^  as  belonging  to 
mixed  races  and  whites,  we  shall  have  the  numbers  of  the 
Aymara  race  approximately  as  follows : — 

Peruvian 879,884 

Bolivian  497,367 

or  a  total  of 877,261 

a  number  which  seems  to  me  considerably  higher  than  the 
reality,  more  especially  as  regards  Peru :  the  total  number  of 
pure  Aymara  Indians  cannot,  I  imagine,  be  above  three  quarters 
of  a  million. 

Under  the  Spanish  rigime,  owing  to  the  cruel  treatment 
experienced,  the  Indian  population  appears  to  have  been 
reduced  to  its  minimum.  After  the  War  of  Independence  it 
recovered  rapidly  up  to  1866,  when  it  again  became  greatly 
reduced  by  the  epidemic  which  raged  for  some  years  and  in 
parts  almost  cleared  away  the  entire  inhabitants;  during  the 
last  ten  years,  however,  it  has  again  been  augmenting  rapidly. 

If  we  consider  the  total  superficial  area  occupied  by  this 
nation  as  46,000  square  miles,  as  before  mentioned,  then  the 
numbers  above  given  will  represent  about  nineteen  inhabitants 
to  the  square  mile.  If  numbers  be  taken  into  the  calculation,  the 
Aymara  will  be  the  third  of  the  South- American  races,  coming 
after  the  Ouarani  and  Quechua;  but,  if  the  superficial  area  of 
their  country  be  alone  compared,  then  they  will  probably  rank 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  203 

about  fifth  or  sixth,  since  the  tribes  of  the  plains  of  Brazil  and 
Patagonia,  although  much  less  numerous,  occupy  a  greater  area 
of  country,  owing  to  their  nomadic  habits — ^tiie  very  contrary 
of  the  Aymaras. 

Upon  my  first  visit  to  the  highlands  of  Peru  and  Bolivia,  I 
was  struck  with  the  very  characteristic  and  peculiar  appearance 
of  the  Indian  population  in  general,  as  it  seemed  to  me  to  difier 
greatly,  in  many  respects,  from  that  of  any  of  the  other  races  of 
South  America  or  Polynesia  with  whom  I  had  previously  become 
acquainted.  A  great  difference  in  the  external  proportions  of 
the  body  could  be  remarked  at  a  glance,  especially  when  an 
Aymara  Indian  was  seen  sitting  down  or  on  horseback,  and 
still  more  strikingly  if  by  the  side  of  a  European  similarly 
mounted:  the  greater  part  of  the  entire  body  seemed  to  be 
raised  high  up  above  the  horse's  back,  perched  up  on  the  legs 
in  a  curious  manner ;  and  other  peculiarities  of  outline  show^ 
themselves,  which  made  me  extremely  interested  in  finding  out 
how  these  differences  could  be  accounted  for. 

A  subsequent  residence  of  some  three  years  in  the  very 
centre  of  the  country  inhabited  by  the  Aymara  Indians,  with 
whom  I  was  brought  into  immediate  and  daily  contact,  offered 
excellent  opportunities  for  studying  them  more  closely;  and, 
although  I  now  perceive  with  regret  that  I  could  have  profited 
much  more  than  I  did  by  the  facilities  thus  afforded  me,  still  I 
believe  that  any  details  relating  to  this  very  remarkable  and 
so  little  known  race  of  men  cannot  fail  to  prove  interesting  to 
ethnologists,  and  I  now  submit  the  following  abstract  of  my 
notes  made  during  the  years  from  1859  to  1863  inclusive. 

The  general  bmld  of  the  Aymara  Indians  may  be  described 
as  massive  without  being  large;  short,  thickset,  beardless  men, 
who,  as  far  as  my  measurements  enable  me  to  judge,  do  not 
average  above  5  feet  3  inches  English,  and  rarely  exceed  5  feet 
4  inches  in  height;  they  are  a  somewhat  large-headed,  small- 
eyed,  square-built,  broad-shouldered,  long-bodied,  short-legged, 
and  small-footed  race,  whose  form  is  more  indicative  of  strength 
than  of  beauty  or  flexibility. 

The  contours  are,  as  a  rule,  full  and  rounded  off,  rarely,  if 
ever,  angular,  the  breasts  being  often  prominent  in  the  male  as 
well  as  the  female,  and  the  whole  outline  conveying  a  somewhat 
effeminate  impression,  as  is  the  case  with  many  of  the  other 
South- American  tribes ;  so  that  in  youth  the  sexes  are  often  not 
easily  to  be  distinguished  in  appearance  from  one  another, 
except  by  dress. 

The  men  are  generally  well-formed,  and  sometimes  even 
handsome;  but  the  women,  who  appeared  to  average  about 
4  feet  8  inches  in  height,  are  seldom  so,  being  usually  far  too 

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204  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

robust,  as  well  as  heavy  in  their  movements,  to  possess  any  thing 
like  grace;  yet,  occasionally,  exceptions  are  to  be  met  with, 
who,  if  washed  and  dressed  up,  might,  even  when  placed  along- 
side Europeans,  be  considered  pleasing  and  good-looking. 
Neither  men  nor  women,  although  very  robust,  appear  ever  to 
become  corpulent  j  I  cannot  call  to  mind  having  seen  a  single 
instance  of  a  fat  person  amongst  the  pure  Indians;  yet  amongst 
the  ''  Cholada,^'  or  half  Indian  half  Spanish  race,  this  is  fre- 
quent enough. 

l^hroughout  the  whole  of  the  Aymara-speaking  country  these 
Indians  present  a  remarkable  uniformity  as  well  in  their  habits 
and  customs  as  in  their  outward  appearance ;  and  this  seems  to 
have  been  so  from  time  immemorial,  since  the  representations 
on  ancient  sculptures,  pottery,  and  the  little  images  found  in 
the  Indian  graves  are,  in  many  cases,  but  copies  of  what  the 
Indians  themselves  are  at  the  present  day,  and  in  some  in- 
stances not  only  show  the  exact  character  of  the  face,  but  also 
indicate  the  peculiarities  of  the  relative  proportions  of  the  body 
as  seen  in  the  Aymaras  at  present. 

The  appearance  of  the  face  and  head  of  what  I  regard  as  the 
normal  Aymara  of  the  highlands  or  Titicaca  region  may  be  seen 
(male  and  female)  on  reference  to  Plates  XVII.  &  XVIIL,  which 
represent  very  correctly  an  Aymara  man  and  woman  of  the  De- 
partment of  La  Paz,  in  Bolivia*,  and  were  drawn  from  life  by 
Mr.  Isidore  Miiller  expressly  for  me.  In  some  parts  of  the  country, 
however,  especially  in  the  north,  where  the  Quechua-Indian 
race  commences,  another  type  of  face  is  also  seen  amongst  the 
men  (it  is  rarer  in  the  women),  represented  in  PI.  XIX.  This, 
however,  is  quite  a  subordinate  type ;  and,  as  will  be  perceived, 
the  shape  of  the  head  is  somewhat  rounder,  and  the  expression 
far  from  being  so  good  as  in  the  normal  type ;  excepting  only 
the  head,  I  found  that  the  proportions  of  idl  the  other  parts  of 
the  body  were  identical  in  both  these  types. 

The  facial  angle  differs  but  little  from  that  of  the  European  ; 
and  the  features  and  profile  of  the  normal  Aymara  are  decidedly 
good.  The  head  always  appears  to  be  somewhat  long  from 
behind  to  before,  and,  if  any  thing,  somewhat  large  when  com- 
pared with  the  body ;  it  appears  to  be  less  wide  than  the  Quechua 
head :  the  cheek-bones  are  seldom  very  prominent,  except  in  old 
age,  and  the  face  is  only  slightly  oval,  the  hair  on  the  forehead 
in  the  men,  and  still  more  so  in  the  women,  descending  very  low. 

The  extraordinary  elongated  skulls  (many  of  which  have 
been  received  in  Europe  and  have  been  frequently  figured  as 

•  The  figure  mven  in  Smith's  '  Natural  History  of  the  Human  Species/ 
of  an  Indian  of  the  Oto  tribe,  in  North  America,  is  almost  an  exact  likeness 
of  Conduri,  an  old  Aymara  man,  some  time  in  my  service. 


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jQuro,  Etimo   Soc  Vol  P,  Pi  XVm 


■VlT^f 


AYMARA  WOMAN 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  205 

well  as  described)  which  are  met  with  in  the  ancient  graves  on 
the  islands  in  the  Lake  Titicaca^  in  the  Asmara  country^  have 
been  described  and  regarded  by  Tschudi  as  natural  and  pecu- 
liar to  what  he  caUs  the  Titicaca  or  Inca  race.  As  before  men- 
tioned, the  Inca  or  Quechua  race  cannot  be  correctly  termed  a 
Titicaca  race,  since  the  entire  shores  of  Lake  Titicaca  have  even 
from  pre-incarial  times  been  solely  inhabited  by  the  Aymaras, 
although  subsequently  conquered  by  the  Incas.  Elongated 
skulls  are  not  confined  to  this  district*,  or  even  entitled  to  be 
considered  natural  productions;  if  the  evidence  to  prove  their 
artificial  origin  is  allowed  due  weight,  the  partial  or  total 
obliteration  of  the  sutures  in  all  those  skulls  which  I  examined 
must  be  regarded  as  so  many  proofs  of  the  application  of  com- 
pression in  infancy;  and  Bolivians  who  have  disinterred  them 
assure  me  that  in  the  same  graves  (family  or  tribal  burial- 
grounds)  many  other  skulls  of  the  usual  form  were  always 
found  along  with  them,  and  that  the  general  opinion  was  that 
these  elongated  skulls  belonged  to  the  families  of  chieftains, 
amongst  whom  it  was  considered  a  mark  of  distinction  to  so 
distort  the  head  (of  the  male  only)  in  childhood.  Although 
Tschudi  mentions  that  he  could  not  find  any  evidence  to  show 
that  such  practice  of  compressing  the  head  was  usual  amongst 
the  ancient  Peruvians,  I  found  full  proof  to  the  contrary  upon 
searching  the  '  Ordinanzas  del  Peru,'  Lima  1752,  where,  in  tomo 
primero,  lib.  ii.  tit.  ix.  ord.  viii.,  we  find  the  decree : — 

''  Iten  mando,  qui  nigun  Indio  ni  India  apriete  las  cabezas 
de  las  criaturas  recien  nacidos  como  lo  suelen  hazer  por  hazerlos 
mas  lai^as;  porque  de  averlo  hecho,  se  lesk  recrecido,  y  recrece 
dafio,  y  vienen  amorrir  dello,  y  desto  tengen  gran  cuydado  los 
Justicias,  sacerdotes,  y  alcaldes  y  caciques  en  que  no  se  hagaf,^^ 
which  may  be  considered  as  settling  this  question. 

The  superoccipital  or.  interparietal  bone,  the  os  Inca  of 
Tschudi,  cannot  be  considered  peculiar  to  any  Titicaca  race ;  for 
not  only  was  it  deficient  in  all  the  skulls  which  I  examined 
from  this  district,  recent  as  well  as  ancient,  but  it  was  found 
present  in  some  of  the  skulls  out  of  the  graves  on  the  Pacific 
coast  (out  of  111  skulls  examined  by  me  at  Arica  and  further 
south  I  found  3  with  this  bone) ;  it  seems  to  me  probable,  how- 
ever, that  it  is  somewhat  more  common  amongst  the  American 
races  than  amongst  those  of  other  parts  of  the  world,  at  least  so 
far  as  our  knowledge  at  present  extends. 

The  general  expression  of  the  Aymara  face  is  sad  and  reflec- 
tive, melancholic,  with  at  the  same  time  a  strong  admixture  of 

*  In  1863  1  disinterred  three  fine  specimens  of  elongated  skulls  from 
inrAves  on  the  very  edge  of  the  Pacihc^  at  Pisa^ua^  in  the  province  of 
rarapacAy  in  Peru.  t  Spelling  a^  in  original. 


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206  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

determination,  as  if  a  continual  struggle  was  going  on  within 
to  conceal  the  emotions  under  the  appearance  of  stolid  indiffer- 
ence, which,  however,  is  far  from  real ;  the  expression  of  stu- 
pidity often  seen  and  described  by  travellers  is  altogether 
assumed.  The  Aymara  Indian  is  always  grave,  and  rarely  seen 
to  laugh  or  even  smile;  whilst  the  Quechua  Indians  are  in 
these  respects  very  different. 

The  profile  is  good,  the  nose  being  invariably  aquiline,  except 
in  the  instances  before  alluded  to ;  and  in  all  the  ancient  figures 
the  nose  is  also,  as  a  rule,  aquiline.  In  many  cases,  especially 
in  women,  it  is  often  somewhat  curved  inwards  at  the  point; 
the  nostrils  are  usually  broad  at  the  base,  open,  and  expanded. 

The  mouth  is  somewhat  large,  but  not  excessively  so,  the  lips 
being  of  a  yellowish  or  brownish  red  colour,  often  full,  but  not 
flabby  or  thick  as  in  the  negro.  The  teeth,  usually  very  regular 
and  almost  vertical,  are  generally  fine  and  white,  unless  coloured 
by  coca-chewing;  they  resist  age  well,  and  caries  is  not  very 
common. 

The  eyes  are  always  small,  black  or  deep  brown  in  colour, 
the  cornea  being,  however,  never  pure  white,  but  invariably 
more  or  less  yellowish  in  tint ;  they  are  brilliant  and  generally 
deep-set,  the  eyelids  being  fringed  with  long,  fine,  black  lashes. 
The  angle  made  by  the  central  line  of  the  eyes  is  very  slightly 
inclined  inwards,  not  nearly  so  much  as  in  the  Mongol,  yet  not 
altogether  horizontal  as  in  many  of  the  Chinese,  The  eye- 
sight is  very  good  and  enduring;  the  eyebrows  are  black  or 
brown  black,  and  usually  somewhat  sparse. 

The  hair  of  the  head  commences  very  low  down  on  the  fore- 
head, and  is  extremely  abundant  and  long,  in  the  men  as  well 
as  the  women.  It  is  of  a  deep  black-brown  or  black  colour, 
perfectly  straight,  without  any  attempt  to  curl,  and  rather  fine 
in  texture ;  on  comparison  I  found  that  it  was  never  so  coarse 
as  the  black  hair  of  the  Spaniards  or  half-castes.  It  is  said 
never  to  fall  off^  or  become  grey  or  white  in  old  age;  and,  as 
far  as  my  own  observation  extended,  I  cannot  remember  ever 
having  seen  a  pure  Indian  man  or  woman,  however  old,  with 
white  or  grey  hair. 

The  men  wear  their  hair  drawn  backwards  over  their  heads, 
and  plaited  into  a  long  pigtail,  sometimes  reaching  behind  down 
to  their  knees ;  occasionally  the  hair,  after  having  been  drawn 
back,  is  first  divided  into  several  portions  (I  often  noticed  five), 
each  of  which  are  separately  plaited  for  a  short  distance,  and 

*  The  Indianfl  have  the  custom  of  waslung  their  hair  in  urine,  which,  they 
imagine,  nourishes  it;  and  this  disgusting  practiee  is  also  adopted  and  gene- 
rally followed  by  the  Spanish-American  women  of  these  parts  of  South 
America. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  207 

then  the  whole  united  into  one  long  pigtail^  as  before.  This 
same  mode  of  hair-dressing  appears  also  to  have  been  used  in 
more  ancient  times,  as  the  hair  of  several  mummies  which  I  dug 
out  of  ancient  graves  was  put  up  in  a  like  manner.  The  women 
also  draw  their  hair  backwards,  but  then  divide  it  into  two  por- 
tions, which  are  both  plaited  into  pigtails,  one  hanging  down  on 
each  side  of  the  back. 

The  men  are  beardless,  and,  beyond  the  eyelashes  and  eye- 
brows, rarely  have  any  trace  of  hair  on  the  face,  although  in 
some  older  men  I  have  occasionally  seen  a  few  straggling  short 
hairs  on  the  upper  lip,  but  never  so  much  as  could  be  entitled 
to  the  appellation  of  a  moustache.  Neither  men  nor  women 
have  any  hair  on  or  under  the  arms  or  legs,  nor  on  the  body, 
excepting  only  that  the  men  have  occasionally  a  little  tuft  or 
fringe  of  soft  black  hair  on  the  pubes^.  It  is  not  the  custom  to 
pull  out  or  otherwise  eradicate  the  hair  from  any  part  of  the 
body ;  on  the  contrary  any  straggling  hair  or  tuft  which  might 
make  its  appearance  is  more  Ukely  to  be  encouraged  and  re- 
garded with  something  akin  to  pride.  The  men  especially  prize 
their  pigtails,  and,  I  believe,  often  introduce  false  hair  when 
plaiting  them,  in  order  to  make  them  appear  longer  and  thicker 
at  their  feasts. 

When  not  exposed  to  the  weather  or  hard  work,  the  skin  of 
the  Aymara  Indian  is  always  extremely  smooth,  fine,  soft,  and, 
as  if  polished,  having  no  trace  of  hair  upon  it,  and  never  clammy, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  somewhat  cool  to  the  feel.  Its  odour  did 
not,  at  least  when  in  good  health  and  cleanly,  appear  to  be 
stronger  than  in  the  European — ^in  fact,  is  so  slight  as  to  be  all 
but  imperceptible.  The  Indian,  however,  whose  sense  of  smell 
is  highly  developed,  notwithstanding  the  state  of  dirt  in  which 
he  lives,  has  particular  names  to  denote  the  natural  odour  of  the 
white,  black,  and  Indian  man  respectively. 

The  colour  of  the  skin  in  the  new-bom  infant  is  of  a  reddish 
tint,  and  did  not  appear  to  me  to  be  very  much  darker  than  in 
the  white  infant;  but  it  becomes  rapidly  darker,  and  soon  ac- 
quires the  permanent  hue  of  the  race.  This  colour,  however, 
seemed  to  me  to  vary  greatly  with  the  locality,  no  doubt  from 
causes  due  entirely  to  the  climate.  In  the  moist,  cold  high- 
lands the  colour  is  a  light  somewhat  coppery  brown  resembling 
much  in  tint  that  of  many  of  the  North- American  Indians.  In 
the  dryer  highlands  and  the  rainless  valleys  of  the  western  range 
this  colour  becomes  much  less  red,  and  more  of  a  blackish- 
brown;  whilst  in  the  hot  humid  valleys  of  the  eastern  slopes  of 
the  Andes,  looking  towards  Brazil,  all  trace  of  the  red  dis- 

*  The  women  have  no  hair  on  the  pubes  even  in  old  age. 

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208  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

appears^  and  the  skin  has  a  much  yellower  hue^  a  sort  of  bilious- 
looking  light-brown  tint^  often  silky  in  appearance.  As  a  rule, 
the  darkest  and  blackest-looking  skin  is  always  found  in  the 
dryest  localities^  independent  of  the  amount  of 'sun  to  which  it 
may  be  exposed.  The  influence  of  the  sun,  as  on  the  skin  of 
the  European,  appears  to  be,  in  greater  part  at  least,  only  mo- 
mentary; thus  one  of  the  redder-coloured  Indians  becomes 
much  darker  in  tint  after  remaining  some  time  in  the  hot  dry 
district  of  the  Pacific  (as,  for  example,  at  Tacna),  or  attains  a 
more  yellowish-brown  hue  when  employed  in  the  gold-workings 
or  coca  plantations  in  the  hot  humid  valleys  of  eastern  Bolivia ; 
yet  upon  his  return  to  his  native  mountains  the  original  rud- 
dier tint  gradually  asserts  itself  in  a  short  time.  Although  in 
the  white  race  the  skin  of  the  face  and  parts  exposed  to  the  light 
become  invariably  the  darkest,  this,  at  least  with  regard  to  the 
face,  very  much  to  my  surprise,  was  not  the  case  with  these 
Indians ;  for  in  all  the  instances  where  I  had  opportunities  for 
comparison,  the  face  was  as  a  rule  lighter  in  colour  than  the 
other,  covered  parts  of  the  body*. 

The  Spanish  writers  have  always  maintained  that  the  Indian 
cannot  blush:  this  is  without  doubt  incorrect;  for  although, 
from  the  very  colour  of  the  skin,  it  is  impossible  that  a  blush 
should  be  so  visible  as  in  the  white,  still,  under  such  circum- 
stances as  would  raise  a  blush  in  the  latter,  there  can  always  be 
seen  the  same  expression  of  modesty  or  confusion  on  the  coun- 
tenance of  the  Indian,  and  even  in  the  dark  a  rise  of  tempera- 
ture of  the  skin  of  the  face  can  be  felt,  exactly  as  occurs  in  the 
European.  On  many  Aymara  Indians  I  noticed,  more  particu- 
larly in  women,  a  red  tinge  on  the  cheek,  something  like  what 
might  be  termed  a  permanent  blush,  and  reminding  one  of  the 
hectic  tinge  on  the  cheek  which  often  accompanies  ill-health  in 
the  white :  whether  this  in  the  Indian  owes  its  origin  to  a  similar 
cause  or  not  I  have  not  been  able  to  verify. 

The  great  size  of  the  body  of  the  Aymara  Indian,  when  com- 
pared with  his  other  dimensions,  cannot  fail  to  attract  imme- 
diate attention ;  and  a  closer  examination  at  once  shows  that  of 
this  the  major  part  is  occupied  by  the  region  of  the  chest ;  the 
neck  is  not  long,  oftener  short,  but  always  thick ;  the  shoulders, 
although  always  broad,  convey  to  the  eye  the  impression  of  their 
being  even  broader  than  they  are  found  to  be  upon  actual  mea- 
surement. The  space  occupied  by  the  breasts  is  both  broad 
and  high,  i.e.  longer  than  usual — besides  projecting  much  more, 

*  The  skin  of  the  nipples  of  the  mammae  in  the  women  and  the  organs  of 
generation  in  the  men  was  deepest  in  colour,  hut  that  of  the  inside  of  the  pre- 
puce and  glans  usually  flesh-coloured. 


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Joum.  Et.lino     Soc.  Vol  IT.  PI  XDC 


AVMARA  MAN 


Liikog' 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  209 

being  nnusually  large  in  circumference,  which  consequently  in- 
dicates a  great  internal  capacity,  affording  space  for  an  immense 
development  of  the  breathing-organs.  The  circumference  of  the 
body  both  at  the  waist  and  navel  is  unusually  laige ;  but  at  the 
pelvis,  although  still  large,  is  not  extraordinarily  so,  except  in 
the  Indian  women,  who  consequently  bring  forth  with  great 
ease*. 

The  relative  proportions  of  the  extremities  are  equally  re- 
markable with  that  of  the  body  itself,  although  this  is  less  con- 
spicuous in  the  case  of  the  arm  than  in  that  of  the  leg. 

The  arm  is,  as  a  rule,  well  formed,  full,  and  rounded,  the 
muscles^  although  well  developed,  not  producing  that  angu- 
larity of  outline  so  commonly  seen  in  the  European.  The  arms 
are  shorty  but  chiefly  so  with  respect  to  the  upper  arm ;  and  the 
hands  are  small,  but  somewhat  broad. 

The  lower  extremity  is  decidedly  short,  its  height  from  the 
ground  to  the  hip  (tip  of  the  trochanter  major)  being,  on  an 
average  of  a  number  of  measurements,  exactly  one-half  of  the 
entire  stature.  The  relative  proportions  of  its  subdivisions  are 
curious ;  for  instead  of  the  thigh  being,  as  in  all  other  know^ 
nations,  longer  than  the  leg,  it  would  appear  to  be,  on  the  con- 
trary, slightly  shorter,  giving  a  peculiar  appearance  to  the  In- 
dians of  the  highlands  of  Peru  and  Bolivia,  especially  when  seen 
unclothed.  In  several  of  the  ancient  figures  found  in  the  tombs 
these  relative  proportions  are  distinctly  indicated,  as  also  in  the 
rude  pictures  and  caricatures  which  the  Quechua  Indians  of 
Cochabamba  paint  and  sell  about  the  country,  in  which  Spaniards 
and  Indians  are  seen  depicted  together  :  the  Indians  are  always 
figured  with  longer  bodies  and  shorter  legs  than  the  whites,  and 
with  the  thighs  looking  very  short  when  compared  with  the  length 
of  the  leg. 

These  remarkable  differences  in  the  proportions  of  the  body 
and  extremities  appear  also  to  be  present  in  such  of  the  Quechua 
race  of  Indians  as  inhabit  the  highlands  to  the  north  of  the 
Lake  of  Titicaca — ^but  as  a  whole  is  most  characteristic  of  the 
Aymara  race,  more  especially  those  who  inhabit  the  great  ele- 
vated basin  of  Titicaca,  as  the  Aymara  colonies  in  the  lower 
regions  of  Yungas  did  not  exhibit  these  proportions  in  nearly  so 
marked  a  degree. 

*  The  symphysis  pubis  seemed  to  differ  somewhat  from  the  European  in  its 
angle,  being  apparently  somewhat  more  elevated  above  the  fork  of  the  leg9. 
The  male  organs  appear  to  be  placed  somewhat  higher  up;  the  penis  is 
usually  less  in  its  dimensions  than  in  the  white,  although  the  testes  are  about 
of  the  usual  size ;  in  some  instances  the  raphe  of  the  scrotum  was  observed  to 
be  continued  like  a  thread  of  flesh  attached  outside  the  pkin  all  the  way  up 
to  the  prepuce ;  but  this  may  be  exceptional. 

VOL.  II.  ^       /^^  T 

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210  Datid  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

All  the  joiBts  in  the  Aymara  Indian  had  the  appearance  of 
being  somewhat  large^  the  knee-joint  in  particular ;  as  the  mea- 
surements of  the  circumference  around  this  joint  did  not  quite 
bear  this  out^  I  imagine  that  the  greater  width  of  the  joint  in 
front  was  alone  the  principal  reason  of  this  appearance. 

The  legs  are  perfectly  smooth  and  free  from  hairs^  and  are 
well  developed,  full  and  rounded  in  outline,  without  any  mus- 
cular angularity.  The  thickest  part,  or  calf,  of  the  leg  is  situated 
somewhat  lower  down  than  usual  (the  exact  reverse  of  the  negro), 
at  least  in  the  men ;  and  this,  in  conjunction  with  the  effect  of 
the  dress,  which  is  a  sort  of  knee-breeches  of  llama  wool,  open 
and  flapping  about  at  the  knees  (below  which  the  leg  is  bare), 
caused  upon  me  at  first  the  impression  that  the  peculiar  appear- 
ance and  gait  of  these  Indians  were  due  to  the  leg  being  in 
reality  extremely  short,  whereas  upon  seeing  the  entire  leg 
bared  it  was  perceived  and  proved  by  measurement  that  the 
reverse  was  actually  the  case. 

The  calf  of  the  leg  is  generally  well  developed ;  and  in  the 
Indians  of  the  highlands  the  surface  veins  are  usually  seen  to  be 
extremely  prominent,  and  particularly  so  in  the  middle-aged 
men,  projecting  from  the  surface  like  varicose  veins  in  Euro- 
peans ;  yet  I  am  not  aware  of  any  evil  consequences,  although 
this  was  the  case  with  many  of  my  Indian  messengers,  who 
would  accomplish  extraordinary  distances  on  foot  in  an  almost 
incredibly  short  space  of  time. 

My  attention  was  directed  to  the  structure  of  the  Indian  foot, 
which  is  probably  one  of  the  smallest  known,  from  observing 
that  a  pair  of  woollen  stockings  which  had  been  knitted  for  me 
by  an  Indian  woman  were  shaped  so  that  there  was  absolutely 
no  projection  allowed  for  the  heel  as  usual  in  those  of  European 
make.  Upon  examination,  I  noticed  at  once  that  the  heel  in 
the  Indian  was  but  very  little  prominent,  and  did  not  project 
backwards  at  all,  or,  at  any  rate,  not  to  any  thing  like  the  extent 
met  with  in  most  other  races  of  men,  the  leg  itself  rising  up 
almost  straight  from  the  ground  at  once ;  and  it  is  extremely 
rare  to  see  amongst  the  Aymaras  the  graceful  swell  of  the  ankle, 
so  enticing  in  what  we  in  Europe  regard  as  a  well-made  leg. 

Another  peculiarity  of  the  foot  is  the  position  in  which  it  is, 
so  to  speak,  set  on  to  the  leg :  in  the  Aymara,  by  far  the  greater 
mass  of  the  foot  is  placed  altogether  in  front  of  the  leg,  the 
result  of  which  is,  that  although  the  sole  or  total  length  of  the 
foot  itself  fi^m  the  heel  to  the  extremity  of  the  great  toe  is  ex- 
tremely short,  and  possibly  even  more  so  than  in  any  other  race 
of  men,  the  back  of  the  foot,  t .  e.  the  upper  part,  measured 
from  the  extremity  of  the  great  toe  to  the  nearest  part  of  the  leg, 
is  comparatively  very  large. 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  21 1 

The  height  of  the  foot,  t .  e.  the  distance  firom  the  ground  to 
the  tip  of  the  inner  ankle,  is  not  great ;  but  its  breadth  is  con- 
siderable, as  well  as  its  circumference  measured  round  the 
instep.  The  great  toe  is  usually  very  large,  and  directed  out- 
wards, which  most  probably  is  principally  due  to  the  effect  of 
the  thong  of  the  sandals  worn  by  these  Indians.  Curiously 
enough,  the  foot  of  the  Aymara  seems  to  be  about  the  least 
sensitive  part  of  his  body ;  however  cold  or  wet  it  may  be,  they, 
as  a  rule,  never  seem  to  feel  it,  or  attempt  to  cover  their  feet, 
and  will  walk  for  miles  in  the  snow  and  sludge  without  taking 
any  precautions  or  appearing  to  suffer  in  the  slightest  degree 
from  the  damp  or  severity  of  the  weather.  In  such  cases  all 
their  attention  seems  directed  to  keeping  their  heads,  not  their 
feet,  warm. 

To  the  preceding  observations,  which  are  as  it  were  a  resumi 
of  my  notes  on  the  general  appearance  and  proportion  of  the 
Aymara  Indians,  I  have  added  in  the  AppenduL,  Table  A,  a  de- 
tailed tabular  statement,  containing  the  results  of  a  number  of 
measurements  of  their  bodies,  made  when  in  Bolivia  and  Peru. 
These  I  regard  as  the  more  important,  since  the  figures  them- 
selves will  tell  their  own  tale  more  correctly  than  any  descrip- 
tion in  words,  founded  merely  upon  the  impressions  which  the 
external  appearance  of  these  Indians  in  their  costumes  could 
convey  to  the  mind  of  the  traveller. 

As  it  is  obviously  impossible,  by  a  mere  reference  to  measure- 
ments stated  in  inches,  to  form  any  correct  idea  of  the  relations 
which  the  various  dimensions  of  the  different  parts  of  the  body 
bear  to  one  another,  or  to  compare  the  size  of  any  one  member 
of  the  body  of,  say,  a  small  with  that  of  the  same  member  of 
a  large  individual,  a  supplementary  column  of  figures  is  in  each 
case  added,  which  enables  all  such  comparisons  to  be  made  at  a 
glance,  since  the  numbers  in  these  columns  are  those  which 
represent  the  proportion  which  each  individual  measurement 
bears  to  that  of  the  entire  body  or  stature  of  the  person,  sup- 
posing this  to  be  represented  by  the  number  1000^. 

In  order,  however,  to  facilitate  a  comparison  between  the 
general  proportions  of  the  Aymara  Indians  of  the  highlands  and 
the  low  valleys,  both  with  one  another  and  also  with  the  white 
and  black  races  of  Europe  and  Africa,  the  annexed  tabular  state- 
ment has  also  been  drawn  up  in  a  more  condensed  form,  the 
actual  measurements  in  indies  having  been  omitted,  and  in  their 
place  the  proportional  numbers  before  referred  to  alone  inserted, 
BO  that  a  mere  examination  and  comparison  of  these  figures  with 

•  This  calculation  is  made  simply  by  multiplying  each  separate  measure- 
ment by  1000,  and  then  dividing  the  product  by  the  whole  stature  or  height 
of  the  individual.  ^^  , 

DigitiJld2ydOOgle 


212  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

one  another  will  show  in  what  respects  and  to  what  extent  the 
Aymara  Indian  differs  in  external  configuration  firom  these 
races^  as  well  as  indicate  the  relative  ratios  of  the  dimensions  of 
the  different  members  of  the  body  to  one  another. 

In  this  Table  the  first  three  columns  are  devoted  to  the  Ay- 
mara : — 1  being  the  average  proportional  numbers,  based  on  the 
measurements  of  all  the  Indians  of  the  Puna  or  cold  highlands 
of  the  l^ticaca  region  in  both  Peru  and  Bolivia,  given  in  the 
Table  before  referred  to;  2  the  average  of  two  Indians  of 
the  Aymara  colonies,  in  the  low  hot  valleys  to  the  east  of  the 
high  Andes,  both  being  colonists  of  the  second  generation,  t.  e. 
who  themselves,  as  well  as  their  fathers,  had  been  bom  in  these 
tropical  regions ;  and  3  the  general  average  of  both  the  pre- 
ceding columns;  column  4  gives  the  proportional  niunbers 
derived  from  the  average  of  the  measurements  of  two  young 
Englishmen  in  robust  condition  of  health,  but  of  two  different 
types,  the  Saxon  and  Celtic,  the  fair-haired  robust  and  black- 
haired  slender  forms  of  body  respectively;  and  lastly,  the 
fifth  column  gives  the  average  figures  obtained  from  the  mea- 
surements of  three  fine  specimens  of  the  Menas  negro  on  the 
west  coast  of  Africa, — all  in  excellent  health  and  condition. 
When  comparing  these  figures,  however,  it  must,  be  remem- 
bered that,  as  it  naturally  follows  that  every  circumferential 
measurement  made  round  the  body  or  any  of  its  members  must 
altogether  be  dependent  upon  the  condition  and  general  state 
of  health  of  the  individual  at  the  moment  of  being  taken,  such 
circumferential  measurements  are  naturally  less  suited  for  reli- 
able comparison  with  one  another  than  are  those  straight  mea- 
surements taken  of  the  limbs  or  other  parts  of  the  body  not 
so  affected  ♦. 

*  In  reference  to  both  these  Tables  I  may  state  that,  having  been  quite 
unable  to  find  any  system  of  human  measurement  in  general  use,  or  to  meet 
with  any  published  (detailed)  measurements  of  even  a  single  white  or  black 
individuaf  for  comparison,  I  was  entiiely  thrown  upon  my  own  resources, 
and  constructed,  wnen  in  South  America,  the  above  scheme  of  71  measure- 
ments, of  which  60  are  direct  (from  nos.  1  to  60)  and  11  indirect  (a  to  /) 
measurements.  These  appeared  to  me  to  take  in  all  the  main  features  of  ex- 
ternal human  configuration.  With  regard  to  the  standard  white  and  black 
races,  or  rather  the  numbers  representing  the  relative  proportions  of  their 
bodies,  g^iven  in  the  Table,  I  was  obliged,  for  the  same  reasons,  to  content 
myself  with  such  averages  aa  in  my  travels  I  found  myself  enabled  persoiially 
to  obtain. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru. 


213 


Mcasurementa*. 


1  Stature 

2  Extreme  distance  between  finger-tip«,  arms  liorizon tally 
I    extended   , 

3,II«id,  greatest  circumference , 

41 ,       „       width  (with  callipers)    , 

6| ,       „       antero-posterior  diameter  (with  oillipers) 

a  ,       „       height  from  under  chin  to  vertex  (6+7 

+8+11  +  12) 

h  I ,  height  without  lower  jaw  (6+7+8+11) 

6,  ,  distance  perpendiculs[rl7  from  vertex  to  growth  of 

j  hair   

7- ,  forehead  from  growth  of  hair  to  orbit  

8} ,  Nose  from  orbit  to  nostril,  vertically 

9, ,     „    projection  at  nostrils 

I0| ,     „    breadth      „        „  

,  Jaw,  upper  (upper  lip),  from  nostrils  to  centre  of 

mouth   

,      „    lower  (under  lip  and  chin),  from  centre  of 

mouth  to  below  chin   , 

,  Face,  breadth  between  clieck-bones  (with  callipers) 

,      "    length  from  growth  of  hair  to  below  chin 

(7+8+11  +  12) 

,  Eye,  distance  between  inner  corner  of  eyes  

.     >i  M  .>        outer  .,  


,     „    length  of  orifice  of  eye  (  '  »>  —  ) 


,  Mouth,  breadth 

,  Ear,      length 

Neck,  length  from  chin  to  semilunar  notch  of  sternum 
measured  upright 

,  breadth  across  from  semilunar  notch  to  7th  vertebra 

of  neck  (with  callipers) 

,  circumference 

Head  and  neck,  from  vertex  to  semilunar  notch  of  ster- 
num (6+7+8+11+12+18) 
Trunk,  breadth  across  between  outer  tips  of  shoulders  in  a 

straight  line 

,  front  lengtli  from  semilunar  notch  of  sternum  to 
fork  of  legs  (30+33) 


1000 1000 1000 


lOlf) 

337 

87 

116 

142 
114 

33 
38 
26 
11 
23 

17 

28 
82 

IW 
22 
68 

23 

34 
34 

52 

83 
211 

194 

230 

354 


1062 

341 

94 

105 

136 
HI 

36 
32 
33 
12 

23 

12 

26 

80 

101 
19 
63 

22 

33 
31 

35 

72 

198 

171 


1038 

339 

90 

110 

140 
113 

34 
35 

29 

HI 
23 

15 

27 
81 

ia3 

20 
65 

22i 

d3i 
32 

44 

76 
205 

184 

234 


1000 

10^ 

326 

92 

129 

143 

111 

26 
43 
31 
11 
20 

11 

32 
73 

117 

18 
59 

21 

30 
36 

48 

82 
204 

191 

250 


1000 

1085 

302 

86 

107 

139 

112 

33 
37 
26 
11 
27 

16 

27 

76 

rj6 
22 
61 

20 

31 
33 

41 

83 
195 

180 

241 


*  In  the  above  Table  the  direct  measurements,  sixty  in  number,  are  numbered  from 
1  to  60 ;  the  indirect,  or  deductive  measurements,  eleven  in  number,  are  marked  a  to  ^, 
and  in  parentheses  are  placed  the  numbers  of  the  direct  measurements  from  which  they 
are  obtained.  The  circumferential  measurements,  which  are  only  useful  when  the  exact 
state  of  health  of  the  individual  is  known,  are  printed  in  italics.  As  it  is  sometimes 
difficult  to  get  the  exact  distance  from  the  umbilicus  to  the  symphysis  pubis,  the  distance 
to  the  fork  or  division  of  the  legs,  always  easily  obtainable,  is  also  ffiven ;  the  circumference 
of  the  body  is  siven  both  at  the  narrowest  part,  or  waist,  as  well  as  at  the  navel,  as  these 
dimensions,  although  sometimes  the  same,  are  not  always  so. 

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214  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

Table  {continued). 


Meunremento 


Ajmxr%. 


•«  e 


H 


'U 
I? 

a-' 

I    M 


11 


22  Trunk,  Back,  length  from  7th  Tertebra  of  neck  to  oe  ooc« 

ojgw 

g ^  gide,  lenffth  from  shoulder-tip  to  trochanter  major 

(36+37)  

,  Breasts,  breadth  between  nipples  of  mammas 

24 ,        „      height  from  below  mammas  to  semilunar 

notch  of  sternum 

-,  Chest,  breadth  across  between  armpits,  in  straight 
line 


25 
26 
27 

28 

29 
SC- 
SI- 

33j- 

34'- 


,  Chest,  height  in  front  from  semilunar  notoh  to  tip 

of  sternal  cartilaee  

— ,  Chest,  height  at  side  from  tip  of  shoulder  to  lowest 
rib 

— ,  Chest,  circumference  under  armpite,  respiration  at 


-,  Waist,  circumference  of  the  smallest  part  of  body 
-,  Distance  from  semilunar  notoh  of  sternum  to  um- 
bilicus 


-,  Abdomen,  circun^erence  at  narel  , 

-,        „         distance  from  umbilicus  to  symphysis 

pubis  in  a  straight  line   

-,  Abdomen,  distance  from  umbilicus  to  fork  of  legs 

in  a  straight  line  , 

-,  Abdomen,  distance  from  umbilicus  to  anterior  su- 


perior spine  of  ilium  .. 

35| ,  Distance  from  shoulder-tip  to  anterior  superior 

spine  of  ilium  

>  FeUis,  breadth  straight  across  between  the  ante- 
rior superior  spines  of  the  ilium 


38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 


45 


',  Felyis,  height  from  anterior  superior  spine  of  ilium 

to  trochanter  major 

-,  Pelvis,  circumference  round  ala 

Upper  extremity,  arm,  upper,  length  of  humerus    

„      ereaf est  circumference  .,. 
„      least  „ 

lower,  length  of  radius 

'eaiest  circumference  ... 


Hand,  length  from  wrist  to  tip  of  fore- 
finger   

Hand,  length  exolusiye  of  fingerB(45-<47) 
„     breadth  exclusive  of  thumb  ... 

„      forefinger  to  knuckle-joint 

entire  arm  from  shoulder-joint  to  tip  of 

forefin^r     (39-1-42+45) 

Lower  extremity,  thigh,  length  from  trochanter  major  to 
knee-joint  (femur) 


363 

337 
127 

125 

190 

128 

228 

580 
473 

226 

490 

81 
129 

88 

267 

172 

70 
460 
179 
145 
143 
148 
148 
102 

108 
56 
55 
52 

435 

211 


143 
98 
197 
123 
215 

197 


94 
231 
203 


179 
141 
121 
146 
187 
96 

107 
54 
49 
53 


220 


135 
112 
194 
126 
222 

212 


91 
249 

188 


179 
143 
132 
147 
143 
99 

107i 
55 
52 
52J 

433| 

215 


347  323 

334I  322 
1221  1231 


207 
118 
175 


88j 
188| 
ll3j 
17D 


518!  494 


433 

227 
465 

87 

136 


447 

220 
441 


106 


971    98 


168 

164 

ai    74 

458  443 

1S8  i9r» 

161,  l.V» 

127 

144 

147 

176 

15^ 

153 

93 

94 

107 

117 

50 

51 

52 

60 

57 

66 

442 

488 

244 

258 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru. 
Tablb  (continued). 


215 


Heasurementa 


Ayman. 


! 

1. 


II 


n 


49  Lower  extremitj,  thigh,  length  inside  from  fork  of  1^  to 
knee-joint   

50 ,  thigh,  areatest  circuftrference    

51 — ,    „      ieast  „  

52 ■ , 'KnBB'ioiDt,  cireun^erence 

53 ,  Leg  (tibia)»  length  from  knee-joint  to 

ankle   

54 ,  greatest  wrewmference^  calf  of  leg 

56 ylMuA  „  „  

56 ,  Foot,  length  of  the  sole  from  heel  to  tip 

of  great  toe 

,  Foot,  back  or  ridge  from  1^  to  tip  of 

great  toe 

58 ,  Foot,  greatest  breadth  

59 — ^ ,      „    height  from  ground  to  tip  of  inner 

ankle   

00 ,  Foot,   greatest    circumference    around 

instep 

k  ■ — — ,  entire  (thigh,  leg,  and  foot),  from  tro- 
chanter major  to  ground(48+ 53-1-59) 

/ ,  entire  (thigh,  1^,  and  foot),  inside  from 

fork  to  ground  (49-1-53+59)    


191 
283 
204 
202 

252 
188 
127 

137 

98 
56 

37 

149 

500 

444 


197 

aof 

227 
187 
121 

143 


200 
201i 

24() 
1874 
121 

140 


92     95 

56i 


57 

43 

147 

490 


40 
148 
500 


204 
300 
200 
fi04 

230 
206 
121 

148 

93 

56 

47 

138 
522 
495 


218 
292 
223 
211 

241 
204 

129 

153 
102 

41 
156 
540 
602 


In  examining  a  tabular  statement  of  this  character  in  order 
to  compare  the  relative  proportions  of  the  different  members 
of  the  body  of  the  Aymara  Indian  both  with  one  another 
and  with  those  of  other  races^  one  of  the  first  points  which 
demand  attention  is  the  ratio  which  the  lower  extremities  or 
legs  bear  to  the  entire  height  or  stature.  From  measurement 
k  in  this  Table  it  will  be  seen  that  the  height  of  the  legs  in 
the  Aymara,  measured  from  the  trochanter  major  of  the  femur 
down  to  the  ground,  is  500  thousandths  of  the  stature,  i,e. 
exactly  one-half;  whilst  in  both  the  European  and  Negro  it  is 
much  greater,  being  respectively  522  and  540  thousandths,  so 
that  the  Aymara  and  African  are  the  two  extremes.  In  the 
white  infant  I  understand  that  the  stature  is  divided  into  two 
equal  parts  by  a  line  drawn  through  the  symphysis  pubis, 
thus  the  same  proportion  as  in  the  adult  Aymara  Indian,  but 
that  subsequently  the  lower  extremities  in  the  white  increase 
more,  becoming  relatively  longer  with  age  up  to  puberty. 

With  regard  to  the  upper  extremities  or  arms,  a  similar  rule 


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216  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

seems  to  hold  good ;  for  upon  reference  to  the  measurement  No. 
2  it  will  be  seen  that  in  the  Aymara  Indian  the  distance  between 
the  tips  of  the  fingers,  when  the  arms  are  held  out  horizontally,  is 
also  considerably  less  than  in  the  white  or  in  the  black  man,  these 
proportions  being  respectively  1015, 1034,  and  1085  thousandths; 
and,  as  seen  in  i,  the  length  of  the  entire  arm  from  shoulder 
to  tip  of  finger  is  435  in  the  Aymara,  442  in  the  European, 
and  488  thousandths  in  the  African;  so  that  here  again  the 
Indian  and  Negro  are  the  extremes,  and  it  is  perceived  that 
the  Aymara  has  the  shortest  and  the  African  the  longest  arms 
and  legs  of  the  three  races. 

If  now  the  details  of  the  measurements  of  the  upper  and  lower 
extremities  be  examined  in  order  to  compare  their  relative 
proportions  one  with  another,  some  interesting  results,  difficult 
of  explanation,  are  obtained.  Thus,  taking  the  arm,  the  pro- 
portions of  its  different  members,  when  stated  in  thousandths  of 
the  stature,  are  given  in  the  Table  as  follows : — 


89.  Upper  arm 179 

42.  Forearm    148 

h.  Hand  without 
fingers 
47.  Longest  finger..     52 


Indian.  European.  African. 


}    56 


327 

108 


188 
147 

50 

57 


335 

107 


195 
176 

51 

66 


371 
117 


435  442  488 

from  which  it  will  be  seen  that  the  proportions  of  the  fore  arm 
and  entire  hand  are  nearly  the  same  in  the  Aymara  and  Euro- 
pean, yet  both  are  shorter  than  in  the  African ;  also  that  the 
upper  arm,  both  in  the  white  and  negro,  is  much  longer  than 
in  the  Aymara, — the  Indian  and  African  being  again,  as  also  in 
the  length  of  their  fingers,  the  two  extremes ;  and  fiarther  that 
the  reason  why  the  entire  arm  of  the  Aymara  Indian  is  so  much 
shorter  than  in  the  white,  lies  mainly  in  the  shortness  of  his 
upper  arm. 

In  the  lower  extremities  the  results  are  still  more  curious, 
the  different  numbers  being  as  follows : — 

Indian. 

48.  Thigh    211 

53.  Leg  252 

59.  Foot     37 


European. 

AfHcftn. 

244, 

258 

280 

Ml 

47 

41 

500  521  540 

Here  we  find  the  extraordinary  instance  of  the  thigh  being  shorter 
in  length  than  the  leg,  which,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  is  not  the 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  217 

case  in  any  other  race  of  men  as  yet  described'^.  The  African 
and  Indian  are  still  the  extremes  with  respect  to  the  length  of 
the  thigh ;  but  the  leg  appears  to  be  proportionally  longest  in 
the  Aymara  and  shortest  in  the  European. 

The  great  peculiarity  of  the  Aymara  foot  consists  in  the 
absence  of  the  considerable  protuberance  at  the  heel^  so  com- 
mon in  other  races^  and  which  appears  to  attain  its  maximum 
development  in  the  negro^  who^  consequently^  here  again^  as 
well  as  in  the  total  length  of  the  foot^  is  the  opposite  extreme 
when  compared  with  the  Aymara.  Another  curious  point  about 
it  is  that  a  greater  portion  of  its  total  length  is  placed  in  front 
of  the  leg  than  in  the  European^  as  will  be  seen  by  reference 
to  the  figures  in  No.  57,  which  are  respectively  98  and  93  thou- 
sandths, although  the  sole  of  the  foot  is  as  137  to  148  thou- 
sandths, and  consequently  much  longer  in  the  European  than 
in  the  Aymara.  The  Aymara  and  Negro  are  again  the  two 
extremes  when  the  total  length  of  the  foot  is  compared.  Coming 
now  to  the  details  of  the  trunk,  which  is  so  large  in  the  Aymara 
when  compared  with  his  stature,  we  also  find  that  it  is  divided  in 
very  different  proportions  between  the  thoracic  and  abdominal 
regions  than  in  either  the  white  or  the  black  man ;  and  what 
specially  deserves  attention  is,  that  the  region  of  the  chest  occupies 
a  much  larger  portion  of  the  whole  both  in  height  and  bulk,  thus 
giving  a  vastly  greater  space  for  the  development  of  the  respira- 
tory organs. 

If  the  height  of  the  side  of  the  chest  be  measured  from  the 
shoulder  down  to  the  lowest  rib,  the  numbers  given  in  No.  27  are 
228,  175,  and  179  for  Aymara,  European,  and  African,  whilst 
that  of  the  entire  trunk  from  the  seventh  vertebra  of  neck  to  the 
OS  coccygis  was  found  to  be  363, 347,  and  323  respectively.  These 
differences,  great  as  they  are,  are  however,  in  reality,  much 
greater ;  for  in  addition  to  the  mere  height  of  the  chest-region, 
its  two  diameters  must  also  be  taken  into  due  consideration ;  and 
as  the  circumference  of  the  Aymara  chest  when  measured  under 
the  same  conditions  of  health  and  respiration  was  always  found 
to  be  considerably  greater  than  in  either  the  white  or  negro  (in 
the  Table  No.  28  gives  the  figures  580, 518,  and  494  respectively) , 
it  naturally  follows  that  the  capacity  of  the  thoracic  cavity  must 
be  much  more  voluminous  in  the  Indian. 

*  When  making  my  first  measurements  of  an  Aymara  Indian,  who  died 
in  the  hospital  of  La  Paz  in  February  1860, 1  was  so  surprised  at  this  result 
that  I  got  Dr.  Lopera  of  that  city  to  verify  the  measurements ;  and  subse- 
quently, in  order  to  avoid  deceiving  mysel/,  I  obtained  in  several  other  in- 
stances the  assistance  of  Dr.  Cooke,  of  London,  then  residing  in  Bolivia.  The 
measiirements  of  the  thigh  were  all  taken  from  the  trochanter  major  to  the 
knee-jointHis  correctly  as  these  points  could  be  distinguished  in  the  living 
subject  by  the  touch. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


218  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

From  the  above  observations  it  will  be  perceived  that  the 
more  prominent  differences  in  the  configuration  of  the  Aymara 
Indian  from  that  of  the  European  or  Negro  consist  mainly  in 
the  greater  length  of  the  trunk,  the  enormous  development  of 
the  chest,  the  shortness  of  the  arms^  legs,  and  feet,  and  in  the 
great  differences  in  the  relative  proportions  of  the  parts  which 
make  up  these  several  members. 

The  inquiry  into  the  causes  which  have  brought  about  these 
abnormities,  ^they  may  so  be  called,  is  one  of  great  interest; 
but  this  I  must  leave  to  the  ethnologists  at  home,  contenting 
myself  with  having  furnished  data  upon  which  they  may  found 
their  explanations;  it  is  right,  however,  that  I  should  direct 
their  attention  to  some  points  which  cannot  but  have  a  strong 
bearing  upon  such  researches,  and  which  appear  to  throw  some 
light  upon  more  than  one  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  build  of 
these  Indians. 

It  must,  in  the  first  place,  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  Aymaras 
in  their  normal  condition  are  more  or  less  confined  to  the  high 
table-lands  of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  and  consequently  live  at  a 
greater  elevation  above  the  level  of  the  sea  than  any  known  or 
at  least  as  yet  described  race  of  people ;  and  as  the  air  at  such 
great  altitudes  is  extremely  rarefied*,  it  follows  as  a  natural 
consequence  that  it  would  require  a  larger  development  of  the 
lungs  in  order  to  take  in  an  amount  of  oxygen  at  each  respira- 
tion equal  to  the  volume  found  necessary  to  keep  up  the  same 
activity  of  circulation  at  the  level  of  the  sea ;  for  this  reason, 
therefore,  we  might  expect  to  find  the  region  of  the  chest  more 
prominent  in  a  race  living  under  these  exceptional  circumstances ; 
and  it  is  probably  from  this  reason  that  the  Indian  does  not 
suffer  from  the  so-called  Puna  or  Sorochif  which  so  frequently 

*  It  ifl  also  not  improbable  that  the  prominent  or  varicose  character  of  the 
surface  veins  of  the  legs  so  often  seen,  as  before  mentioned,  is  connected  with 
the  rarity  of  the  external  air  in  which  the  Indian  lives. 

t  The  affection  known  in  different  parts  of  Pacific  South  America  by  the 
names  of  Puna,  Sorochi,  Veta,  or  Marea,  appears  to  be  a  species  of  inflamma- 
tion of  the  lungs,  brought  on  by  over-exertion  in  working  tne  lungs  at  so  much 
quicker  a  rate  than  ordinarily,  in  consequence  of  the  very  attenuated  state 
of  the  atmosphere  at  these  elevations ;  and  this  is  necessarily  aggravated  hj 
the  exertions  attendant  upon  travelling  in  these  rude  countries.  Usually  it 
commences  with  more  or  less  severe  headaches  and  a  feeling  of,  as  it  were, 
swelling  of  the  head ;  the  sense  of  smelling  is  often  lost ;  and  the  symptoms 
occasionally  become  so  aggravated  as  to  end  in  death.  Three  instances  of 
Europeans  having  died  when  suffering  from  Puna  came  under  my  notice; 
amongst  these,  the  last  case  was  that  of  Lieutenant  Wallace,  who,  when 
crossing  the  Cordilleras  by  the  pass  of  Tinogasta,  was  taken  ill  at  an  elevation 
of  14,500  feet  above  the  sea,  and  died  on  May  2,  1809.  These  s3rmptQma 
anpear  to  be  much  aggravated  by  the  use  of  spirits,  often  taken  as  a  remedy, 
alUiough  in  reality  they  seem  to  augment  the  inflammation.  Onions  an 
universally  recommended  as  a  good  remedy,  both  for  man  and  beast ;  for  the 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  219 

attacks  the  white  traveller,  whether  European  or  South- Ameri- 
can, when  he  ascends  from  the  Pacific  coast  to  the  higher  parts 
pf  the  Andes,  and  which  even  when  he  has  become  in  a 
measure  acclimatized,  is  likely  to  attack  him  whenever  he  may 
happen  to  over-exert  himself. 

1  particularly  noticed  the  difficulty  in  breathing  and  distress 
of  the  white  (Hispano-American)  officers  in  the  Bolivian  infantry 
when  the  troops  happened  to  march  up  hill  or  somewhat  faster 
than  ordinarily,  whilst  at  the  same  time  the  soldiers  themselves 
(half-breed  or  nearly  pure  Indians)  would  be  quite  unaffected, 
and  those  in  the  band  of  music  would  be  blowing  away  lustily 
at  their  wind  instruments  without  apparently  the  slightest  in- 
convenience to  themselves. 

Although  several  outlying  colonies  of  these  Indians  are  seen 
situated  at  lower  altitudes,  it  may  be  considered  that  normally 
the  Aymara  Indian  is  not  met  with  below  8000  feet  in  elevation, 
but  that,  on  the  contrary,  he  is  only  truly  at  home  in  the  high 
plains  and  mountain-sides  ranging  in  height  from  10,000  feet 
up  to  the  very  line  of  perpetual  snow,  which  in  this  part  of  the 
world,  lat.  17°  S.,  may  be  regarded  as  about  16,500  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

On  descending  from  these  heights,  the  Aymara  Indians,  like 
their  llamas   and  alpacas^,  find  themselves  altogether  out  of 

mules,  when  taken  up  from  the  lowlands,  suffer  greatly  from  Sorochi,  and  the 
arrieros  have  a  practice  of  rubbing  the  mouth  and  nose  of  their  mules  with  a 
sliced  onion  when  at  high  elevations.  With  respect  to  myself,  I  seldom  suf- 
fered from  Puna  at  all,  and  never  to  any  extent,  except  upon  the  occasion  of 
the  ascent  of  Tacora  (Chipicani),  19,740  feet ;  but  I  occasionally  suffered  from 
a  sense  of  fulness  in  the  head  and  headaches,  and  felt  the  impossibility  of 
making  any  continued  exertion,  such  as  running,  without  being  often  pulled 
up  for  want  of  breath,  as  it  is  vulgarly  called,  having  to  sit  down  to  recover 
very  much  oftener  than  under  the  same  circumstances  at  a  lower  elevation. 
Tttchudi  considers  the  first  effects  of  Puna  to  commence  at  12,600  feet  eleva- 
tion ;  but  this  seems  dependent  on  the  state  of  health  of  the  individual  at 
the  moment,  as  well  as  on  the  locality :  whilst  I  never  suffered  at  all  under 
16,000  feet,  my  servant  was  on  one  occasion  laid  up  with  it  at  Palca,  only 
some  9000  feet  above  the  sea :  and  it  is  commonly  believed  in  this  part  of 
South  America  that  certain  localities  are  more  "  Assorochado  "  than  others. 
The  natives  believe  it  due  to  what  they  call  "  antimonies  "  or  metallic  exha^ 
lations ;  from  my  own  experience  I  found  that  I  suffered  from  Puna  only  when 
amongst  the  high  volcanic  ranges  nearer  the  western  coast,  and  never,  even 
at  equal  heights,  amongst  the  western  or  high  Andes.  Tschudi  mentions  its 
extraordinary  effects  upon  dogs,  and  relates  that  cats  cannot  live  at  these 
altitudes;  but  after  having  lived  three  years  at  about  16,400  feet  elevation, 
my  e^roerience  was  quite  the  contrary,  having  been  pestered  with  both  these 
animals,  who  seemed  to  thrive  well  wherever  man  hved. 

*  When  brought  down  to  the  coast  the  llama  or  alpaca  seldom  lives  any 
length  of  time;  and  as  the  main  trade  of  Bolivia  and  the  interior  is  princi- 
pally carried  on  by  llamas,  the  mortality  which  occurs  amongst  these  ani- 
mals after  descenmng  with  their  loads  nrom  the  heights  of  the  Andes  is  a 


Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


220  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

their  natural  element,  and  if  they  do  not  soon  return,  die  off  in 
large  numbers -in  climates  so  unsuited  to  their  constitutions. 
This  is  the  case  both  in  the  dry  regions  of  the  Pacific  coast  and 
in  the  humid  valleys  to  the  east  of  the  Andes.  On  the  Pacific 
side  the  pure  Indian  population  (which  is  not  at  all  numerous) 
of  such  provinces  as  Arica,  Tacna,  Tarapaca,  &c.  is  only  kept 
up  by  continued  fresh  arrivals  from  the  interior ;  whilst  in  the 
east  the  same  may  be  said ;  for  the  great  mortality  amongst  the 
Aymara  Indians  who  are  induced,  now  by  high  pay  but  formerly 
by  compulsion,  to  descend  from  their  hills  in  order  to  work  at 
the  coca  plantations  of  Yungas,  the  gold- workings  of  Tipuani, 
or  the  quinine-bark  trade  of  the  eastern  forests,  affords  ample 
evidence  of  how  unfitted  they  are  to  inhabit  these  lower  regions : 
as  a  rule,  but  an  extremely  small  percentage  of  such  colonists 
survive  their  transplantation. 

In  order  to  examine  whether  the  descendants  of  such  Ay- 
mara colonists  differed  or  not  in  appearance  and  proportions 
from  the  normal  Indian  of  the  highlands,  I  made,  in  1861  and 
1862,  journeys  to  the  Tipuani  and  Yuugas  districts,  to  the 
foot  of  the  high  Andes  in  the  department  of  La  Paz,  in  Bolivia, 
and  was  so  fortunate  as  to  obtain  measurements  of  two  indivi- 
duals who,  as  well  as  their  fathers  before  them,  had  been  bom 
in  these  lower  tropical  regions.  These  measurements  are  given 
in  full  detail  in  the  Appendix,  Table  A ;  but  for  the  purpose  of 
comparison,  the  proportional  numbers,  which  alone  are  intro- 
duced in  the  former  table  (p.  213)  are  more  convenient  for 
reference,  as  they  show  at  a  glance  that  the  proportions  of  at 
least  several  members  of  their  bodies  have  already  experienced 
a  considerable  change  from  what  they  were  in  the  parent  stock, 
as  before  explained. 

These  Indians,  besides  being  as  a  rule  somewhat  taller  men, 
appear  to  have  lost  very  much  of  their  massive  build,  and 
become  more  slender  and  flexible  in  their  forms  and  move- 
ments, whilst  the  colour  of  their  skins  had  lost  all  shade  of  red, 
and  assumed  a  yellowish  brown,  a  very  different  and,  at  the  same 
time,  less  healthy-looking  tint. 

1 

very  serious  item  in  the  cost  of  transport  Of  late  years  this  has  heen  con- 
siderahly  reduced  by  the  establishment  of  stations  like  those  at  La  Portada, 
Palca,  sc,  situated  at  the  commencement  of  the  descent  from  the  Bolivian 
table-land,  where  the  llamas  stop  and  deliver  up  their  ciurffoes  to  mules,  who 
take  them  down  to  the  Pacific  harbours,  and  vice  versd,  Tne  original  alpacas 
which  were  brought  by  Mr.  St.  Leger  from  the  Bolivian  highlands  at  Chul- 
luncajani  to  the  coast  of  Chili,  notwithstanding  that  several  years  were  occu- 
pied m  driving  them  that  distance,  in  order  to  acclimatize  them  gradually, 
aU  di»*d  off  on  the  road,  so  that  those  which  eventually  were  shipped  off  to 
Australia  from  Caldera  were  already  of  the  second  and  third  generation  from 
the  stock  started  with  from  the  highlands. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  221 

Prom  the  Table  it  Avill  be  seen  that,  in  the  case  of  the  lowland 
Indian,  the  division  of  the  stature  or  entire  height  made  by  the 
length  or,  rather,  height  of  the  lower  extremities  or  legs,  re- 
mained the  same  as  before,  being  still  500  thousandths,  or 
exactly  one-half  of  the  stature,  but  that  the  trunk  did  not  now 
take  up  so  much  of  the  other  half;  for,  if  the  measurement 
No.  35  be  referred  to,  it  is  seen  to  be  only  231  instead  of  267 
thousandths  in  the  highland  Indian ;  and  of  this,  again,  the 
chest-region  did  not  occupy  so  great  a  proportion  as  before,  as 
will  be  seen  on  referring  to  the  measurements  Nos.  24  and  25. 

Although  the  length  of  the  arm  was  not  found  to  differ  much, 
the  distance  measured  between  the  finger-tips,  when  the  arms 
were  held  out  horizontally  (No.  2),  was  somewhat  greater  in 
*  the  lowland  Indian ;  but,  as  is  seen  from  measurement  No.  21, 
this  was  in  reality  due  to  the  greater  breadth  across  the 
shoulders,  as  also  was  the  case  between  the  nipples  of  the 
breast  and  across  the  pelvis;  in  the  lowland  Indian,  however, 
this  increased  breadth  was  accompanied  by  a  decrease  in  width, 
for,  although  not  shown  in  the  Table,  the  body  of  the  highland 
Aymara  was  much  wider  from  back  to  front  than  that  of  the 
colonist. 

The  relations  between  the  lengths  of  the  component  members 
of  the  entire  arm  did  not  seem  to  have  undergone  much  change, 
being  as  follows : — 

39,  upper  arm.  42,  forearm. 

Highlander 179  148 

LowLinder  179  146 

but,  in  the  case  of  the  leg,  the  diflTerence  was  much  more  pro- 
nounced, being — 

48,  thigh.         53,  leg.  59,  foot.        k,  total. 

Highlander 211  252  37  500 

Lowlander  2^0  227  43  490 

which  shows  that,  although  the  thigh  in  the  lowland  Indian 
still  continues  to  be  somewhat  shorter  than  the  leg,  it  is  so  in  a 
very  much  less  proportion  than  in  the  highland  Aymara,  or,  in 
other  words,  it  much  more  approaches,  or  has  returned  to,  the 
proportions  usual  in  other  races. 

The  foot  also,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  measurements  Nos.  56, 
57,  and  58,  has  undergone  an  equally  great  change ;  for  it  has 
now,  in  the  lowland  Indian,  become  proportionately  both  longer 
and  broader  than  before ;  besides  which,  the  back  of  the  foot 
has  become  shorter  if  measured  from  the  tip  of  the  great  toe  to 
the  Ic^,  and  consequently  the  heel  has  become  more  prominent 

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46,  band. 

1,  total 

108 

435 

107 

432 

222  Davii)  F0RBE8 — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

than  in  the  foot  of  the  highland  Aymara,  in  which,  as  before 
observed,  it  is  very  slightly  pronounced*. 

To  place  too  much  reliance  upon  figures  derived  from  the 
measurements  of  only  two  individuals  would  not  be  prudent ; 
yet,  when  these  are  taken  in  conjunction  mith  the  general 
appearance  of  the  Aymara  Indians  of  the  lowlands  as  a  whole, 
it  seems  to  me  not  only  all  but  certain  that  we  have  here 
very  confirmatory  evidence  that  the  remarkable  configuration 
of  the  highland  or  normal  Aymara  must  be  in  great  measure 
dependent  upon  local  circumstances,  more  particularly  those  of 
climate  and  elevation  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  but  also  that  we 
have  strong  proofs,  when  these  circumstances  again  become 
changed,  that  the  relative  proportions  of  the  body  may  again 
return  in  their  dimensions,  so  as  to  approximate  more  closely  ' 
to  those  found  in  other  races  of  men  living  under  similar  and 
more  ordinary  conditions. 

The  mixed  race  of  Aymara  and  white  have  always  been 
derived  from  the  intercourse  of  Indian  women  with  men  of 
Spanish  extraction ;  and  although  in  external  appearance  they 
may  be  regarded  as  an  improvement  upon  the  Indian,  my  belief 
is  that,  in  moral  character  at  least,  the  Cholada,  as  they  are 
called  on  the  Pacific  coast  {cholo,  man;  chola,  woman),  are,  if 
any  thing,  inferior  to  either  of  their  parents,  from  having  re- 
tained most,  if  not  all,  the  vices  of  both  with  but  very  few  of 
the  virtues  of  either  race. 

I  now  regret  that  I  did  not  avail  myself  of  the  opportunities 
afforded  me  for  obtaining  a  series  of  measurements  of  the  mixed 
races ;  but,  judging  from  their  external  appearance,  I  should  ima- 
gine that  the  chest-  and  trunk-region  were  longer,  and  the  ex- 
tremities shorter  than  in  the  white,  although  probably  not  so 
much  so  as  in  the  pure  Indian.  The  general  features  of  the 
half-caste  are  usually  more  Indian,  and  generally  more  pro- 
nouncedly so  in  the  man  than  in  the  woman.  Occasionally 
pretty,  and  sometimes  even  handsome,  half-caste  women,  as 
well  as  men,  may  be  met  with;  and  they  often  become  very 
corpulent,  which  is  never  the  case  with  the  pure  Indiioi. 

*  The  measurements  made  on  several  individuals  pertaining  to  the  Tacana 
and  Muchani  tribes  of  Indians,  to  the  east  of  Aymaras,  who  innabit  the  lower 
tropical  slopes  of  the  Andes  looking  towards  Brazil,  as  also  of  the  P^uenche 
Indians  of  the  Pampas  of  the  Argentine  Confederation,  showed  that  tiiese 
races  were  not  characterized  by  any  of  the  remarkable  peculiarities  of  the 
Avmara  configuration,  such  as  the  great  length  of  body  and  cheat,  shortnesa 
of  extremities,  absence  of  heat,  &c. ;  and  measurements  of  the  bones  of 
mummies  taken  out  of  graves  near  Arica  and  Pisaqua,  on  the  Padfic  coast  of 
Peru,  proved  that  in  these  instances  the  thigh  could  not  have  been  shorter 
than  tlie  leg,  since  the  femur,  when  measured  from  its  lower  extremity  to 
the  tip  of  the  trochanter  major,  was  always  longer  than  the  tibia. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  228 

The  cornea  of  the  eyes  always  remains  yellowish  in  coloor ; 
and  they  usually  possess  but  very  little  hair  on  the  face  or  body, 
although  the  hair  of  the  head  is  extremely  abundant  and  long : 
it  is  of  a  dark  brown-black  to  black  colour ;  and,  although  not 
coarse  in  texture,  I  have  several  times  observed  that  it  appeared 
to  be  coarser  than  in  the  pure  Indian.  The  colour  of  the  skin 
is  seldom  darker  than  in  the  darker  inhabitants  of  southern 
Europe ;  but  on  the  body  I  noticed  that  it  was  not  unfrequently 
patchy  and  irregular  in  tint*. 

Although  no  great  reliance  can,  as  before  remarked,  be  placed 
on  the  statistics  of  the  population  of  these  countries,  it  appears 
to  me,  even  after  making  due  allowance  for  the  mortality 
amongst  the  half-castes  caused  by  the  interminable  civil  wars, 
which  have  lasted  ever  since  the  independence  of  Spanish 
America  was  secured,  during  which  the  mass  of  the  combatants 
were  drawn  from  this  class,  that  the  Cholada  or  mixed  race  do 
not  increase  in  numbers  in  such  proportion  as  they  might  have 
been  expected  to  do,  provided  they  had  really  been  inter  se  a 
fruitful  race. 

Without  being  able  to  advance  absolute  proof,  I  still  retain 
the  impression  that  the  half-caste  of  the  first  generation,  i.  e, 
those  resulting  from  the  intercourse  of  the  white  man  with  the 
pure  Indian  woman,  are  not  amongst  themselves  very  prolific, 
and  that  the  Cholada  are  really  but  a  floating  population  whose 
numbers  are  kept  up,  at  least  in  major  part,  by  the  direct 
offspring  of  the  white  man  and  Indian  woman,  and  of  both 
white  and  pure  Indian  with  the  half-caste  woman,  and  not,  as 
is  usually  imagined,  the  progeny  of  the  Indian  half-caste  with 
the  Indian  half-caste  t* 

It  seems  to  me  difficult  otherwise  to  explain  why  we  still 
meet  in  Bolivia  with  three,  as  it  were,  quite  distinct  races,  and  do 
not  find  any  complete  fusion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  country 
into  one  uniform  mixed  race,— or  to  understand  how  an  Indian 
tribe  like  the  Aymaras  could  have  retained,  as  it  were,  a  distinct 
and  separate  existence  all  but  unmixed  with,  and  apart  from,' 
either  the  Cholada  or  the  white  population  of  Bolivia  or  Peru. 

In  the  time  of  the  Spaniards  many  negro  slaves  were  intro- 
duced into  Bolivia ;  but  they  seem  to  have  quickly  died  out, 
owing  to  this  highland  climate  being  quite  unsuited  to  their 
constitutions,  so  that  it  is  now  very  rare  to  meet  with  half- 

*  Dr.  Haygarth,  of  La  Paz,  informs  me  that  in  the  nearly  white  crosses 
the  last  trace  of  Indian  blood  is  indicated  by  the  dark  colour  around  the 
nipples  of  the  breast,  and  anus,  and  in  a  black  line  or  groove  extending  from 
the  pubes  to  the  umoUicus  and  upwards,  in  children  of  both  sexes. 

t  What  I  have  seen  of  the  mulatto  or  ne^ro  half-caste  makes  me  inclined 
to  beHeve  that  this  is  fdso  the  case  with  tnem,  and  that  such  a  thing  as  a 
true  mulatto  or  half-breed  race  does  not  exist  in  actuality. 

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224  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

breeds  between  the  negro  and  Aymara ;  on  the  eastern  side  of 
the  Andes,  in  the  tropical  valleys  of  Yungas,  however,  I  have 
met  some  few  examples;  and,  to  judge  firom  their  appearance, 
they  seemed  rather  a  fine  race.  The  colour  of  the  skin  was  of 
a  rich  dark-brown  tint,  smooth,  and  glossy ;  the  nose  straight, 
and  the  features  rather  good,  yet  with  the  mouth  and  lips  much 
fuller  than  in  the  Indian ;  the  eyes  black  and  brilliant,  and  the 
whole  expression  intelligent  and  infinitely  more  animated  than 
in  the  Aymara ;  the  hair  glossy,  jet  black,  and  with  a  slight 
tendency  to  curl. 

On  the  Pacific  coast  are  to  be  seen  a  few  half-breeds  resulting 
from  the  intercourse  of  Chinamen  with  Indian  women;  and 
certainly  their  external  appearance  would  lead  to  the  conclusion 
that  they  were  far  from  being  an  improvement  upon  either  of 
the  parent  races ;  for  they  were  intensely  ugly,  both  in  features 
and  expression. 

The  Aymara  Indians  of  the  "Puna,''  as  the  highlands  of 
Bolivia  and  Peru  are  termed,  generally  enjoy  robust  health, 
and,  notwithstanding  that  they  are  exposed  to  a  very  trying  and 
severe  climate,  and  are  poorly  clothed,  lodged,  and  nourished, 
both  men  and  women,  as  far  as  I  could  learn,  frequently  attain 
to  an  advanced  age.  One  great  reason  for  this,  however,  is  that, 
owing  to  the  great  mortality  which  takes  place  amongst  the 
infants,  a  sort  of  natural  selection  asserts  itself,  and  only  the 
very  strong  children  survive  the  first  few  years  after  birth :  this 
is,  no  doubt,  also  the  cause  why  deformed  individuals  are  rarely 
or  ever  seen. 

There  seemed  to  be  but  few  large  families — very  seldom  more 
than  four  children,  and  more  often  less  than  that  number.  The 
infants  are  kept  to  the  breast  always  for  one  year,  and  frequently 
until  they  are  two  years  of  age,  and  are  swaddled  up  in  llama- 
wool  cloths,  and  bound  round  so  as  to  be  quite  unable  to  move 
their  limbs  in  any  direction;  in  this  state  they  are  carried 
about,  sbing  in  a  poncho  behind  their  mother's  backs,  as  with 
the  peasantry  in  some  parts  of  Ireland.  At  the  religious 
feasts,  when  women  as  well  as  men  usually  contrive  to  attain  a 
state  of  beastly  intoxication,  these  living  bundles  are  often  left 
lying  about  on  the  ground,  exposed  to  the  inclemency  of  the 
weather,  and  not  unfrequently  perish  before  their  wretched 
parents  come  to  their  senses.  On  the  morning  after  such  a 
feast  I  found  the  little  child  of  one  of  my  Indians  dead  from 
exhaustion,  after  having  been  left  out  in  the  rain  all  night;  and 
such  scenes  are  far  from  unconmion. 

In  some  districts,  particularly  in  the  provinces  of  Larccaja 
and  Mufiecas,  the  Indians  suffer  from  wens  or  goitre,  which 
-^ften  attain  a  great  size.    Amongst  the  inhabitants  of  Quiabaya 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  225 

and  Sorata  it  is  so  common  that  they  have  received  from  their 
neighbours,  not  so  affected,  the  nickname  of  ^'Ccotosos/' 
from  Ccoto,  the  Aymara  word  for  goitre.  Although  the  Cho- 
lada  as  well  as  the  pure  Indians  suffer  much  from  this  disease, 
I  did  not  hear  of  any  instances  in  which  whites  were  affected; 
yet  I  had  previously  found  it  common  enough  amongst  the 
white  inhabitants  of  the  province  of  Mendoza,  in  the  Argentine 
Confederation,  where  also  Dr.  Edmund  Day  informed  me  of  a 
case  of  an  infant  bom  with  decisive  symptoms  of  goitre.  Animals 
are  also  stated  to  be  affected;  and  Dofia  Toribia  Bemal,  of 
Sorata,  informed  me  that  she  had  an  instance  in  two  kids  born 
with  incipient  goitre. 

In  Bolivia,  dried  seaweed  from  the  shores  of  the  Pacific  is 
employed  in  the  cure  of  goitre.  In  March  1859  I  saw  large 
quantities  being  collected  for  this  purpose  at  Cobija,  and  for- 
warded some  300  miles  into  the  interior,  where  it  is  sold  at  the 
rate  of  4  Bolivian  dollars  per  arroba,  of  25  pounds,  or  about 
sixpence  per  pound.  The  employment  of  this  substance  in 
m^icine  is  remarkable,  as  showing  how  similar  results  may  be 
arrived  at  in  far  distant  parts  of  the  globe ;  for  it  is  quite  evident 
that  the  curative  properties  of  the  seaweed  are  due  to  the  iodine 
contained  in  it ;  yet  in  Europe  the  discovery  and  employment 
of  preparations  of  iodine  in  the  cure  of  goitre  are  comparatively 
of  but  very  recent  date. 

An*  epidemic,  known  as  the  "Peste,''  committed  terrible 
havoc  amongst  the  Aymara  Indians  of  Peru  and  Bolivia,  in  the 
years  from  1855  to  1858,  without  at  the  same  time  appearing  to 
attack  the  white  inhabitants;  I  understand,  from  Drs.  Hay- 
garth,  Cooke,  and  Lopera,  that  this  was  a  species  of  fever  closely 
allied  to  typhus,  and  raged  with  greatest  violence  during  the 
months  from  June  to  September.  It  was  accompanied  by  the 
appearance  of  spots  on  the  skin  of  the  body,  and  by  intense 
haemorrhage  from  the  nose  and  anus.  The  Indians  usually 
recovered  from  the  first  attack;  but  most  frequently  this  was 
followed  by  a  second  one,  to  which  they  generally  succumbed. 
Don  Pedro  Saientz,  of  Corocoro,  informed  me  that  he  believed 
he  had  saved  a  great  number  of  his  Indians  by  compelling  them 
to  bathe  daily  in  a  large  tank  of  water. 

Both  gonorrhoea  and  syphilis  are  known  amongst  the  Aymara 
Indians,  and  treated  by  themselves  without  foreign  medical  assist- 
ance. Their  treatment  of  syphilis  would  seem  to  be  attended  with 
success,  since,  although  it  is  known  to  be  common,  the  general 
health  of  the  Indians  appears  to  be  good,  and  I  have  never  met 
with  any  instance  of  an  Indian  disfigured  by  the  disease.  I  was 
informed,  on  good  authority,  that  these  Indians  employ  mercury, 
both  in  the  metallic  form  and  as  a  chloride  (calomel),  in  the 

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226  David  Forbes — On  the  Aynuara  Indians 

cure  of  the  disease,  and  that  they  now  procure  these  substances 
firom  the  apothecaries  or  merchants  (who  sell  mercury  to  the 
silver-amalgamating  establishments)  in  the  lai^e  towns ;  as  they 
are  also  acquainted  with  cinnabar,  which  in  several  parts  of  the 
country  is  found  in  the  native  state  as.  a  mineral  in  veins,  it  has 
been  surmised  that  they  may  also  employ  this  compound  of 
mercury  as  a  medicine. 

Some  of  the  medical  men  in  La  Paz  assured  me  that  the 
Aymara  Indians  who  chew  coca  are  not  salivated  by  mercurial 
preparations,  even  when  administered  in  great  excess ;  how  far 
this  is  correct  is  worthy  of  inquiry.  It  was  proposed  in  La  Paz 
to  employ  cocaine  to  prevent  salivation;  but  there  are  some 
doubts  as  to  whether  the  substance  so  called  really  represents 
the  true  active  principle  of  the  coca-leaf. 

It  would  appear  probable  that  syphilis  has  been  known  amongst 
these  Indians  from  a  very  early  period,  because  they  have  in 
their  language  a  name  for  this  disease  {" Cchaca^usu"  UteraUy 
translated  '^bone-disease'^  Huanti,  a  bubo),  because  they  are  ap- 
parently quite  familiar  with  its  treatment,  and,  lastly,  from  the 
occasional  occurrence  of  skulls  taken  out  of  graves  dating  from 
a  period  antecedent  to  the  Spanish  conquest,  on  which  may  be 
seen  depressions  or  scars  pronounced  by  several  medical  men  to 
have  resulted  from  syphilitic  caries  of  the  bone,  and  which  in 
two  instances  which  came  under  my  observation  afforded  proof 
that  the  disease  had  been  arrested  in  its  progress  and  new  bone 
formed  during  the  lifetime  of  the  individual. 

A  very  remarkable  circumstance  also  is,  that  the  Alpaca,  an 
animal  altogether  peculiar  and  confined  to  these  highlands  of 
Bolivia  and  Peru,  also  suffers  extensively  frx>m  a  disease  which, 
in  aU  its  symptoms  and  effects,  appears  to  be  identical  with 
syphilis  in  man,  and  which  is  treated  by  the  Indians  by  a  pre- 
cisely similar  mode  of  cure,  consisting  principally  of  inunction 
witli  mercurial  ointment.  Several  white  landed  proprietors  of 
Bolivia  and  Peru  with  whom  I  have  frequently  spoken  upon  this 
subject,  have  assured  me  that  the  prevalence  of  this  disease  is 
the  sole  reason  why  they  have  such  a  repugnance  to  occupying 
themselves  with  the  culture  of  alpaca  wool,  which  as  a  commer- 
cial speculation,  although  an  extremely  lucrative  one,  has  still 
been  left  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  Indians  themselves :  the 
mortality  amongst  the  alpacas  caused  by  the  disease,  when  not 
extremely  carefdly  treated,  is  said  to  be  very  great  indeed ;  and 
the  bones  of  the  diseased  animals  are  stated  to  be  affscted  by 
caries  exactly  as  in  man*^. 

*  The  question  whether  this  disease  may  hare  been  communicated  finom 
the  Alpaca  to  man,  or  vice  versd,  is  an  open  one.  It  is  well  known,  however, 
that  such  unnatural  intercourse  is  common,  and  that  under  the  Incaa  severe 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  227 

The  character  of  the'Aymaras  is  a  peculiar  one,  not  easy  to 
describe;  they  rarely  smile  or  laugh,  and  always  appear  to  be 
sad  and  serious,  reflective,  silent,  and  uncommunicative,  in- 
tensely suspicious  and  distrustful,  never  forming  attachments 
until  after  long  acquaintance. 

Although  they  are  patient  under  suffering  and  submissive  to 
the  laws  and  governing  powers,  they  at  bottom  possess  a  dogged 
determination  which  nothing  can  shake,  and  which  enables  them 
to  support  torture  and  even  death  rather  than  confess.  In  my 
own  experience,  I  have  seen  an  Aymara  Indian,  who  stole  a  mule, 
expire  under  the  lash  rather  than  reveal  where  he  had  concealed 
the  animal ;  and  in  former  times  many  an  Indian  has  been  tor- 
tured or  put  to  death  by  the  Spaniards  for  not  pointing  out  the 
localities  of  the  gold-  or  silver-mines  from  which  he  had  pro- 
cured these  metals. 

Impotent  as  they  know  thev  are  at  present,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  the  Indian  still  lives  cherishing  the  hope  of  one 
day  crushing  his  oppressors.  With  an  intense  hatred  to  the  white 
man,  he  has  if  possible  a  still  deeper  hatred  to  the  Negro,  al- 
though at  present  these  latter,  who  were  much  more  numerous 
under  the  rule  of  the  Spaniards,  have  since  the  independence  all 
but  disappeared  from  the  country,  or  at  least  from  the  highlands. 
Their  hatred  to  the  white  was  so  strong  that,  during  the  insur- 
rection in  1780  they  swore  to  destroy  even  all  the  white  animals 
in  the  country,  and  as  far  as  possible  carried  this  oath  into  effect. 

When,  however,  the  treatment  which  these  Indians  have  re 
ceived  at  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards  and  their  successors  is  re- 
coUected,  no  one  can  wonder  at  the  depth  of  these  feelings,  or 
be  surprised  at  the  influence  which  so  many  generations  of 
oppression  has  had  on  the  original  character  of  the  race. 

Secretiveness  seems  also  to  be  a  well-developed  trait  in  their 
character.  The  Indian,  except  possibly  on  his  feast-days,  looks  as 
if  reduced  to  a  state  of  the  most  abject  poverty,  if  one  is  to  judge 
from  their  clothing,  habitations,  and  mode  of  living.  They,  as  a 
rule,  hide  all  their  riches,  i.  e.  their  silver  or  gold,  generally  bury- 
ing it  in  earthen  pots  in  the  ground ;  and  as  the  Indians  rarely 
confess  before  death,  a  large  part  at  least  of  such  hoards  remain 
concealed,  although  not  unfrequently  such  "  tapadas,''  as  thej 
are  called  by  the  Spaniards,  are  come  upon  accidentally.  It  is 
also  well  known  that  after  the  battles  in  the  eternal  civil  wars 
of  Peru  and  Bolivia,  a  large  portion  of  the  arms  disappear,  hav- 
ing been  carried  off  by  the  Indians  and  concealed  by  them,  no 

laws  were  enacted  affainat  it.  Even  after  the  Spanish  conquest,  an  old  law 
not  permittinK  the  llama-drivers  to  start  on  their  joumevs  unless  accom- 
panied by  their  wives  was  retained  in  force ;  and  this  regulation  was  under- 
stood to  be  intended  as  a  safeguard  against  such  abuses. 

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228  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

doubt  with  a  view  to  their  ultimate  employment  against  their 
oppressors. 

The  amount  of  silver  so  buried  or  hidden  by  the  Indians 
must  be  enormous ;  for  they  rarely  part  with  any  silver  money, 
when  once  it  comes  into  their  hands.  In  later  yean,  when  the 
demand  for  the  wool  of  the  alpaca  became  so  great  and  the 
price  rose  proportionately,  the  amount  of  hard  cash  (Bolivian 
silver  dollars,  which  until  lately  were  the  only  currency  in  this 
part  of  the  world)  received  by  the  Indians  was  extremely  large ; 
and  as  the  major  part  of  it  at  once  vanished  from  circulation,  it 
has  been  calculated  by  well-informed  merchants  of  Tacna  and 
La  Paz  that  more  than  some  ten  millions  of  Bolivian  dollars 
must  in  the  course  of  but  comparatively  few  years  have  been 
hidden  away  by  the  Indians  of  the  highlands  of  Peru  and  Bolivia. 

The  Aymara  Indians  seem  to  have  a  natural  preference  for 
solitude;  and  it  is  strange  to  come  suddenly  upon  solitary 
Indians,  as  it  were  ruminating  for  hours  together,  when  unob- 
served, in  some  out-of-the  way  spot  in  the  mountains,  or  to  see 
the  Indian  women  sitting  crouched  up  the  whole  day  as  if  mo- 
tionless, on  the  top  of  some  heap  of  stones  or  other  elevation, 
herding  their  llamas.  Often  I  have  sent  an  Indian  to  watch  the 
mules  at  night,  and  found  him  in  the  morning  squatted  down  on 
his  haunches  with  his  knees  up  to  his  chin  and  his  arms  clasped 
round  his  knees  (in  almost  the  exact  position  of  a  mummy  in  an 
ancient  grave),  in  which  position  he  has  remained  all  night,  al- 
most without  moving,  more  than  to  renew  his  quid  of  coca- 
leaves. 

The  character  of  the  Aymaras  cannot  at  bottom  be  bad ;  for  it 
is  rare  to  £nd  any  of  the  greater  vices  much  developed  amongst 
the  pure  Indians :  murder  is  extremely  rare ;  and  thefk,  except 
of  a  very  petty  character,  is  not  common.  I  have  myself 
repeatedly  sent  Wge  sums  of  money  long  distances  in  charge  of 
a  single  Indian  on  foot,  but  never  had  occasion  to  repent  of  so 
doing — although  I  knew  of  an  instance  in  which  an  Indian  did 
murder  another  who  was  carrying  a  sum  of  money  from  Sorata 
to  the  gold-washings  of  Tipuani.  This,  however,  was  quite  an  ex- 
ceptional case  i  and  the  arrieros  who  travel  between  Tacna  and 
La  Paz,  and  other  parts  of  the  country,  often  with  large  amoimts 
in  money  and  gold  dust,  are  as  a  rule  never  molested,  even  du- 
ring the  civil  wars  which  are  the  curse  of  this  unhappy  country. 

As  servants,  the  Aymara  Indians,  to  judge  from  my  own  ex- 
perience, do  well  as  long  as  they  remain  in  their  own  district; 
but  if  taken  elsewhere  they  soon  get  homesick  and  run  away 
without  notice.  When,  however,  they  do  form  an  attachment  to 
their  masters,  they  are  reported  to  be  very  faithful,  and  more 
particularly  so  when  brought  up  from  youth ;  so  that  a  system 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  229 

of  purchasing  or^  rather^  kidnapping  young  Indians  is  common^ 
they  being  sent  to  the  coast  districts  or  to  distant  towns,  where 
they  are  bought  into  the  families  of  the  landed  proprietors  or  mer- 
chants. On  several  occasions  during  my  residence  in  Bolivia  I 
was  requested  by  firiends  in  Tacna  to  send  them  a  young  Indian 
boy  as  a  present,  which,  although  not  openly  permitted  by  the 
law,  is  still  often  done. 

Although  the  Aymara  Indian  the  moment  he  comes  into  con- 
tact with  or  is  employed  by  the  white  at  once  puts  on  an  expres- 
sion of  stolid  indifference  and  stupidity  far  from  real,  and  only 
moves  step  by  step,  so  as  religiously,  it  may  be  said,  to  do  the 
least  possible  amount  of  work  with  which  he  can  escape,  he 
is  far  otherwise  when  amongst  themselves;  for  there  he  is 
seldom  or  never  idle;  even  the  llama-driver  as  he  walks  along  side 
his  animals  always  has  his  distaff  in  his  hand,  spinning  coarse 
yarn  of  llama- wool  as  he  goes  along;  they  do  not^  as  many  other 
and  especially  North- American  tribes,  throw  all  the  burdens  on 
the  women's  backs ;  and  the  Indian  at  home,  although  never 
animated  or  merry,  is  apparently  sociable  and  probably  even 
amiable  in  his  family  relations. 

They  particularly  excel  in  walking,  and  can  keep  up  on  foot 
with  the  quick  walk  of  the  mule  for  a  long  time  and  distance. 
In  March  1860,  an  Indian  on  foot  accompanied  my  mule  at  a 
sort  of  trot,  for  a  distance  of  twenty-three  leagues  (69  miles)  in 
one  day ;  and  the  Indians  who  fetched  my  letters  from  La  Paz 
have  on  several  occasions  made  the  journey  to  and  fro  (a  reputed 
distance  of  60  leagues)  in  three  days,  during  which  their  only 
food  would  be  a  small  bag  of  parched  Indian  corn  and  another 
of  coca-leaves ;  the  post  from  La  Paz  to  Tacna,  a  reputed  dis- 
tance of  250  miles,  was  during  my  residence  in  Bolivia  regularly 
carried  by  a  single  Indian  on  foot  in  five  days.  I  have  reason, 
however,  to  believe  that  the  extraordinary  story  given  by  Dr. 
Scherzer,  of  the  Novara  expedition,  of  the  custom  said  to  be 
prevalent  amongst  these  Indians,  of  standing  on  their  heads 
after  such  long  journeys,  in  order  to  allow  of  the  blood  return- 
ing to  the  feet*,  is  somewhat  of  a  hoax  played  on  the  learned 
Doctor  when  in  Tacna;  and,  further,  I  am  also  inclined  ta be- 
lieve that  the  virtues  generally  attributed  to  the  use  of  the  coca- 

*  Bd.  III.  p.  849,  when  speaking  of  an  Aymara  guide  who  had  already 
marched  30  leagues  on  foot,  ne  adds,  '^  fiihlte  Herr  Campbell,  obschon  er  ein 
Tortreffliches  Thier  geritten,  echwer  ermiidet;  der  Fiihrer  dagegen,  nachdem 
er  sich  einige  Minuten  anf  den  Kopf  gestellt  und  ein  Glas  Brantwein  zu  sich 
genommenhatte,  trat  unverweilt,  ohne  waiter  auszumhen  die  Heimreise  an;'' 
and  remarks  further:  *^  £s  ist  dies  cine  eben  so  allgemeine  als  wunderliche  Si  tie 
der  Aymara-Indianer  nach  langen,be8chwerlichen  Marschen,um,  wie  es  scheint 
dem  Instincte  folgend,  der  gewaltigen  Andrang  des  Blutes  nach  uuten  zu 
mUdem." 


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230  Datid  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

leaf  are  very  considerably  exaggerated  in  most  of  the  accounts 
given  by  travellers  and  others,  both  because  I  found  by  expe- 
rience various  of  my  Indians  who  did  not  use  coca  to  be 
equally  good  walkers,  and  as  capable  of  enduring  fatigue  as  those 
who  habitually  indulged  in  it,  and  because  I  was  assured  by 
General  Belzu  (the  President  of  the  Republic  of  Bolivia,  and 
nearly  a  pure  Indian  himself)  that,  although  in  the  Bolivian 
army  coca  was  never  allowed  to  the  soldiers,  they  were 
quite  as  good,  if  not  better  walkers  than  the  average  of  the 
other  Indians;  and  as  a  proof  of  this  I  may  mention  that  when 
in  the  months  of  January  and  February  1860,  owing  to  a  num- 
ber of  almost  simultaneous  revolutionary  attempts  breaking  out 
in  different  parts  of  Bolivia  (La  Paz,  Oruro,  and  Potosi)  at  great 
distances  from  one  another,  the  walking-powers  of  some  of  the 
most  reliable  companies  of  infantry  were  severely  taxed  in  order 
to  repress  these  movements,  I  saw  the  first  battalion  of  the  Boli- 
vian army  arrive  in  Biacha  in  excellent  condition,  notwithstand- 
ing that,  upon  summing  up  the  lengths  of  the  different  marches 
they  had  made  during  the  previous  three  weeks  as  detailed  to  me 
by  Colonel  Flores  their  commander,  it  appeared  that  they  must 
have  maxched  on  an  average  during  this  period  something  like 
forty-five  miles  English  per  day ;  yet  their  entire  list  of  casual- 
ties only  included  one  man  who  had  dropped  dead  on  the  road, 
and  three  left  behind  from  illness. 

What  the  religion  of  the  Aymara  Indian  at  the  present  time 
is,  is  a  question  difficult  if  not  impossible  for  even  one  of  them- 
selves to  answer  definitely ;  it  seems  to  be  a  curious  and  con- 
fused jumble  of  their  ancient  Ijelief  with  some  slight  admixture 
of  Christian  doctrines.  Outwardly  the  Roman  Catholic  form  of 
worship  has  been  forced  upon  them  by  the  Spaniards  ever  since 
the  conquest,  the  infants  being  all  obliged  to  be  baptized  and 
named  after  some  saint  in  the  calendar,  whether  their  parents 
wish  it  or  not ;  and  consequently  the  white  inhabitants  regard 
the  whole  of  the  Aymaras  as  "  Indios  Christianos,''  in  contradi- 
stinction to  the  so-called  '^Gentiles  "  or  Pagan  Indians,  although 
it  seems  quite  certain  that  but  very  few  of  these  Indians  have 
any  clear  conception  of  what  the  Christian  religion  really  is. 

The  worship  of  the  Sun  does  not  seem  at  any  epoch  to  have 
played  a  prominent  part  amongst  the  Aymaras,  if  even  at  all 
acknowledged  by  them,  before  the  Incas,  after  their  conquest  of 
the  country,  introduced  this  form  of  religion,  and  built  temples 
on  the  islands  in  the  Lake  of  Titicaca  dedicated  to  the  sun  and 
moon.  The  sun  in  Aymara  is  called  Lupi,  not  Inti  as  among 
the  Quechuas  or  Inca  race;  and  in  some  of  the  old  Spanish  wri- 
ters it  is  expressly  mentioned  that  the  CoUa  Indians  were  neither 
allowed  to  enter  the  grand  temple  of  the  sun,  nor  to  assist  at  the 

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oj  Bolivia  and  Peru.  231 

ceremonies,  being  regarded  by  the  Incas  in  the  light  of  heathens. 
Idols  seem,  however,  to  have  been  common  with  them ;  but  it 
would  appear  that  these  idols  had  more  a  local  signification,  i,  e. 
were  regarded  more  as  the  guardian  saints  of  the  different 
districts  or  places  than  as  representing  the  universal  or  almighty 
God,  who  seems  to  have  been  at  all  times,  both  ancient  and  mo- 
dem, acknowledged  by  the  Aymara  Indians,  and  to  whom  they 
sacrificed  and  made  offerings,  especially  of  their  esteemed  coca, 
as  well  as  poured  out  libations  of  chicha,  both  of  which  latter 
customs  they  still  continue  to  keep  up,  in  out-of-the-way  districts. 
They  are  also  equally  firm  in  their  belief  in  the  existence  of  an 
evil  spirit  or  devil,  whom  they  appear  to  think  it  necessary  to 
propitiate  at  times,  and  call  by  the  names  of  Aucca,  Huantahualla 
or  Supay;  they  also  believe  in  several  attendant  or  administer- 
ing angels  of  the  devil,  one  of  whom  is  called  by  them  Cari- 
eari,  and  is  supposed  to  be  a  messenger  sent  by  the  devil  to  kill 
men  and  remove  the  fat  firom  their  bodies,  for  what  purpose, 
however,  I  could  never  get  them  to  explain. 

The  Aymara,  moreover,  acknowledges  the  immortality,  or  ra- 
ther the  existence  of  the  soul  in  the  next  world,  and  in  ancient 
times  always  buried  the  dead  along  with  a  supply  of  food  and 
sometimes  clothing  to  take  along  with  them ;  even  at  the  present 
day  Cortez  states  that  this  custom  is  kept  up  in  certain  districts 
of  Bolivia.  Under  certain  circumstances,  it  is  believed  by  them 
that  the  souls  of  the  dead  may  return  to  this  earth ;  and  it  is 
known  that  the  Indians  of  the  Puna  occasionally  put  an  end  to 
the  sufferings  of  their  relatives  when  about  to  die,  by  strangling 
them  with  a  rope,  under  the  impression  that  by  so  doing  they 
can  prevent  the  ghost  of  the  defunct  returning  to  this  world  to 
haunt  and  trouble  them. 

The  symbol  of  the  cross  (always  rectangular  and  equal-sided) 
is  very  common  on  the  ancient  Aymara  ruins  at  Tiahuanaco ; 
but  it  seems  to  have  been  used  only  as  an  ornament,  since,  not- 
withstanding that  they  now  employ  the  cross  as  a  symbol  of 
Christianity,  and  commonly  place  crosses  of  wood  in  a  conspi- 
cuous position  on  the  roof  or  at  the  eaves  of  their  houses,  on 
the  bodies  of  the  dead,  and  on  the  graves  afterwards,  they  appear 
to  do  so  merely  out  of  fear  of  the  Catholic  priests,  as  they  are 
always  ready  to  swear  by  the  cross,  (or  by  Jesus  Christ  or  the 
Virgin  Mary,)  yet  evidently  have  not  the  slightest  respect  for 
such  oaths,  which  they  never  scruple  to  break  when  convenient. 
In  order  to  make  an  oath  binding  on  an  Aymara,  it  is  customary, 
at  least  in  some  districts,  for  the  Alcalde  of  his  community  to 
lay  his  staff  of  office  on  the  ground,  and  then  make  the  Indian 
step  over  it  before  giving  his  declaration. 

As  a  remarkable  instance  of  how  in  a  perverted  form  some  of 

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232  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

the  doctrines  of  Christianity  may  become  grafted  into  the  pre- 
sent Aymara  belief^  I  may  mention  that  tibe  so-called  ''  Indio 
Christiano  **  of  the  Puna  of  La  Paz  still  believes  that  on  one  day 
in  the  year^  which  is  Good  Friday^  he  may  commit  any  crime 
short  of  murder  with  impunity ;  and  on  this  day  instances  are 
known  where  they  have  even  violated  their  own  daughters  in 
presence  of  their  mothers^  as  I  have  been  assured  by  a  trustwor- 
thy Indian  of  Omasuyos^  who  explained  at  the  same  time  to  me 
that  it  could  be  no  sin,  as  on  that  day  God  was  dead^  and  conse- 
quently could  not  possibly  on  the  next  day  remember  any  thing 
which  happened  the  day  before — ^rather  a  strange  application  of 
a  Christian  dogma ! 

When  Roman  Catholic  churches  have  been  built  in  this 
country,  it  has  not  unfrequently  been  found  subsequently  that 
the  Indian  masons  have  concealed  in  the  walls  or  in  the  altar  it- 
self small  idols,  as  if  to  put  the  church  itself  under  the  protec- 
tion of  their  ancient  gods  also.  The  small  idols  or  figures  found 
in  the  Indian  graves  seem  to  have  stood  in  the  same  relations  to 
the  Aymaras  as  the  Lares  and  Penates  or  household  gods  amongst 
the  ancient  Romans,  and  appear  to  have  been  kept  by  each 
family  in  their  huts. 

The  influence  exercised  by  the  parish  priests  over  the  Aymara 
population  is  an  extremely  powerM  one.  This  must  certainly  be 
attributed  more  to  a  sort  of  innate  sense  of  duty  inherited  from 
their  ancestors,  than  to  any  true  respect  for  the  present  priesthood, 
whose  morals  (or  rather  want  of  morals)  are  not  often  such  as 
would  engender  any  great  amount  of  reverence  for  their  cloth. 
This  power,  however,  too  often  exercised  to  bad  purposes,  al- 
ways seemed  to  me  to  be  founded  more  on  fear  than  on  any 
true  respect  or  love  for  their  spiritual  leaders. 

I  often  found  it  advantageous  to  avail  myself,  in  my  dealings 
with  the  Indians,  of  the  power  possessed  over  them  by  the 
priests.  On  one  occasion,  when  a  number  of  Indians  who  had 
agreed  to  carry  a  heavy  and  important  piece  of  machinery  up  an 
almost  inaccessible  path  to  the  mines  and  had  found  the  task  so 
difScult  as  to  have  at  last  abandoned  it  in  despair,  I  as  a  last  re- 
source appealed  to  the  parish  priest  to  assist  me,  which  he  did 
most  efl'ectually,  by  at  the  next  mass  ^ving  them  such  a  thun- 
dering sermon  in  Aymara,  in  which  he  threatened  them  with  all 
manner  of  pains  and  penalties  in  this  and  the  next  world,  that 
the  Indians  in  their  Mght  ran  out  of  the  church  and  did  not 
return  until  they  had  effected  my  object. 

Under  the  rule  of  the  Incas,  and  probably  even  from  a  much 
earlier  period,  the  religion  of  these  Indians  had  always  been  in- 
timately connected  with  their  fStes  or  religious  feasts;  and  a 
similarity  in  this  respect  no  doubt  greatly  facilitated  the  intro- 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  233 

duction  of  the  Roman  Catholic  form  of  Christian  worship 
amongst  them^  since  the  Indians  did  not  feel  that  there  was  any 
very  great  revolution  in  the  order  of  things  when  they  still 
were  allowed  to  retain  their  "  fiestas/^  which,  if  somewhat  ^tered 
as  to  date,  were  otherwise  more  changed  in  name  than  in  reality, 
and  most  prohably  still  retain  much  of  the  character  which  they 
had  even  before  the  Spanish  conquest. 

The  priests  were  on  their  side  only  too  glad  to  encourage  the 
Indians  in  these  tastes ;  for  they  soon  found  out  that  the  weak 
side  of  the  Indian  was  his  attachment  to  his  feasts,  for  which 
alone  he  can  be  induced  to  part  with  his  money,  which  otherwise 
he  would  only  continue  to  hoard  up,  grudging  even  the  most 
necessary  comforts  to  himself.  Encouraged  by  the  priests,  the 
Indians  of  many  districts  are  urged  on  to  a  rivalry  in  getting  up 
feasts,  one  more  magnificent  than  the  other,  all  of  which  natu- 
rally puts  money  into  the  pockets  of  the  priest  himself. 

The  impression  made  upon  my  mind  upon  first  witnessing  one 
of  these  feast-days  celebrated  by  the  Aymara  Indians  is  quite 
inefiaceable.  Arriving  in  the  evening  at  La  Paz,  in  Bolivia, 
after  a  long  and  wearisome  journey  of  seven  days  on  muleback 
from  the  Pacific  coast  of  Peru,  this  city  (of  about  70,000  inhabi- 
tants, of  which  some  40,000  are  Indians,  whilst  the  remainder 
consists  of  the  Cholada,  and  still  fewer  whites  of  a  rather  dusky 
tint  in  general)  seemed  to  me,  at  least  that  evening,  very  much 
like  some  of  the  older  towns  in  Southern  Spain.  Next  morning, 
however,  which  (unknown  to  me)  happened  to  be  a  feast-day,  my 
slumbers  were  broken  by  music  of  an  unearthly  but  certainly 
not  heavenly  character,  and  I  beheld  the  streets  filled  with 
troops  of  Indians,  men  and  women,  dancing  energetically  to  the 
accompaniment  of  numerous  drums,  pandean  pipes,  Indian 
flutes,  and  long  trumpets,  which  together  produced  a  most 
dolefal  and  monotonous  sound,  loud  enough  indeed,  but  hardly 
entitled  to  the  appellation  of  music.  The  Indians  themselves 
were  attired  in  the  most  grotesque  costumes :  many  of  the  men 
had  enormous  head-dresses  of  ostrich-  or  condor-feathers,  often 
dyed  of  various  colours,  some  erect  and  others  drooping  down  so 
as  entirely  to  conceal  the  head;  others  had  masks  representing 
the  heads  of  animals,  or  were  attired  in  the  hides  of  oxen  with 
the  horns  projecting  from  their  heads,  whilst  many  had  cuirasses 
made  of  the  skin  of  the  jaguar,  or  American  tiger,  as  it  is  com- 
monly called.  The  women  were  decked  out  in  all  their  finery ; 
and  many  had  enormous  bunches  of  flowers  himg  as  if  from  their 
ears,  but  actually  supported  by  being  looped  up  on  each  side  by 
their  pigtails  of  hair,  or  had  similar  pendants  of  oranges, 
lemons,  red-pepper  pods,  or  ring-shaped  cakes  iucrusted  with 
sugar. 

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234*  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

The  effect  altogether  was  most  extraordinary  and  surprising, 
especially  from  the  great  contrast  between  the  appearance  of  the 
Indians  themselves  and  the  almost  European  buildings  and  streets 
in  which  they  moved ;  for  it  seemed  like  a  dream  to  behold  them 
occupied  by  so  incongruous  a  population. 

In  the  vicinity  of  the  towns^  the  Indians  on  these  occasions 
usually  crowd  in,  and  pass  the  first  day  perambulating  the  streets 
with  their  music  and  dancing  before  the  various  churches  and 
in  the  squares  of  the  town ;  afterwards  they  generally  retire  to 
their  own  hamlets,  where  they  continue  their  diversions  during 
the  remaining  feast-days. 

These  diversions  are  kept  up,  without  any  interruption,  day  and 
night,  as  long  as  the  feast  continues,  or  until  the  Indians  literally 
drop  down  from  sheer  exhaustion  or  intoxication.  It  is  perfectly 
astonishing,  however,  to  observe  how  long  both  the  men  and  wo- 
men can,  hour  after  hour,  without  any  cessation,  keep  on  dancing 
round  and  round  like  lunatics,  whilst  all  the  time  not  a  smile 
can  be  perceived  on  their  countenances,  which,  on  the  contrary, 
never  indicate  the  slightest  trace  of  excitement  or  hilarity,  but 
retain  the  same  sad  and  melancholy  expression  characteristic  of 
their  features  in  their  most  serious  moods.  In  fact,  the  Aymara 
Indians  are  a  paradox ;  for  they  seem  to  amuse  themselves  with- 
out ever  appearing  gay,  and  to  dance  without  becoming  ani- 
mated. 

On  these  occasions  also  it  is  common  to  find  the  Indians 
burlesquing  any  new  fashion  which  may  come  into  vogue  amongst 
the  whites:  thus,  for  example,  when  the  use  of  crinoline  became 
introduced  amongst  the  ladies  of  La  Paz,  this  custom  was  imme- 
diately caricatured  by  Indians,  who  danced  at  their  feasts  in 
would-be  imitations  of  enormous  volume. 

The  name's  day  of  the  patron  saint  of  the  town  or  village  is 
always  kept  in  great  style  by  the  Indians,  who,  no  doubt,  recog- 
nize in  it  the  feasts  which  their  ancestors  celebrated  in  honour  of 
their  local  gods  or  saints.  Besides  the  usual  f^tes  common  to 
the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  some,  which  are  held  by  the  Indians 
under  the  auspices  of  the  priests,  appear  to  have  been  introduced 
into  the  calendar  after  the  Spanish  conquest,  no  doubt  for  the 
sake  of  securing  the  goodwill  of  the  Indians  and  facilitating  their 
adoption  of  Christianity,  by  allowing  them  to  hold  religious 
feasts  corresponding,  or  nearly  so,  to  their  ancient  ones.  This 
appears,  for  example,  to  be  the  case  with  the  '^  Fiesta  de  la 
Cruz,''  held  in  La  Paz  on  the  third  and  following  days  of  May, 
which  I  am  informed  is  not  known  in  other  parts  of  the  CathoUc 
world,  and  which  is  evidently  only  a  replacement  of  the  great 
feast  called  "  Aimoray"  held  in  this  month  by  the  Indians  before 
the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards. 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  235 

On  St.  John's  eve  it  is  usual  to  see  bonfires  lighted  on  the  hills^ 
and  even  in  the  streets  of  La  Paz ;  but  I  cannot  say  whether  this 
custom  has  been  introduced  by  the  Spaniards  or  was  prevalent 
before  the  conquest. 

The  three  days  of  the  carnival  are  a  great  time  amongst  the 
Indians  in  all  parts  of  the  country,  as  also  the  feast  of  Corpus 
Christi,  which  is  specially  celebrated  in  the  towns  by  the  erection 
of  huge  altars  in  the  plaza  or  before  the  churches,  covered  by 
coloured  cloths,  and  decorated  by  pictures  of  the  saints,  mirrors, 
bunches  of  firuit,  and  by  all  the  valuables  which  the  Indians  pos- 
sess or  can  borrow  for  the  occasion.  The  Indians  vie  with  each 
other  in  the  size  of  these  altars,  which  are  frequently  several 
stories  in  height,  and  occasionsdly  so  carelessly  put  together 
(being  constructed  only  of  wooden  poles  tied  together  with 
ropes  made  of  llama-wool)  that  they  tumble  down  during  the 
ceremony,  and  sometimes  cause  the  loss  of  life  in  their  ruins. 

The  Indians  themselves  make  great  preparations  for  these 
feasts,  which  may  be  regarded  as  their  only  luxuries ;  they  will 
not  part  with  money,  if  th^  can  help  doing  so,  except  in  the  pur- 
chase of  materials  for  the  decoration  or  brandy  to  be  consumed 
at  them.  Rich  Indians  have  been  known  to  spend  even  some 
hundred  dollars  for  fireworks,  and  they  pay  highly  for  the  fea- 
thers of  the  condor  or  ostrich  for  their  head-dresses, — as  much, 
for  example,  as  nine  dollars  for  a  jaguar  skin,  of  which  they 
make  their  ornamental  cuirasses  worn  in  the  dances. 

These  feasts  are  attended  with  great  drunkenness  and  im- 
morality^, and,  as  might  be  expected,  frequently  end  in  fights, 
in  which  sometimes,  but  very  seldom,  lives  may  be  lost.  In  the 
villages,  the  priest,  when  at  hand,  is  usually  appealed  to  in  such 
disputes ;  and  it  has  amused  me  to  see  the  summary  mode  in 
which  the  holy  (but  often  rather  unsteady)  man  administers 
justice,  by  laying  about  him  promiscuously  with  a  heavy  pair  of 
tapir-skin  reins,  or  any  other  thing  at  hand,  to  the  dire  confusion 
of  the  Indians  around. 

At  these  feasts  in  the  towns,  or  at  the  celebration  of  some 
national  event,  bullfights  are  occasionally  arranged  by  the  autho- 
rities of  the  district;  as,  however,  they  have  no  bull-rings,  the 
animals  are  simply  let  loose  in  the  square  {plaza) ,  and  allowed 
to  be  tormented  by  the  Indians,  without  any  further  ceremony 
or  precautions  being  taken  than  the  temporary  erections  which 

*  In  the  midflt  of  the  dances  men  and  women  are  frequently  seen  to  ex- 
change head-gear,  by  which  is  understood  a  mutual  arrangement  to  become 
partners  for  the  night  of  the  feast.  The  Indians,  however,  are  not  a  lascivious 
race  in  general,  aluiough  Dr.  Cooke  informs  me  that  this  was  due  only  to 
their  rarely  removing  their  garments  at  night,  sleeping  completely  clothed, 
and  usually  all  the  family  together,  on  the  earthen  noor  of  their  huts. 


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236  Dayid  Fokbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

most  of  the  dwellers  around  put  up  in  all  haste,  in  order  to  pro- 
tect their  doors  and  windows,  and  enable  them  to  look  on  in 
safety.  As  might  be  expected,  lives  are  often  lost,  when  the 
enraged  bulls  charge  at  the  Indians  and  Cholos,  who  irritate 
them  on  all  sides,  and  who  are  often  too  much  excited  by  drink 
to  take  much  care  of  themselves.  At  Achecache  and  other 
towns  in  the  Puna  it  is  common  on  these  occasions  for  the  Indians 
to  bring  forward  and  set  at  liberty  wild  animals,  such  as  vicufias, 
foxes,  viscachos,  wild  rabbits,  &c.,  the  smaller  animals  being 
placed  in  holes  made  in  the  groimd  and  loosely  covered  over 
by  stones,  which,  on  being  kicked  aside  by  the  bull  in  its 
charges,  allow  them  to  jump  out,  to  the  great  delight  of  the 
spectators. 

The  Aymara  Indian  is  extremely  superstitious,  and  is  a  firm 
believer  in  omens  and  witchcraft  *.  I  am  told  that  they  have  a 
custom,  similar  to  what  in  Europe  was  common  up  to  a  very  recent 
date,  of  making  small  images  of  clay  of  those  whom  they  wish  to 
injure,  which,  after  piercing  through  with  a  thorn,  they  leave  in 
some  out-of-the-way  place,  believing  that  the  individual  in  ques- 
tion will  then  suffer  as  long  as  the  thorn  remains  sticking  in  the 
effigy. 

They  also  have  the  idea  that  the  possessor  of  any  part  of  the 
body,  or  any  thing  pertaining  to  them,  can,  as  long  as  he  holds 
it,  exercise  an  influence  for  good  or  evil  over  them.  For  this  * 
reason  I  found  it  very  difficult  toobtain  samples  of  the  Indian 
hair  for  comparison.  This  was  more  particularly  the  case  with 
the  men,  who  could  not  be  persuaded,  like  the  women,  that  you 
might  like  to  keep  it  as  a  memento. 

To  cut  off  the  pigtail  of  an  Indian  is  one  of  the  heaviest 
punishments  which  can  be  inflicted  on  him.  On  two  occasions, 
in  which  this  was  done  for  theft,  the  Indians  offered  what  to 
them  was  a  very  large  sum  to  obtain  the  severed  pigtail  back 
again.  An  Indian  whose  hair  has  been  cut  short  is  always 
regarded  with  great  suspicion  by  his  comrades,  and  rarely 
admitted  afterwards  to  their  society  or  confidence.  In  like 
manner  I  found  it,  in  some  out-of-the-way  districts,  occasionally 
very  difficult  to  persuade  them  to  sit  for  their  photograph  or 
portrait,  as  they  always  retained  the  idea  that  the  possessor  of 
even  their  likeness  must  retain  some  power  over  them. 

When  the  Indian  is  about' to  commence  any  undertaking, 
such  as  building  a  house,  marking  his  llamas,  or  starting  upon 
a  journey,  he   always   puts  great  faith  in  what  he  considers 

*  It  occasionally  happens  that  individuals  supposed  to  practise  witchcraft 
have  been  put  to  death  with  terrible  tortures  by  the  Indians  of  the  remote 
districts.    This  is  also  the  case  amongst  the  Pampa  Indians. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  237 

good  or  bad  omens  (such  as  the  appearance  of  the  heavens,  the 
flight  of  birds,  dreams,  &c.),  and  usually  pours  out  a  propitiatory 
libation  of  chicha,  brandy,  or  even  water^  before  banning  his 
labours  *. 

When  the  Indians  in  1854  were  arranging  their  plans  for  a 
general  rising  against  the  whites,  one  of  them,  on  his  death-bed^ 
confessed  to  the  parish  priest  that  the  insurrection  had  been 
deferred  because  the  omens  had  been  unfavourable,  and  informed 
him  that  a  council  of  the  principal  Indians  had  selected  three 
llamas,  one  of  each  colour,  white,  black,  and  brown,  which  were 
respectively  intended  to  represent  the  white,  black,  and  Indian 
races,  and  had  forced  them  to  swim  across  the  river  Have,  which 
runs  with  a  rapid  current  into  the  Lake  of  Titicaca,  on  its  western 
side.  The  white  llama  got  across  all  right,  the  black  managed 
also  to  do  so,  but  was  so  exhausted  as  to  drop  down  dead  upon 
reaching  the  shore,  whilst  the  third,  or  brown  llama,  was  carried 
away  by  the  stream  and  drowned.  From  this  result  the  Indians 
had  drawn  the  conclusions  that  the  white  race  was  still  too 
powerful,  that  the  blacks  were  not  to  be  feared,  and  would  soon 
die  out,  but  that  the  Indians  must  wait  longer,  since  they  were 
not  as  yet  so  strong  as  their  white  masters.  The  outbreak  of 
the  *^  Peste'''  epidemic  soon  after,  and  the  great  mortality  caused 
by  it  amongst  the  Indians,  contributed  to  make  them  respect 
this  verdict. 

As  a  means  of  freeing  themselves  from  the  "  Peste/'  the  In- 
dians of  some  districts  (in  1857)  loaded  a  black  llama  with  the 
clothes  of  the  infected  persons,  sprinkled  them  with  brandy,  and 
then  turned  the  animal  loose  on  to  the  mountains,  in  the  vain  hope 
that  it  would  carry  the  disease  off  along  with  it. 

When  an  animal,  as  a  cow  or  llama,  is  killed  by  lightning, 
they  regard  it  as  a  mark  of  the  displeasure  of  Ood,  and  carry  the 
carcass  to  the  summit  of  some  neighbouring  hill,  where  they 
bury  it,  placing  along  with  it,  at  the  same  time,  an  earthen  jar 
of  chicha  or  aguardiente,  apparently  as  a  peace-offering  to  Ood. 

Upon  arriving  at  the  top  of  a  steep  hill,  the  Uamero,  as  the 
llama-driver  is  called,  commonly  places  a  stone  upright,  or  lean- 
ing against  the  side  of  the  hill,  as  a  token  of  thanksgiving  for 
having  arrived  so  far  with  his  llamas  without  their  having  been 
knocked  up  by  fatigue.  All  along  the  roads,  or  rather  tracks, 
especially  in  the  higher  and  little-inhabited  parts,  numerous 
heaps  or  cairns  are  encountered,  often  of  very  considerable  di- 

*  The  Indian  fishen,  before  commencing  operations,  drink  a  little  of  the 
water  with  reverence,  and  mutter  a  prayer.  When  rain  is  desired^  it  is 
said  that  they  often  make  little  images  of  frogs  and  other  aquatic  animalB, 
and  place  them  on  the  top  of  the  hills,  aa  a  means  of  bringing  down  rain  by 
propitiating  their  deities. 

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238  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

mensions  (where  loose  stones  are  abundant  in  the  yicinity) ;  these 
are  called  apachetas;  and  the  Indian^  when  he  passes  them^  in- 
variably adds  a  stone ;  and  if  he  has  his  quid  of  coca  in  his  mouthy 
he  takes  it  out  and  throws  it  against  the  cairn,  on  which  he 
occasionally  sticks  feathers  or  places  one  or  more  of  his  leather 
sandals,  and  mutters  some  words,  probably  a  prayer.  When 
he  passes  these  cairns,  the  Indian  is  sometimes  seen  to  pull  a 
hair  or  two  out  of  his  eyebrows  or  eyelashes,  and,  placing  them 
before  his  mouth,  to  blow  them  away  in  the  direction  of  the  sun, 
probably  as  an  offering.  As  these  cairns  or  apachetas  were  con- 
sidered remnants  of  Pagan  worship,  the  Lima  Council  pronounced 
against  them''^;  but  I  regard  them  as  originally  instituted  to 
mark  the  line  of  road. 

When  travelling  from  Tacna  to  La  Paz,  I  noticed,  on  the  Bo- 
livian side  of  the  Pass  of  Huaylillos  (14,650  feet  above  the  sea), 
numbers  of  small  erections,  put  together  with  loose  stones,  and 
upon  inquiry  was  informed,  by  the  arrieros,  that  these  were  put 
up  by  the  Indian  Uameros  when  descending  to  Tacna  with  their 
loads,  and  that  upon  their  return  they  examined  them,  in  order 
to  see  whether  they  still  remained  standing,  in  which  case  they 
regarded  them  as  proofs  of  their  wives  having  remained  faithful 
to  them  during  their  absence,  and  the  contrary  if  the  stones  had 
tumbled  down. 

Some  of  these  are  sketched  in  PI.  XXI.  fig.  2.  A  glance  at 
the  style  of  some  of  these  little  erections  makes  one  almost  fancy 
oneself  capable  of  distinguishing  between  the  characters  of  the 
men  who  had  put  them  up.  The  confident  husband  would  no 
doubt  content  himself  with  putting  one  or  two  stones  on 
the  top  of  one  another,  so  as  to  be  not  easily  displaced; 
whilst  the  anxiety  or  jealousy  of  another  would  be  likely  to  tempt 
him  to  still  further  risk  his  own  happiness  by  erecting  a  flimsy 
structure  in  two  or  three  stories,  very  likely  to  be  upset  acci- 
dentally. 

I  am  sorry  to  add  that  my  muleteer,  a  Cholo  or  half-breed, 
who,  by-the-by,  are  almost  as  much  hated  by  the  pure  Indians 
as  the  whites  themselves,  before  I  could  expostulate  with  him, 
backed  his  mule  purposely  so  as  to  kick  over  a  number  of  these 
little  structures,  remarking  with  malicious  delight, '' Won^t  there 
be  a  row  when  those  fellows  get  home  again.'' 

The  Aymara  Indians  celebrate  the  birth  of  an  infant,  as  also 
marriages,  but,  curiously  enough,  appear  (although  they  have 
the  verb  marmasifia,  from  marmi,  a  woman)  to  have  no  word  in 
their  language  to  signify  the  act  of  marriage,  and  always  use  the 
Spanish  substantive  "  casamiinto  "  and  the  verb  "  casdr"  putting 
to  the  latter  an  Aymara  termination,  thus: — '^ ccLsarasina,  to 
*  EI  Concilio  Limense  segundo,  in  su  parte  2*,  capitiilo  20. 

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o/  Bolivia  and  Peru.  289 

marry  oneself;  '^ casararla/^  to  marry  one  to  another,  i.e.  per- 
form the  ceremony  of  marriage ;  and  casarayarla,  to  make  to 
marry,  or  give  in  marriage. 

Although  the  ancient  Aymaras  had  their  fiemaily  or  tribal 
places  of  burial,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  islands  of  Lake  Titicaca, 
Caranhas,  &c.,  the  Indian  at  present  seems  to  be  quite  indif- 
ferent as  to  where  a  corpse  may  be  buried,  interring  it  anywhere 
most  convenient,  and  not  troubling  themselves  to  transport  it 
any  distance  for  the  sake  of  burying  it  in  holy  ground.  In  the 
various  instances  which  I  have  witnessed  they  place  the  corpse, 
in  its  clothes,  lengthways  in  an  ordinary  grave,  dug  out  appa- 
rently in  any  convenient  direction,  the  hands  being  tied  (at  the 
wrist)  across  the  breast,  and  a  cross,  made  of  a  couple  of  twigs 
tied  together,  placed  on  the  body.  On  the  grave  itself  a  simple 
wooden  cross  is  placed,  probably  only  out  of  deference  to  the 
priests. 

In  ancient  times,  however,  the  position  of  the  body  in  the 
tomb  {chulpa  or  kuaca)  or  grave  was  always  that  which  the 
infant  had  originally  occupied  in  its  mother's  womb,  the  knees 
being  drawn  up  to  the  chin  and  the  arms  placed  crosswise  over 
the  breast — the  whole  usually  sewed  in  a  species  of  sack,  gene- 
rally made  of  a  species  of  grass  {ichu)  or  of  reeds  {Totora) 
sewn  together.  In  the  chulpas  at  Carahuara  in  Caranhas,  I  was 
informed  by  Messrs.  Bode  and  Savalla  that  the  mummies  there 
are  all  found  in  baskets,  and,  curiously  enough,  have  invariably 
a  stone  about  5  inches  in  length  placed  in  ano.  In  some  parts 
the  chulpas  are  square  towers,  about  14  feet  high,  and  from 
7  to  8  feet  on  each  side,  btdlt  of  unbumt  sun-dried  clay,  tem- 
pered with  straw;  those  at  Palca  had,  I  found,  their  sides  placed 
in  the  direction  of  the  cardinal  points  of  the  compass ;  at  many 
other  parts,  as  in  Caranhas  and  around  the  Lake  of  Titicaca, 
they  are  built  of  stone,  and  round  as  weU  as  square  in  shape ; 
several  of  these  have  been  figured  and  described  by  Mr.  Squier 
in  his  memoir  on  the  primeval  monuments  of  Peru*  • 

High  up  on  the  sides  of  the  mountain  Illampu,  more  com- 
monly known  as  the  Nevado  de  Sorata  I  found  (in  1861),  at 
Marcomarcani,  at  an  elevation  of  more  than  16,000  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea,  two  graves  within  a  few  feet  of  one  another, 
on  a  narrow  ridge  connecting  two  great  spurs  of  this  mountain ; 
both  of  these  were  about  4  feet  deep,  quite  empty,  and  lined 
with  stone  waUs  neatly  put  together :  the  one  had  a  direction 
nearly  east  and  west,  was  3  feet  8  inches  long  and  I  foot  8  inches 
wide  in  the  centre,  but  tapered  to  each  end,  which  was  only  15 
inches  wide;  the  direction  of  the  other  was  about  north-east 

*  The  American  Naturalist,  vol.  iv.  1870. 

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240  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

and  soath-west,  and  its  shape  a  rectangle  5  feet  long  by  1  foot 
in  breadth.  No  tower  or  other  erection  appeared  to  have  marked 
their  site. 

OecasionaUy^as  in  the  island  of  Quebaya^in  the  Lake  of  Titacaca 
and  elsewhere  in  that  district^  the  chnlpas  or  burial-towere  have 
two  or  even  more  stories^  as  if  the  chamber  in  each  story  was 
intended  for  the  interment  of  a  different  member  of  the  same 
family.  In  some  districts^  as  in  Caranhas,  these  monuments 
are  so  abundant  as  even  to  form  what  might  be  termed  villages 
of  the  dead.  Many  of  these  graves  have  been  opened  and  ran- 
sacked for  the  gold  and  silver  articles  which  they  so  often  con- 
tain, as  it  was  the  general  custom  to  bury  along  with  the  corpse 
articles  of  pottery,  wood,  and  metal,  especially  small  imagea  or 
figures  of  men  and  animals  made  of  gold,  silver,  or  copper.  A 
gold  ornament,  represented  in  PL  XXI.  fig. .  1,  evidently  in- 
tended to  be  worn  round  the  neck,  was  found  in  a  chulpa  near 
Corocoro,  along  with  a  silver  spoon-shaped  ornament  called  a 
"  pichi  '^  (PI.  XXI.  fig.  11) ,  such  as  at  present  are  worn  by  almost 
all  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  Pacific  coast  down  to  Araucania ; 
mace-heads  of  magnetic  oxide  of  iron  occurred  in  some  of  these 
tombs ,-  but  the  most  curious  article  which  came  under  my  notice 
during  my  residence  in  the  country  was  the  small  solid  silver 
image  represented  in  fiill  size  in  PI.  XX.  figs.  1  a  and  b.  This  was 
placed  in  my  hands  by  M.  Ramon  Doux,  who  took  it  out  of  a 
chulpa  in  Caquinhora,  about  four  leagues  from  Corocoro,  in  the 
department  of  La  Paz,  Bolivia.  What  makes  this  figure  ex- 
tremely interesting  is  the  fact  that  it  has  in  its  left  hand  what 
appears  to  be  a  telescope,  or  rather  a  tube,  evidently  intended 
to  assist  the  vision,  since  the  one  end  of  it  is  held  to  the  eye, 
whilst  the  other  is  apparently  directed  to  the  heavens.  Although, 
like  the  rest  of  the  figure,  this  part  also  is  of  solid  silver,  and 
not  really  tubular,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  was  in- 
tended to  represent  a  tube,  since  the  outer  end  is  hollowed  out. 
The  right  hand  of  the  figure  holds  a  mask,  as  if  this  had  been 
just  removed  from  the  face  in  order  to  permit  of  the  telescope 
being  brought  up  to  the  eye.  The  features  and  proportions  of 
this  figure,  the  aquiline  nose,  long  body,  short  thigh,  and  long 
legs,  are  quite  characteristic  of  the  Aymara ;  the  peculiar  head- 
dress may  possibly  indicate  the  rank  of  chieftain  or  priest,  whilst 
the  instrument  held  to  the  eye  would  indicate  that  the  use  of 
some  such  tubular  arrangement  to  assist  the  vision  was  known 
to  these  Indians  at  a  very  early  period. 

The  custom  of  burying  things  with  the  dead  was  carried  on 
long  after  the  Spanish  conquest,  and  is,  as  before  mentioned, 
not  altogether  extinct  in  the  present  day.  A  wooden  chicha 
cup  given  to  me  by  Mr.  Thackeray,  who  obtained  it  fix)m  an  old 


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Fi^4. 


AVMARA         IMAGES.       POTTCHY        tc. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  241 

tomb  near  Piino,  on  Lake  Titicaca^  is  inlaid  with  figures  painted 
like  mosaic^  in  red^  green^  and  yeliow^  evidently  representing 
the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards  in  their  vessels ;  and  another  wooden 
cnp^  also  in  my  possession^  of  probably  much  more  recent  date^ 
has^  standing  up  inside  from  the  bottom^  rude  projecting  figures 
of  the  heads  of  two  oxen  yoked  together^  and  is  the  only  ex- 
ample of  one  turned  in  a  lathe  which  I  have  seen  in  any  of  the 
graves.  Both  of  these  must  naturally  have  been  made  subse- 
quently to  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards^  who  first  brought  homed 
cattle  and  turning-lathes  into  Peru.  These  chicha-cups  were 
apparently  filled  and  emptied  by  those  at  the  funeral  to  the  me- 
mory of  the  dead^  and  then  thrown  into  the  grave.  They  are  , 
venr  commonly  found  of  pottery  also. 

It  is  now  a  matter  of  (Ufficulty^  if  not  an  impossibility,  to  tell 
with  any  certainty  what  the  dress  of  the  Aymara  Indian  was 
before  tne  Spanish  conquest.  The  only  article  of  costume  which 
is  without  doubt  of  thoroughly  ancient  origin,  is  the  woollen 
poncho,  which  appears,  however,  to  have  been  in  general  use 
amongst  all  the  South- American  tribes  on  the  Pacific,  from  New 
Oranada  down  to  Araucania,  even  from  the  oldest  times ;  all 
the  other  articles  of  clothing  at  present  employed  by  these 
Indians  are  of  much  more  douotful  origin. 

In  the  Aymara  highlands  the  men  wear  on  their  heads  a  large- 
brimmed  hat,  made  (apparently  felted)  of  llama  wool,  or,  pre- 
ferablv,  vicuna  wool,  of  the  natural  colour  of  the  animal.  Under 
this  they  generally  have  one  or  even  more  knitted  woollen  caps, 
like  old-fashioned  night-caps.  As  before  mentioned,  the  Aymara 
has  no  care  for  his  feet,  however  inclement  the  weather  may  be ; 
but  he  takes  every  care  of  his  head,  often  placing  two,  and  I 
have  even  seen  at  times  three,  of  such  woollen  caps  one  over  the 
other.  Sometimes  these  are  made  so  as  even  to  reach  over  the 
face,  leaving  orifices  for  the  eyes,  nose,  and  mouth;  such  I 
have  seen  occasionallv  in  Norway  or  the  Welsh  Mountains. 
The  body  is  protected  by  a  coarse  shirt  of  unbleached  white 
llama  or  sheep's  wool,  whilst  the  legs  are  clothed  in  a  sort  of 
breeches  or  drawers  made  of  black  or  white  llama  wool,  which 
reach  down  to  the  knees,  below  which  the  leg  is  nearly  always 
bare,  the  sole  of  the  feet  alone  being  protected  by  a  sandal, 
called  cjota  or  usuta,  of  leather,  usually  made  from  the  skin  of  the 
neck  of  the  llama,  which,  together  with  the  thongs  which  hold  it 
on,  is  cut  out  of  one  piece.  Stockings  are  rarely  seen,  even  among 
the  well-to-do  Indians,  and,  when  used,  generally  have  no  feet, 
reaching  but  to  the  ankle.  Over  all  is  the  universal  poncho, 
generally  only  a  square  piece  of  cloth  of  undyed,  usually  black, 
Uama  wool,  with  a  slit  in  the  centre  to  put  the  head  throuojli. 
The  Uamcros  commonly  carry  in  their  hand  a  short  wooden 

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242  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

whip,  the  handle  of  which  ia  somewhat  ingeniously  inlaid 
diagonally  with  strips  of  lead,  which  look  like  silver,  and  makes 
it  extremely  heavy  and  almost  as  formidable  as  a  life-preserver*. 

The  women,  when  at  home,  go  about  bareheaded,  their  long 
black  hair  being  plaited  into  two  pigtails,  which  hang  down  one 
on  each  side  of  the  back.  Next  the  skin  they  wear  a  chemise 
of  wool  or  cotton,  over  which  from  the  waist  downwards 
hangs  a  short  petticoat,  made  of  thick  woollen  stuff,  black  or 
deep-blue  in  colour.  Across  the  shoulders  they  throw  an  oblong 
piece  of  coarse  black  llama-wool  serge  or  of  baize,  which  is  dyed 
of  the  brightest  colours,  as  orange,  red,  yellow,  blue,  or  green, 
and  fastened  in  front  with  the  ''pichi,^'  a  sort  of  spoon- 
shaped  ornament  usually  made  of  silver.  Two  of  these  are  often 
seen,  one  on  each  side  of  the  breast,  sometimes  of  very  great 
dimensions ;  the  handles,  being  pointed,  serve  as  bodkins,  whilst 
the  other  end  or  bone  is  very  commonly  used  as  a  spoon  when 
eating.  This  ornament  is  not  confined  to  the  Aymaras,  being 
used  by  most  of  the  Indian  races  of  Western  South  America^ 
and  is  shown  in  PI.  XXI.  fig.  II. 

The  women  are  nearly  always  barefooted,  being  but  rarely 
seen  with  stockings  or  with  sandals  like  the  men. 

Like  the  fair  sex  in  many  more  civilized  countries,  the  Aymara 
women  seem  to  consider  it  a  special  beauty  to  appear  more  than 
ordinarily  massive  about  the  launches,  notwithstanding  that 
naturally  they  are  far  from  being  deficient  in  this  respect; 
when  in  full  dress,  as  at  their  feasts,  they  consequently  do  not 
fail  to  place  thick  woollen  skirts  one  over  another,  the  number 
being  a  mark  of  the  wealth  of  the  lady,  until  their  actual  dimen- 
sions are  wonderfully  exaggerated. 

When  at  their  feasts  or  on  a  joumev,  the  women  wear  a 
peculiarly  shaped  hat  {montera),  generally  made  of  black  or 
dark-blue  cloth  or  velvet  lined  with  some  red  stuff.  It  is  in  the 
form  of  a  cylinder,  or  rather  a  cone,  expanded  greatly  at  the  top, 
the  lower  part  for  a  short  distance  cylindrical,  fitting  dose  on  to 
the  head,  whilst  the  upper  part  is  turned  down  in  the  form  of 
a  square,  so  that  the  part  turned  down  has  the  appearance  of 
flaps  hanging  down  on  to  the  face  on  all  four  sides.  I  at  first 
imagined  that  this  peculiar  head-dress  might  be  a  remnant  of 
their  ancient  costume,  but  was  told  by  General  Sagamaga,  of 
La  Paz,  that  he  believed  that  it  was  derived  from  an  old  Spanish 
woman's  head-dress  long  ago  introduced  into  Peru. 

Neither  men  nor  women  are  cleanly  in  their  habits,  rarely 
removing  their  clothes  at  night,  often  leaving  them  on  until 

*  The  lead  is  secured  by  cutting  grooves  into  the  whip-handle,  wider  at 
the  bottom  than  at  the  8ur!ace^  after  which  melted  lead  is  poured  into  them, 
and  fixes  itself  in  when  cold« 

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oj  Bolivia  and  Peru.  243 

worn  to  pieces ;  and  even  then  some  of  the  Indians  would  draw 
their  new  pair  of  breeches  over  the  old  ones^  allowing  the  latter 
to  remain  on  the  body.  They  sleep  on  the  ground  or  earthen  floor 
of  their  huts^  or  on  a  sort  of  bench  of  earth  raised  some  eighteen 
inches  above  the  ground — their  only  bed-clothes  being  a  few 
skins^  and  a  poncho  (or  thick  quilt)  of  llama  wool^  called  ccanieri. 

The  food  of  the  Aymara  Indian  is  much  more  of  a  vegetable 
than  animal  character.  Of  the  flesh  which  he  consumes^  that  of 
the  llama  is  the  most  important;  but  from  my  own  experience  I 
did  not  consider  it  well  flavoured^  except  when  the  animal  was 
only  about  a  year  old,  when  they  are  called  chuchos  by  the 
Indians.  A  considerable  quantity  of  the  llama  flesh  is  prepared 
by  being  sprinkled  with  salt  and  air-dried,  and  is  then  known  as 
charqtd.  A  very  important  article  of  consumption  and  of  export 
to  the  mining-districts  and  the  coca-plantations  and  gold-work- 
ings to  the  east  are  the  '^  chalonas  "  or  dried  mutton,  being  the 
whole  sheep,  which,  after  being  skinned  and  the  head  removed, 
is  split  open,  flattened  out,  and  dried  in  the  air,  after  having 
been  sprinkled  with  a  little  salt.  Beef  is  rarely  seen  or  con- 
sumied  by  the  Indians,  who  often  keep  a  few  domestic  fowls. 
Around  the  Lake  of  Titicaca  many  wild  fowl  and  a  good  supply 
of  their  eggs  are  obtained,  as  well  as  some  nine  species  of  fish, 
several  of  which  are  excellent  eating,  especially  the  boga,  which 
in  taste  and  appearance  much  resembles  a  smaU  herring  or  large 
sardine. 

Salt  is  obtained  by  the  Indians  from  springs  which  have  their 
origin  in  the  saliferous  marls,  probably  of  triassic  age,  the  water 
being  allowed  to  run  into  clay  moulds  and  spontaneously  evapo- 
rate, the  operation  being  repeated  until  cakes  of  salt,  about  one 
foot  square  and  some  three  inches  thick,  are  left  behind,  and  are 
of  tolerably  good  quality. 

As  before  mentioned,  however,  the  staple  of  the  Aymara  food 
are  the  vegetable  productions  of  his  country,  a  summary  of  which 
may  be  given  as  follows* : — ^potatoes  of  several  varieties,  in- 

*  The  above  are  such  productions  as  are  either  peculiar  to  the  highlands 
or  are  there  grown  by  the  Indians  for  their  own  use ;  for  I  may  mention 
that  it  is  eztraordinaiy,  when  examining  the  markets,  say  of  La  Paz  or  Sorata, 
where  the  snow  lies  close  at  hand  all  the  year  round  on  the  peaks,  to  ob- 
serve the  extraordinary  admixture  of  tropical  products  from  the  hot  valleys 
below  with  the  alpine  ones  peculiar  to  the  district  itself:  thus,  in  addition 
to  the  above,  there  are  abundant  supplies  in  the  markets  of  oranges,  sweet 
and  soar  lemons,  Umes,  paltos  (fruit  of  the  Laurua  penica),  banimas,  nine- 
apples,  prickly  pears,  granadillas,  pacays  (pod  of  a  S|>ecie6  of  inga),  cneri- 
moyos  (nruit  of  tne  Jiuma  cheremoha),  sweet  potatoes,  rice,  yam,  gualusa,  ari- 
coma  or  yacona,  &c.,  as  well  as  (from  the  intermediate  xones)  strawberries, 
grapei^  melons,  pears,  apples,  and  peaches ;  but,  with  the  exception  possibly  of 
some  ill-looking  small  ^preen  apples  and  pears,  few  of  these  products  ever 
reach  the  hut  of  the  Indian. 

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244  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

eluding  the  Papa  amarga  or  bitter  potato^  called  '4uki  cheque''  iu 
Aymara ;  maize  or  Indian  com ;  beans ;  ocas^  called  in  Aymara 
'^apilla/'  ullucos,  the  tubers  of  the  Ulluctts  tuberosa;  onions; 
garlic ;  chichchipa^  a  variety  of  fennel ;  quinoa^  the  Peruvian 
rice  or  seeds  of  Chenopodium  quinoa ;  ysano^  the  tuber  of  the 
Tropaolum  tuberosum ;  chuchuchu,  a  freshwater  plant  from  the 
Lake  of  Titicaca ;  and  several  other  minor  vegetables,  including 
the  soft  white  lower  part  of  the  Totora  or  great  Titicaca  reed, 
which  is  eaten  as  a  salad. 

Here  I  may  remark  that  not  only  have  the  peculiarities  of 
the  country  inhabited  by  the  Aymara  Indians  determined  to  a 
great  extent  the  nature  of  their  nourishment^  but,  particularly 
those  of  altitude  and  climate,  have  also  exercised  a  great  in- 
fluence upon  the  methods  found  necessary  to  be  employed 
for  the  culinary  preparation  and  conservation  of  many  of  the 
articles  of  food. 

Owing  to  the  great  elevation  which  this  part  of  South 
America  has  above  the  mean  level  of  the  sea,  it  follows  that  the 
atmospheric  pressure  is  greatly  diminished,  and  consequently 
that  the  temperature  of  water  when  boiling  is  very  much  lower 
or,  in  other  words,  less  hot  than  on  the  coast — ^in  fact,  so  much 
so  that  several  ordinary  articles  of  consumption  cannot  be  tho- 
roughly cooked  even  by  prolonged  boiling  with  water  in  an 
ordinary  open  pot.  For  this  reason  the  diy  small  beans  which 
elsewhere  in  South  America  are  almost  everywhere  the  fa- 
vourite and  one  of  the  principal  articles  of  food,  especially  of 
the  lower  classes,  for  the  reason  that  they  cannot  be  thoroughly 
boiled  in  the  whole  state,  are  not  used  in  any  quantity,  and 
are  always  first  ground  to  fine  powder  before  being  cooked. 
Peas  have  to  be  treated  in  a  similar  manner,  as  also  the  dry  maixe 
or  Indian  com ;  so  that  before  every  hut  there  is  always  seen  an 
Indian  grinding-apparatus,  ^'parara''  (it  cannot  be  called  a  mill), 
which  only  consists  of  two  rough  stones,  the  lower  being  a  heavy 
one  fixed  in  the  ground^  with  a  flat  smooth  surface  upwards, 
whilst  the  other  is  a  semicircular  piece,  which  is  rocked  in  see- 
saw fashion  by  the  Indian  women^  so  as  to  crush  up  the  sub- 
stance placed  beneath  it. 

I  remember  the  delight  of  a  Bolivian  family  in  La  Paz  upon 
their  first  trying  a  cooking-pot  made  with  a  lid  so  arranged  as 
to  convert  it  into  a  sort  of  digester,  and  thus  to  raise  consider- 
ably the  boiling-point  of  its  contents^  which  had  been  sent  up 
from  the  coast  as  a  present^  and  which  they  found  did  enable 
them  to  cook  beans^  &c.  thoroughly  in  their  whole  state.  On 
another  occasion,  when  on  an  exploring-expedition,  accompanied 
by  two  arrieros  fh)m  the  coast  who  had  never  before  been  very 
high  up  in  the  mountains,  I  left  them  with  the  mules  at  an  de- 
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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  345 

▼ation  of  about  17^000  feet,  to  make  a  fire  and  prepare  their 
meals,  whilst  I  ascended  higher  on  foot;  on  my  return,  some 
hours  after,  I  found  them  in  a  good  state  of  fear  and  excitement, 
insisting  that  we  should  at  once  leave  a  place  which  must  be 
bewitched,  since  they  could  not  get  a  dish  of  beans  cooked, 
notwithstanding  that  they  had  seen  the  water  in  the  pot  boiling 
away  lustily  for  several  hours. 

The  potato,  which  is  cultivated  on  a  large  scale  by  the 
Aymaras,  and  forms  the  most  important  article  of  their  food,  is, 
owing  to  the  severity  of  their  climate  in  these  highlands,  often 
frozen  before  its  tuber  has  arrived  at  maturity — a  circumstance 
which  has  given  rise  to  its  being  subjected  to  a  preservative 
mode  of  treatment  quite  unknown  in  other  countries,  and  well 
worthy  of  being  imitated,  particularly  in  the  northern  parts  of 
Europe,  where  the  summers  are  short  and  severe. 

The  method  of  preparing  the  potatoes  to  convert  them  into 
''  chunu^^  (or  ''  chuno,"  as  it  is  called  in  Spanish)  is,  as  far  as  I 
could  observe,  somewhat  as  follows,  although  I  understand  that 
there  are  minor  differences  in  the  procedure  in  almost  every 
district.  The  potatoes,  after  being  dug  out  of  the  ground,  are, 
in  the  months  of  May  and  June,  steeped  in  or  sprinkled  with 
water,  and  spread  out  on  a  thin  layer  of  straw  (ichu)  placed  on 
the  ground.  They  are  then  exposed  to  the  frost,  turning  them 
occasionally  by  hand  some  three  or  more  nights  and  days  con- 
secutively, until  they  are  quite  frozen  throughout  their  substance. 
During  the  congelation  they  become  covered  with  blisters  filled 
with  a  watery  fluid,  and  when  thawed  have  a  somewhat  spongy 
consistence.  They  are  now  steeped  in  water,  and  trampled  out 
by  men's  feet  to  remove  all  soluble  matter,  after  which  they  are 
spread  out  in  the  air  until  perfectly  dried,  when  they  are  ready  for 
use,  and  known  in  the  market  as  black  chuno  or  chufio  negro^. 

When  thus  prepared  the  potatoes  are  much  reduced  in  volume, 
being  shrivelled  up  to  the  size  of  about  musket-balls,  of  a  some- 
what deep-brown  colour  and  not  very  inviting  appearance.  The 
white  chu&o  (or  "ttunta,''  as  it  is  called  in  Aymara),  which  is 
much  better,  in  outward  look  at  least,  both  when  raw  and  boiled, 
is  prepared  in  the  same  way,  except  that  after  the  potatoes  have 
been  frozen  they  are  steep^  in  water  for  from  two  to  four  weeks, 
changing  the  water  frequently,  or,  what  is  better,  allowing  a 
current  of  clean  water  continually  to  run  through  them,  after 
which  they  are  dried  as  before ;  when  cut  through  they  show  a 

*  It  must  be  remembered  that  the  climate  of  these  highlands  is  verr  fa- 
vourable to  carrying  out  this  operation,  both  from  the  night  frosts  ana  the 
diying-quaUty  of  the  air  itself,  which  very  rapidly  removes  all  the  water 
from  iJie  chunos  by  evaporation,  and  in  a  very  short  time  completely  dries 
them  up  into  hard  balls. 


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246  David  Forbes — On  the  Asmara  Indians 

thin  tough  external  skin^  filled  with  a  white  matter  exactly  like^ 
and  in  actuality  nothing  more^  than  a  form  of  potato-starch. 
In  this  state  both  the  varieties  of  chuiio  will  keep  for  any  length 
of  time,  even  for  years,  if  only  stored  in  a  tolerably  dry  place, 
and  require  merely  to  be  steeped  in  water  (the  white  for  about  a 
day  and  a  half,  and  the  black  for  £rom  four  to  eight  days)  in  order 
to  soften  them,  after  which  they  are  boiled  like  an  ordinary  potato 
before  being  eaten.  Although  the  white  chuiio  when  cooked 
looks  extremely  tempting,  being  in  external  appearance  of  a  pure 
white  colour,  even  more  enticing  than  a  nice  new  potato,  I  never 
got  quite  reconciled  to  its  taste,  as  it  always  seemed,  at  least  to 
me,  somewhat  soapy ;  and,  with  the  Indians  themselves,  I  agree 
in  preferring  the  cheaper  or  more  common  black  chuiio  (or 
merely  chuno,  as  it  is  called,  in  contradistinction  to  the  other,  to 
which  the  name  "ttunta*^  is,  as  before  mentioned,  applied), 
which  is  free  from  this  savour,  and,  although  somewhat  insipid 
and  crisp  in  the  mouth,  has  a  taste  which,  even  if  not  at  first 
relished,  one  soon  acquires  a  liking  for. 

The  theory  of  this  process  appears  to  be  a  purely  chemical 
one.  When  the  potato,  which  is  mainly  composed  of  potato- 
starch,  along  with  a  small  amount  of  gluten  or  other  such  nitro- 
genous compound,  becomes  frozen,  upon  thawing  a  species  of 
decomposition  or  fermentation  is  immediately  set  agoing,  the 
nitrogenous  ingredient  acting  the  part  of  yeast  or  ferment,  and 
changing  a  portion  of  the  starch  first  into  dextrine  and  then 
into  sugar,  which  explains  the  sweet  taste  recognized  when 
potatoes  which  have  been  touched  by  the  firost  are  eaten.  This 
fermentation,  when  once  it  has  conmienced,  proceeds  rapidly  to 
putrefaction,  and  destroys  the  potato.  The  Aymara  Indian,  how- 
ever, without  understanding  the  rationale  of  his  procedure,  has 
found  out  the  means  to  arrest  the  fermentation  in  its  first  stage, 
by  dissolving  out  the  dextrine,  sugar,  and  nitrogenous  ferment, 
leaving  the  potato-starch  alone  behind  in  a  form  but  little 
susceptible  of  further  alteration  as  long  as  it  is  kept  dry;  and  by 
this  means  is  enabled  to  keep  the  farinaceous  matter  of  the 
root  for  an  indefinite  period. 

The  object  of  the  Indian  in  thoroughly  fireezing  his  potatoes 
before  washing  out  the  soluble  matter,  appears  to  be  to  get 
the  whole  of  the  nitrogenous  matter  into  a  state  capable  of 
being  washed  out  by  the  water,  and  so  prevent  any  germs  of 
fermentation  being  left  behind. 

It  has  always  struck  me  as  very  remarkable,  that  the  uncid- 
tivated  Indian  could  thus  have  invented  a  process,  founded  on 
the  most  correct  chemical  principles,  which  has  enabled  him  to 
use  and  conserve  as  food  the  frozen  potato,  which  otherwise 
would  be  quite  worthless,  had  not  this  discovery  converted  it 

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(4  Bolivia  and  Peru.  247 

into  his  moat  valuable  article  of  food^  espedaUy  during  the 
winter  months^  and  without  which  he  would  not  only  not  have  been 
able  to  reap  the  fiill  benefit  of  his  most  important  harvest,  but 
also  could  not  have  availed  himself  of  a  variety  of  this  esculent^ 
the  Papa  amarga,  or  bitter  potato^  which  is  not  regarded  as  edible 
until  after  it  has  been  converted  into  chuno. 

The  bitter  potato  (or  "  luki  choque/^  as  it  is  called  in  Ay- 
mara)  is  a  very  important  vegetable  for  the  Indian,  since  it 
grows  well  in  the  very  coldest  parts  of  the  highlands,  which 
will  not  produce  any  other  crop.  Whether  it  is  a  different 
species,  or  merely  a  variety  of  the  common  potato,  I  was  not 
sufficient  botanist  to  decide;  but  the  only  external  difference 
which  I  noticed  was,  that  the  tuber  appeared  to  be  somewhat 
longer  and  flatter  than  the  small  round  ones  of  the  ordinary 
potato  grown  in  the  district,  and  that  the  plant  had  a  blue 
instead  of  the  more  usual  white  flower.  It  is  not  cultivated  or 
eaten  by  the  whites ;  and  I  have  eaten  it  only  in  the  state  of 
chuno.  I  am  told,  however,  that  it  has  only  a  very  slightly 
bitter  taste,  but  that  this  taste  cannot  be  removed  even  by  pro- 
longed boiling,  which  also  does  not  render  it  soft  like  the  ordi- 
nary potato.  I  am  uncertain  whether  the  Aymaras  ever  eat  it 
in  its  natural  state  when  simply  boiled;  but  converted  into 
chuno  it  has  no  unpleasant  taste,  and  is  a  very  important 
article  of  their  consumption. 

Several  varieties  of  the  ordinary  potato,  "  cheque,"  are  cul- 
tivated by  the  Aymaras ;  but  none  of  them  appear  to  attain  to 
any  size,  probably  never  coming  to  full  maturity  in  this  climate; 
the  wild  potato,  called  ''  lillecoya,''  also  occurs.  The  Aymara 
women  understand  the  boiling  a  potato  in  their  earthen  pots  to 
full  perfection.  Occasionally  the  ordinary  potato  is  preserved  by 
being  dried  in  the  air,  after  having  been  first  boiled  and  peeled. 
It  is  then  called  ''  cucupa"  by  the  Indians. 

The  oca  (or  "  apilla"  in  Aymara)  is  another  root,  well  suited 
to  the  climate,  much  cultivated  by  the  Indians,  and  is  the  tuber 
of  the  Oxalis  tuberosa,  of  which  several  varieties,  red  and  white, 
are  grown.  The  white,  called  queni-apilla,  or  floury  ocas,  are  the 
best.  As  I  can  testify,  this  root  when  simply  boiled  is  hard  and 
}ui8  a  horrid  acid  taste, — ^in  fact,  is  quite  unfit  for  consumption, 
unless  it  also  has  undergone  a  previous  preparation.  Tins  is 
effected  by  the  Indians  by  exposing  the  ocas  to  the  sun  and  air 
for  firom  six  to  twelve  days,  which  causes,  as  it  were,  a  species 
of  ripening,  after  which  the  oca,  when  boiled,  is  a  very  agreeable 
farinaceous  vegetable. 

If  exposed  in  this  maimer  for  a  much  longer  period  (several 
weeks,  or  even  months,  is,  I  believe,  necessary),  taking  care  not 
to  let  them  fireeze,  they  become  still  sweeter,  and  taste  very 

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248  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

much  like  sweet  potatoes.  In  this  state  they  are  called  ''caui/' 
and  should  not  be  boiled  in  water^  but  merely  steamed.  The 
Indians  cook  them  by  placing  them  on  the  top  of  a  pot  full  of 
straw^  with  a  little  water  at  the  bottom^  to  which  they  apply  the 
heat.  Another  preparation  of  the  oca  is  called  ''  caya/'  and  is 
obtained  by  freezings  and  treating  them  much  in  the  same 
manner  as  in  the  preparation  of  chuno  from  potatoes,  as  before 
described.  Although  much  esteemed  by  the  Indians,  this  sub- 
stance did  not  quite  suit  my  palate. 

As  another  example  of  how  the  culinary  preparation  of  the 
articles  of  food  used  by  these  Indians  has  been  influenced  by 
the  peculiarities  of  the  climate,  may  be  mentioned  the  ^'isimu/' 
the  tubercle  of  the  Tropaolum  tuberosum,  a  variety  of  Indian 
cress  or  nasturtium,  cultivated  particularly  about  La  Paz.  When 
removed  firom  the  ground,  this  is  so  acrid  and  nasturtium-like  in 
its  flavour  as  to  be  imeatable,  or  at  any  rate  unpalatable ;  here, 
however,  they  eat  the  boiled  tuber  in  a  frozen  state,  when  it 
possesses  a  very  agreeable  taste,  and  is  much  appreciated  by 
the  whites  also,  being  sold  frozen,  kept  from  thawing  by  being 
wrapped  up  in  woollen  cloths,  and  covered  with  straw,  under 
the  name  of  "  taiacha.*' 

Another  important  article  of  food  is  the  quinoa  {hupa  in 
Aymara),  the  seeds  of  the  Chenopodium  quinoa,  or  Peruvian 
rice,  as  it  is  sometimes  called.  These  are  exactly  of  the  form 
and  size  of  an  ordinary  mustard-seed,  and  are  of  a  red,  yellow,  or 
white  colour  in  different  varieties  of  the  plant.  The  seeds 
must  always  be  first  well  washed  with  water,  to  remove  a  bitter 
principle  they  contain,  before  cooking.  When  boiled,  they  make 
an  excellent  porridge  or  pudding.  The  leaves  of  the  young 
plant  are  eaten  as  salad ;  and  a  sort  of  chicha  or  fermented  drink 
is  also  made  frxim  the  seed,  called  ''  hupaccusa.'' 

Beans  are  cultivated  to  a  considerable  extent,  but  are  always 
ground  to  powder  on  the  stone  before  being  cooked,  or  are 
eaten  whole  after  having  been  parched  over  the  fire  in  a  pot. 
Indian  com  or  maize  does  not  grow  in  the  puna  and  higher 
lands,  but  in  the  sheltered  valleys  grows  well,  and  is  largely 
bought  by  the  highland  Indians,  who  exchange  their  dried 
llama-  and  sheep-meat,  wool,  salt,  and  chuno  for  Indian  com. 
When  dried,  it  is  either  ground  up  or  toasted,  in  which  latter 
state  a  small  bag  of  it  is  usually  the  entire  sustenance  taken  by 
the  travelling  Indian.  Several  varieties  are  known,  amongst 
which  a  sweet,  shrivelled- up,  semitransparent,  yellow  one,  called 
"chulqui,''  is  especially  esteemed  for  eating  raw  or  parched;  an- 
other variety,  of  a  mulberry  colour,  is  called  ''  culli,''  and  often 
used  to  give  a  colour  to  their  drinks. 

The  beverages  employed  by  the  Aymara  are  but  few  in 

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o/  Bolivia  and  Peru.  249 

number ;  and,  except  on  grand  occasionsj  the  pure  water  from 
his  native  hilla  quenches  his  thirst.  His  national  drink  is  the 
chicha,  made  from  the  Indian  com  fermented,  called  in  Aymara 
^*  ccusa.''  It  is  made  in  different  ways;  but  the  most  esteemed 
is  the  so-called  ''  chicha  mascada,''  or  chewed  chicha,  the  pre- 
paration of  which  is  nothing  less  than  disgusting ;  but  haying 
been  often  described  by  former  travellers,  since  it  is  in  common 
use  in  many  parts  of  South  America,  I  need  not  frirther  refer  to  it 
than  to  state  that  it  is  not  alone  appreciated  by  the  Indians;  for 
the  whites  and  Europeans  in  Bolivia,  as  a  rule,  take  to  it  with 
apparent  relish.  Chicha  is  also  made  from  the  quinoa  seeds.  In 
some  parts  a  fermented  drink  is  made  by  the  Indians  from  the 
sweet  stalk  of  the  young  green  Indian  com,  called  ''huiru'' 
(wiru) :  this  is  the  name  of  the  stalk.  Of  late  years,  however, 
the  establishment  of  large  manufactories  on  the  coast  of  Peru  for 
the  distillation  of  "  chancaca,'^  or  unrefined  sugar  and  molasses, 
has  sent  in  great  quantities  of  a  very  inferior  white  rum,  or 
'' aguardiente''  as  it  is  called,  amongst  these  Indians,  and  is 
rapidly  doing  great  mischief  amongst  them. 

The  two  main  dishes  of  the  Aymara  cuisine  are  the  chupe 
and  the  chairo.  The  former  of  these  is  common  all  over  the 
northern  cotmtries  (at  least  of  the  Pacific  coast)  of  South  Ame- 
rica, and  consists  of  a  soup  made  with  potatoes  and  any  flesh  or 
fowl  which  may  be  to  hand,  as  well  as  any  other  vegetables  conve- 
nient, never  omitting  to  add  some  red-pepper  pods.  The  chairo, 
however,  is  peculiar  to  the  highlands  of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  its 
fundamental  ingredient  being  chuno  instead  of  potatoes;  and  to 
this,  as  in  the  case  of  the  chupe,  any  flesh  (generally  of  the 
llama  or  sheep)  or  fowl  is  added.  Although,  from  the  dirty-looking 
leather-like  fragments  of  chu&o  which  mainly  compose  it,  the 
chairo  has  at  first  a  far  frt>m  inviting  aspect,  which  certainly 
would  not  recommend  it  at  a  European  table,  a  taste  for  it  is 
soon  acquired,  and  it  is  even  relished  by  the  traveller  who  visits 
the  inhospitable  Puna  of  Bolivia  and  Pern. 

The  Aymara  Indian,  in  his  cuisine,  is  not,  however,  content 
merely  with  the  productions  of  the  vegetable  and  animal  king- 
dom, amongst  which  I  forgot  to  enumerate  the  aquatic  larva  of 
a  species  of  diptera  called  **  chichi,''  which  is  found  in  abun- 
dance in  the  rivers  of  the  Puna,  and  from  which  he  makes  a 
ragout  seasoned  with  red  pepper  said  to  be  excellent.  He  also 
applies  to  the  mineral  kingdom,  not  only  for  the  salt  which  he 
employs  as  a  condiment,  but  also  for  the  clay  which,  extraor- 
dinarily enough,  he  adds,  often  in  considerable  quantity,  to  the 
chupe  or  chairo  before  described. 

In  the  city  of  La  Paz  I  foimd  that  clay  prepared  for  this  pur- 
pose was  regularly  sold  in  the  market,  under  the  name  of 

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250  David  Forbes — On  theAymara  Indians 

"ppassa"  (the  Aymara  name  for  crude  clay  being  "llinquc") ; 
and  going  amongst  the  Indians  myself  when  they  were  cooking 
their  dinners  in  the  streets  near  the  market-place^  I  saw  how 
they  added  it  to  and  mixed  it  with  the  other  constituents  of 
their  chupe^  eating  the  whole  apparently  with  good  relish. 
Afterwards^  when  I  purchased  from  them  a  large  bag  of  this 
'^ppassa^'  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  it  to  England^  I  continu- 
ally found  that  my  own  Indians  pilfered  from  it^  to  add  to  their 
own  food^  and  declared  to  me  that  they  considered  it  to  improve 
greatly  the  taste  of  the  soup. 

When  in  La  Paz  I  went  to  see  the  Indians  digging  out  this 
clay  from  the  deposits  in  the  alluvial  formation  through  which 
the  Bio  de  la  Paz  runs^  the  only  preparation  which  it  received 
on  the  spot  being  to  separate  as  much  as  possible  aU  the  small 
stones  and  fine  gravel  by  hand^  or  by  a  sieve;  before  being  sold 
in  the  market^  however^  it  undergoes  some  further  preparation, 
which  appears  to  consist  in  kneading  it  up  between  the  hands 
into  doughy  lumps,  which  looked  as  if  they  had  been  mixed 
with  a  minute  quantity  of  lard  or  some  other  fatty  matter;  in 
this  state,  although  it  stiU  feels  very  gritty  when  tried  between 
the  teeth,  it  is  used  and  sold  for  immediate  consumption. 

The  idea  having  been  put  forward  that  the  clays  or  earths 
known  to  be  eaten  by  certain  Indian  tribes  contaiQ  a  small 
quantity  of  organic  matter  capable  of  being  assimilated  by  the 
human  system,  I,  in  order  to  see  whether  this  might  be  the  case 
with  the  clay  eaten  by  the  Aymaras,  made  a  complete  analysis 
of  a  sample  taken  with  my  own  hands  at  La  Paz,  and  obtained 
the  following  results : — 

SiUca 60-64 

Alumina 8019 

Lime  , 1-09 

Magnesia   0*87 

Protoxide  of  Iron 9*64 

Protoxide  of  Manganese 0*49 

Potash,  with  trace  of  Soda 3'76 

Water 2-28 

Organic  matter  and  loss  1*05 


lOOOOO 


frt>m  which  it  will  be  perceived  that  this  day,  which  geologi- 
cally is  a  product  of  the  wearing-down  of  the  clay  slates,  and 
the  granite  intruded  amongst  them,  of  the  Silurian  forma- 
tion of  the  high  Andes,  really  contains  no  dement  of  nourish- 
ment; and  therefore  I  imagine  that  the  custom  of  eating  it  is 
merely  for  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  stomach  more  diatended, 

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oj  Bolivia  and  Peru.  251 

and  retaimng  the  food  longer  under  the  action  of  the  gastric 
joice^  so  as  to  make  the  most  of  the  extremely  small  allowance 
of  food  which  the  Indians  of  the  Puna  exist  upon  when  they 
have  to  provide  for  themselves;  for  I  have  practically  proved 
that  they  can  and  always  will  tsike  in  a  very  large  supply  when 
they  can  procure  it  at  the  cost  of  the  white  man. 

The  so-called  "  calcareous  earth/^  which^  according  to  Hum- 
boldt*^ is  sold  in  the  streets  of  Popayan  and  several  parts  of 
Peru  as  an  eatable^  is  evidently  not  an  earth  at  all ;  but  only  the 
ashes  of  wood  or  plants  commonly  sold  in  order  to  be  used 
along  with  the  coca-leaf  chewed  by  the  Indians. 

TUs  ash  is  prepared  for  that  purpose.  That  from  the  wood  of 
the  quenua  tree^  which  grows  in  abundance  on  the  Puna^  and  is 
something  like  a  wild  olive  tree  in  appearance,  is  generaUy  con- 
sidered the  best,  from  its  being  strongest  in  alkidi ;  the  ash  of 
the  banana  is  held  to  be  next  in  quidity :  but  all  sorts  of  ash 
fipom  cacti,  shrubs,  or  trees  are  employed;  and  in  the  north  of 
Peru  even  burned  lime  is  used,  although  not  considered  equally 
good  for  the  purpose. 

The  ash  is  usuallv  made  up  with  a  little  water,  and  kneaded 
into  small  pieces,  sticks,  or  cakes,  sometimes  with  the  figure  of 
a  saint  stamped  upon  them ;  and  they  are  regularly  sold  in  the 
market  under  the  Aymara  name  of  '^  llucta.'^ 

The  use  of  a  substance  like  vegetable  ashes  containing  alkali, 
or  an  alkaline  earth  like  lime,  along  with  the  coca-leaf  by  the 
Aymara  and  Quechua  tribes  of  Peru  and  Bolivia  is  altogether 
analogous  to  the  custom  so  prevalent  in  the  East  Indies  of  add- 
ing lime  when  chewing  the  betel  nut  {Areca  catechu)  or  betel 
leaf  {Piper  betel) ;  and  in  both  cases  the  object  of  this  addition 
appears  to  be  for  the  purpose  of  setting  free  the  vegetable  alka- 
loid of  the  plant.  The  Indians  declare  that  the  coca-leaf  will  not 
yield  up  its  virtues  when  chewed  alone. 

The  coca  plant  {Erythroxylon  coca)  does  not,  however,  grow 
in  the  higher  regions,  and  is  not  even  known  as  a  wild  plant  (at 
least  as  far  as  I  could  learn)  even  in  the  Yungas  or  tropical  val- 
leys to  the  east  of  the  Andes,  where  it  is  cultivated  by  the 
Aymara  and  Quechua  colonists  on  a  very  considerable  scale. 
Although  used  by  all  the  Indian  tribes  of  this  part  of  South 
America,  it  is  consumed  in  larger  quantities  by  the  Aymaras 
than  by  any  other  nation;  and  its  name  appears  to  be  of 
Aymara  origin,  the  word  "  coca,'*  as  it  is  usucdly  spelt  by  the 
Spaniards,  being  evidently  only  the  Aymara  word  ^*  ccoca,''  sig- 
nifying a  plants  bush,  or  tree,  apparently  applied  to  it  as  the  plant 
par  excellence,  just  as  amongst  the  Hispano- Americans  the  Fara- 

*  <  Aspects  of  Nature.'    Philadelphia  edition,  1849,  p.  150. 

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252  Dayid  Forbes — On  the  Aynuxra  Indians 

guay  tea  is  always  called  only  "  Yerba/'  t.  e.  the  herb.  Fram 
the  oldest  times  it  seems  to  have  been  esteemed  as  the  most  pre- 
cious of  all  y^etable  productions,  the  Indians,  as  before  men- 
tioned, always  making  it  a  part  of  their  offerings  to  their  gods ; 
and  even  at  present  they  hang  on  the  altars  of  the  Virgin  or 
Roman  Catholic  saints  small  packages  of  coca-leaves  bound  up 
nicely  in  maize  husks  into  the  form  of  the  letter  Y,  as  offerings 
likely  to  be  acceptable,  at  least,  according  to  their  ideas.  Under 
the  dominion  of  the  Incas  the  coca  was  held  in  very  great 
esteem,  and,  being  regarded  as  a  luxury,  was  not  allowed  to  be 
an  article  of  general  consumption  amongst  the  lower  classes. 

The  Aymara  Indian,  especially  when  travelling,  is  rarely  if 
ever  seen  without  his  ^'istalla,''  or  small  bag,  which  contains  his 
supply  of  coca-leaves,  firom  which  he  takes  out  a  pinch  of  the 
leaves  (say,  about  firom  1  to  2  drachms)  at  a  time,  in  order  to  fonn 
his  quid  or ''  aculli,^^  as  it  is  termed  in  his  language.  Before  doing 
so,  however,  (or,  as  the  Spaniards  say,  beginning  to  ''  acculicar,'') 
he  generally  sits  down  at  ease  on  the  ground,  always  relieving 
himself  of  any  load  or  other  object  he  may  be  carrying ;  and 
then,  picking  out  leaf  by  leaf,  he  turns  them  in  his  mouth  so  as 
to  moisten  them  well,  and  forms  them  into  a  small  ball  or  quid, 
which  he  carries,  when  conversing,  inside  his  left  cheek*.  This 
he  now  takes  out ;  and,  opening  it,  he  places  inside  of  it  a  small 
quantity  of  the  "  llucta"  or  aULaline  ash,  and  then,  returning  it 
to  his  mouth,  he  commences  chewing  it  for  an  hour  or  two,  until 
he  considers  it  exhausted,  when  he  again  repeats  the  operation 
as  before,  continuing  to  do  so  with  such  regularity  that  amongst 
themselves  the  Indians  often  describe  the  distance  between  two 
places  as  being  equal  to  so  many  "  accullis.''  The  verb  "  accidi- 
car  "  is  used  amongst  the  Bolivians  to  denote  this  operation ;  and, 
as  far  as  I  could  perceive,  the  Indian,  as  a  rule,  seems  to  swallow 
the  saliva,  and  not  to  expectorate,  as  in  the  case  of  chewing 
tobacco.  Having  had  to  provide  the  coca  necessary  for  a  large 
number  of  Indians  in  my  employ,  I  found  that,  on  an  average, 
each  Indian  used  about  |  of  a  pound  per  week,  but  occasionidly 
more :  my  old  Aymara  man-servant  Mateo  always  took  his  one 
pound  per  week ;  but  he  admitted  himself  that  it  was  too  much, 
and  it  is  generally  considered  among  the  Indians  that  more  than 
this  amount  is  injurious  to  the  system.  The  whites,  negroes, 
or  Cholos  in  Bolivia  and  Peru  do  not  as  a  rule  make  use  of  coca; 
and  it  is  stated  that  when  they  do  commence  chewing  it  they 
generally  carry  its  employment  to  a  very  injurious  excess. 
Cholos  are  said  to  occasionally  take  as  much  as  three  pounds  per 

*  In  most  of  the  little  images  of  silver  or  gold  found  in  the  ancient  grsTes 
the  left  cheek  is  shown  to  be  swelled  out  by  the  coca  quid. 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  253 

week;  and  I  was  told  that  a  Negro  who  took  as  much  as  one 
pound  per  day  became  demented  in  consequence ;  but  I  cannot 
vouch  for  the  truth  of  these  statements. 

The  women  amongst  the  Aymaras^  at  least  as  far  as  my  own 
experience  goes,  never  employ  coca,  nor  are  the  Bolivian  soldiers 
allowed  to  use  it;  the  Peruvian  soldiers,  although  not  furnished 
with  rations  of  coca,  are  not  prohibited  firom  occasionally  pur- 
chasing it  at  their  own  expense  when  on  the  march ;  the  Quechua 
Indians  of  Cochabamba,  Chuqidsaca,  and  Santa  Cruz  do  not  chew 
coca;  nor  is  it  employed  by  the  tribes  of  the  lower  tropical  re- 
gions of  Bolivia;  so  that  the  custom  is  in  great  measure  confined 
to  the  highland  Indians  of  Peru  and  Bolivia.  I  found  that  the 
coca-leaf  when  used  as  tea,  only  taking  care  to  throw  away  the 
firstwater  or  infusion,  which  contains  a  bitter  principle,  was  re- 
fireshing,  and  somewhat  stimulating  to  the  weak  stomach. 

A  somewhat  careful  study  of  this  habit  of  chewing  the  coca- 
leaf  does  not  at  all  convince  me  that  its  true  properties  have 
anything  like  the  marvellous  characters  commonly  ascribed  to 
it  by  previous  travellers  in  general;  for,  as  before  mentioned, 
I  found  quite  as  much  power  of  endurance  under  similar  cir- 
cumstances amongst  those  of  this  race  who  did  not  chew  the 
leaf  at  all  as  amongst  those  who  did;  and  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  amongst  the  Indians  themselves  it  is  never  regarded 
in  the  light  of  a  necessity,  but  always  as  an  indulgence  (in  other 
words,  as  a  luxury,  like  tobacco  in  Europe),  and  that  they  often 
apply  the  Spanish  word  "  vido,*'  or  vice,  when  speaking  of  its 
employment. 

Just  as  in  many  out-of-the-way  parts  of  Europe  men  can  be 
bribed  to  do  little  services  by  what  is  called  ''  a  drink ''  more 
easily  than  by  the  offer  of  payment  in  coin,  so  I  found  with 
these  Indians,  that  by  carrying  with  me  a  smaJl  bale  or  "  cesto,'' 
as  it  is  called,  of  coca-leaves,  and  giving  them  a  handful  on  such 
occasions,  I  coidd  supply  the  deficiency  of  small  change  (so  dif- 
ficult to  be  obtained  in  these  countries),  and  get  what  I  wanted 
both  more  cheaply  and  cheerfully  performed  at  the  same  time. 

In  the  highlioids  of  Peru  and  Bolivia  it  is  only  at  rare  inter- 
vals that  any  trees  are  seen,  or  even  brushwood;  so  thieit  no  re- 
liance can  be  placed  on  a  supply  of  fuel  from  the  vegetable 
kingdom.  The  combustible  i^  but  universally  employed  is 
'^tajia,''  or  the  dried  Uama-dung.  As  the  excrements  of  these 
animak  are  in  the  form  of  small  round  balls  like  those  from  the 
sheep,  it  is  fortunate  that  these  animals,  as  also  the  allied  spe- 
cies the  Alpaca,  Huanaco,  and  Vicuna,  when  pressed  by  the  calls 
of  nature,  do  not  scatt^  their  dung  at  random,  but  if  left  to 
themselves  (i.  e.  not  driven)  always  resort  to  fixed  spots,  so  that 
Uttle  heaps  of  a  bushel  or  more  are  found  at  each  spot,  very  con- 

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254  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indiana 

venient  for  the  Indian,  who  otherwise  would  find  it  an  endless 
task  to  collect  a  similar  quantity.  Owing  to  the  dry  winds  and 
peculiar  climate  of  the  highlands,  the  dung  rapidly  loses  the 
water  it  contains,  and  forms  an  excellent  fael,  giving  a  good  red 
heat  with  little  or  no  smoke ;  it  is  not  only  employed  in  culinary 
operations,  but  on  a  larger  scale  is  used  for  smelting  the  copper- 
ores  (100  lbs.  dung  smelting  80  lbs.  copper  ore)  and  casting 
bronze  for  bell-  or  cannon-metal  or  other  purposes. 

The  vessels  made  use  of  by  the  Aymaras  in  cooking  are  inva- 
riably of  baked  clay ;  and  it  is  perfectly  astonishing  to  see  how 
expert  the  women  (and  even  the  children)  are,  without  the  assist- 
ance of  a  potter's  lathe,  in  making  them  merely  with  their  hands. 
The  shapes  in  general  use  at  present  amongst  them  are  given  in 
fig.  4,  PI.  XX. ;  whilst  fig.  3,  PI.  XX.  represents  one  of  the  small 
earthen  cooking-stoves  which  the  women  put  up  at  the  door 
of  their  huts,  erecting  them  in  an  extraordinarily  short  space 
of  time.  When  the  clay  is  quite  dry  it  is  burnt  whilst  in  position, 
and  answers  remarkably  well  for  heating  the  earthen  pots  placed 
in  the  orifices.  I  have  often  been  amused  when  the  Indian 
women  quarrelled  amongst  themselves,  to  see  that  they,  as  one  of 
the  first  symptoms  of  anger,  generally  make  a  rush  at  each  other's 
stoves,  kicking  them  to  pieces  with  revengeful  pleasure. 

The  dwellings  of  the  Aymara  Indians  are  small,  rude,  square, 
oval,  or  circular 'huts,  usually  of  rough  stone  put  together  with 
clay  and  thatched  with  ''  ichu,^'  a  species  of  long  coarse  grass, 
something  like  esparto  grass.  In  the  towns  and  villages  the 
houses  are  usually  square,  with  gables,  but  rarely  possess  any 
window  at  all,  or  at  most  only  a  small  sighthole,  ordinarily  stop- 
ped up  with  some  few  stones ;  the  doors  of  the  houses  are  always 
extremely  small.  In  the  town  of  Santiago  de  Machaca,  I  had 
the  curiosity  to  measure  the  dimensions  of  the  door  of  the  house 
in  which  I  lodged,  and  found  it  to  be  only  3  feet  in  height  by 
15  inches  in  extreme  width,  the  angles  at  top  and  bottom  being 
somewhat  rounded  off,  so  as  to  give  the  opening  a  slightly  oval 
shape.  The  door  itself  is  made  of  a  couple  of  boards,  or  more 
often  of  a  raw  hide  stretched  and  dried  over  a  wooden  frame ; 
but  in  the  out-of-the-way  districts  no  door  is  used  beyond  a 
poncho,  which  is  htmg  up  across  the  opening  when  the  hut  is 
tenanted ;  when  the  family  is  absent  the  entrance  is  blocked  up 
by  loose  stones  placed  one  on  another. 

Furniture  is  rarely  or  ever  used  even  in  the  houses  of  the 
richer  Indians ;  a  chair  or  table  is  rarely  if  ever  seen,  as  the  In- 
dians invariably  take  their  meals  whilst  squatting  down  on  their 
haunches  (never  crosslegged  however),  with  the  dishes  placed  on 
the  ground  beside  them.  Whenever  a  table  is  seen,  it  is  usually 
a  little  thing  standing  about  15  inches  high  firom  the  floor.    On 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  255 

one  occasion  at  San  Andres  I  noticed  a  chair  with  the  figure  of 
a  double-headed  Eagle  carved  upon  it^  which  puzzled  me  for 
some  time^  until  I  remembered  that  the  iron  bottles  used  for 
exporting  quicksilver  from  Idria,  and  which  occasionally  come  to 
the  amalgamating-establishments  attached  to  the  Bolivian  and 
Peruvian  silver-mines  have  the  Austrian  Eagle  stamped  upon 
them ;  and  no  doubt  this  had  been  copied  from  them. 

The  walls  of  the  huts  are  alwajrs  quite  bare^  and  the  floor 
merely  the  natural  soil  of  the  spot — often  (in  fact^  more  com- 
monly) somewhat  lower  than  the  level  of  the  ground  outside  the 
hovel.  There  is  never  more  than  one  room  in  a  house ;  and 
along  one  side  of  this  a  raised  sort  of  bench  of  mud^  about  twenty 
inches  high  and  broad,  is  usually  seen,  which  is  used  as  a  bench, 
as  a  bed,  or  for  sitting  upon,  whilst  a  similar  one,  about  six  feet 
long  and  some  four  feet  broad,  at  the  end  of  the  room  is  employed 
as  a  bedstead  to  sleep  upon. 

In  the  out-of-the-way  places  I  observed  circular  or  oval  stone 
huts ;  such  have  been  called  beehive  houses,  the  stones  forming 
the  roof  and  sides  not  being  arched,  but  i^proaching  one  another 
little  by  little  until  they  meet  in  the  form  of  a  dome ;  I  found 
an  excellent  example  of  this  construction,  well  and  neatly  put 
together,  on  the  slope  of  the  mountain  of  lUampu.  This  mea- 
sured, internally,  9^  feet  long  by  5  feet  broad,  and  5  feet  in 
height;  the  door,  which  was  on  the  longer  side  of  the  oval,  was 
straight,  3  feet  high  and  18  inches  broad;  no  chimney  or  other 
opening  for  smoke  was  visible. 

Notwithstanding  that  the  present  dwellings  of  the  Aymara 
Indians  are  so  wretched  and  rude  in  their  construction,  the 
Aymara  appears  nevertheless  to  have  a  natural  talent  for  archi- 
tecture ;  and  I  am  informed  by  Bolivian  architects,  and  have 
myself  also  proved,  that  he  is  very  quick  in  picking  up  any  thing 
novel  in  masonry  when  shown  to  him.  Some  of  the  churches 
met  with  in  out-of-the-way  districts,  although  built  entirely  by 
the  Indians,  with  their  "  cura,^'  as  the  village  priest  is  called,  at 
their  head  as  architect,  and  without  plans  or  tools,  except  such 
as  are  of  the  rudest  conceivable  nature,  occasionally  show  proofs 
of  considerable  skill.  In  1863 1  was  surprised  to  see  some  htm- 
dred  Indians  rebuilding  the  church  at  El  Disaguadero,  on  the 
Lake  of  Titicaca,  in  Peru,  and  dressing  the  stones  for  the  edifice 
with  no  other  implements  than  stones  and  a  few  pickaxes  and 
other  rude  agricultural  instruments  made  of  iron ;  such  a  thing  as 
an  iron  hammer  or  chisel  was  not  to  be  foimd  amongst  them. 

Seiior  Munos,  the  architect  of  the  Cathedral  of  La  Paz,  fur- 
ther informed  me  that  the  beautiful  Corinthian  columns  made 
of  hard  white  granite,  finished  in  a  style  which  would  not  dis- 
grace a  first-rate  European  establishment,  were  all  made  by  the 

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256  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

untaught  Indian  masons  after  his  drawings;  they,  however, 
would  not  make  use  of  the  hammers  he  provided  them  with,  but 
accepted  his  steel  chisels,  which  they  hit  with  a  round  stone  held 
in  the  palm  of  the  hand,  in  a  similar  manner  to  that  m  which 
their  ancestors  had  no  doubt  been  accustomed  to  work  at 
Tiahuanaco  and  elsewhere. 

In  ancient  times  ».  e,  (before  the  eleventh  century,  or  Inca 
conquest)  the  Aymaras  possessed  an  architecture  peculiar  to 
themselves,  apparently  of  a  much  higher  character  than  that  of 
any  of  the  other  nations  of  South  America :  full  evidence  attest- 
ing this  is  to  be  seen  at  the  present  day  in  some  of  the  magni- 
ficent ruins  at  Tiahuanaco,  near  the  southern  extremity  of  Lake 
Titicaca;  an  examination  of  which,  however,  leads  to  the  con- 
clusion that  they  are  probably  of  two  very  different  dates,  the 
one  being  evidently  earlier  and  of  a  much  ruder  character  than 
the  other,  which  is  of  vastly  superior  workmanship.  Although 
these  ruins  are  by  the  older  Spanish  writers  represented  as  being 
of  immense  antiquity,  or,  as  they  firequently  express  it,  works  of 
a  period  before  there  was  a  sun  in  the  heavens''^,  it  appears  that 
part  of  these  were  not  even  completed,  and  were  probably  in 
course  of  construction,  at  the  time  of  the  conquest  of  that  part 
of  the  Aymara  country  by  the  third  Inca,  Lloque  Yupanki,  some 
time  before  his  death  in  1026;  so  that  the  downfall  of  the  Aymara 
civilization  may  be  reckoned  firom  about  this  date. 

When  at  this  place,  I  took  drawings,  on  a  considerable  scale,  of 
the  principal  features  of  these  interesting  ruins ;  but  upon  my 
return  to  Europe  I  found  that  various  figures  and  descriptions 
of  several  of  the  more  important  sculptures  and  monoliths  had 
already  been  published  by  other  writers;  so  that  at  present  I 
purpose  only  to  add  a  few  remarks  upon  points  which,  as  far  as 
I  am  aware,  have  not  as  yet  received  any  attention.  In  the  first 
place  I  may  mention  that  the  stone  of  which  the  buildings  and 
sculptures  are  formed  is  of  two  very  different  characters.  The 
one  is  a  light  red  sandstone,  which  forms  the  hills  in  the  imme- 
diate neighbourhood,  and  is  probably  the  equivalent  of  the 
Devonian  formation,  since  I  obtained  fossils  of  undoubted  De- 
vonian age  from  the  beds  of  similar  sandstone  at  Aygatchi,  not 
far  distant  from  Tiahuanaco.  The  other  stone,  however,  is 
very  different  in  nature,  being  a  hard,  tough,  and  compact  vol- 
canic rock,  precisely  the  same  as  what  was  originally  called 
Andesite  by  G.  Rose,  from  a  specimen  brought  home  from 
Cotopaxi  by  Humboldt,  and  which  is  a  true  Trachydolerite. 
Notwithstanding  its  great  hardness,  most  of  the  sculptured 

*  Diego  D'Avalos y  Fi^puioa,  in MiaceL  Austral  (Lima,  1602) p.  145:  ^Oim 
de  antes  que  hubiese  sol  in  el  cielo." 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  257 

work,  the  great  monolithic  portals  and  some  of  the  finer  figures^ 
are  made  of  this  rock ;  and  to  this  day  they  retain  all  the  sharp- 
new^  of  their  edges,  and,  to  a  considerable  extent^  even  the 
original  polish  on  their  surfaces ;  whilst  a  few  others^  made  of 
the  sandstone  before  alluded  to,  are  in  a  very  dilapidated  condi- 
tion. 

The  size  of  some  of  the  great  blocks  of  stone  employed  in  one 
of  these  buildings'*^  is  very  imposing.  I  measured  one  which 
appeared  to  be  of  the  largest,  and  found  it  to  be  about  27  feet 
long,  18  broad,  and  7  thick,  so  that,  as  it  was  of  sandstone,  it 
could  not  have  weighed  less  than  one  hundred  and  sixty  tons.  It 
seems  very  difficult  to  explain  how  these  Indians,  with  their 
imperfect  mechanical  appliances,  and  no  beasts  of  draught, 
^  could  handle  and  transport  such  masses  from  their  original 
sites,  in  order  to  place  them  in  their  proper  positions  in  pdaces 
or  temples  situated  on  the  top  of  artificial  mounds  raised  some 
40  feet  or  more  above  the  level  of  the  plain  itself. 

Although  the  sandstone  has  evidently  been  taken  from  the 
hills  seen  at  but  a  few  miles  distance  from  Tiahuanaco,  the  vol- 
canic stone  of  which  the  two  great  monolithic  portals  &c.  have 
been  constructed  has  been  conveyed  a  very  great  distance  from 
the  volcanic  mountains  on  the  other  or  western  side  of  Lake  Ti- 
ticaca,  where  the  quarries  are  still  visible ;  and  there  still  remains 
at  the  edge  of  the  lake  an  immense  block  hewn  out  into  the  form 
of  a  sort  of  sofa  or  divan,  which  has  received  from  the  Spaniards 
the  appellation  of  "  La  Piedra  Cansada,^^  or  stone  which  got 
tired,  which  no  doubt  had  been  left  behind  when  on  its 
road  to  Tiahuanaco,  at  the  time  that  the  invasion  of  the  Inca 
Lloque  Yupanki  put  an  end  to  the  building  of  the  great  palace 
there. 

An  examination  of  the  situation  of  the  ruins  of  Tiahuanaco 
shows  them  to  be  in  a  narrow  plain  (bounded  at  the  sides  by 
two  small  ranges  of  hills)  which,  although  extending  a  consider- 
able distance  from  the  present  shore  of  the  lake,  is  but  very 
slightly  elevated  above  the  level  of  its  waters,  makes  me  believe 
that  the  lake  (or,  more  correctly  speaking,  an  arm  of  it)  in  former 
times  extended  to  Tiahuanaco,  and  that,  probably,  the  rise  of  its 
waters  in  the  rainy  season  inundated  the  plain  itself,  and  thus 
enabled  the  Indians  to  transport  the  great  blocks  of  stone  pre- 
viously alluded  to  from  the  other  side  of  the  lake  on  rafts  up  to 
the  very  site  of  the  edifices  themselves.  This  view  seemed  to 
me  to  be  confirmed  by  my  finding  in  a  small  pool  of  water  situ- 
ated in  the  midst  of  these  ruins,  the  Totora  or  great  Titicaca 

*  I  was  told  by  one  of  the  Cholos  there  that  this  had  been  called  the  pa- 
lace of  Pumapuiuku  (of  the  gate  of  the  Puma)  ;  but  whether  this  is  correct  or 
not  I  am  unaole  to  say. 

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258  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indiana 

rush  growing  luxuriantly^  although  I  understand  that  it  is  nerer 
found  elsewhere  than  in  the  lake  itself  or  the  Disaguadero  riyer 
leading  from  it;  the  great  artificial  mounds  on  which  the  build- 
ings themselves  are  placed  also  seemed  to  favour  the  idea  of  the 
plain  being  at  times  intmdated. 

When  we  remember  that  the  Indians  were  unacquainted 
with  steel  or  iron  implements^  it  seems  perfectly  unexplainable 
how  these  Indians  could  work  the  hard  volcanic  rock  to  such 
perfection;  the  Aymaras  have,  it  is  true,  a  word  for  iron, 
** qaella/*  in  their  language;  whence  quella^cahua  a  coat  of 
mail,  and  quellahuisca  an  iron  chain ;  but  it  seems  to  me  that 
this  word,  before  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards,  was  in  reality  only 
applied  to  iron-ore,  i .  e.  the  black  heavy  magnetic  oxide  of  iron 
commonly  found  native  in  Peru  and  Bolivia,  and  employed  by 
the  Indians  for  clubheads,  one  of  which  is  depicted  in  PL  XX. 
fig.  5,  from  a  grave  at  Calacota,  was  some  2^  inches  long  by 
1 J  inches  thick,  neatly  worked  with  a  groove  around  it  by  which 
to  fasten  it  to  the  handle^.  Some  of  their  tools  of  bronze  were 
capable  of  taking  a  pretty  good  edge,  but  would  stand  a  very 
short  time  if  used  for  cutting  stone ;  we  must  remember,  how- 
ever, that  the  wonderful  patience  and  perseverance  of  these  and 
many  other  of  the  South- American  tribes  would,  with  imlimited 
time  at  their  disposal,  enable  them  to  overcome  difficulties  other- 
wise seemingly  insurmountable.  In  1863  I  was  extremely  asto- 
nished to  see  the  Indians  rebuilding  the  church  at  El  Disagua- 
dero work  hour  after  hour,  one  might  almost  say  day  after  day, 
in  order  to  square  or  dress  the  sides  of  a  rough  stone,  with  the 
aid  only  of  another  one  used  as  a  hammer,  when  a  few  strokes 
of  a  civilized  mason's  hammer  and  chiBcl  would  have  effected 
the  same  result  in  as  many  minutes. 

Everywhere  in  both  Peru  and  Bolivia  the  idea  prevails  that  in 
ancient  times  all  these  stones  were  cut  after  having  been  pre- 
viously rendered  soft  by  the  application  of  an  herb  called  by  the 
Indians  tisccraj  and  by  the  Spaniards  garbandUo;  this  is  said 
to  have  been  used  along  with  urine,  and  left  upon  the  stone  for 
some  time  before  cutting  it.  If  the  stone  in  question  was  of  a 
calcareous  nature,  such  as  might  possibly  be  acted  upon  by 
the  vegetable  acids  which  might  be  formed  by  the  acid  fermen- 
tation of  the  juices  of  plants,  this  explanation  might  be  entitled 
to  some  consideration ;  but  as  the  stones  used  at  Tiahuanaco  are 
all  either  composed  mainly  of  silica  or  silicates  quite  unaffected 

•  In  like  maimer  the  Ajmaras  have  a  word  for  glass^  *'  quupi,**  whence 
qmspinaira^  8|>ectacle8y  literally  glass  eyes;  since  they  were  quite  nnac- 
quamted  with  the  artificial  product  this  tenn  was  no  doubt  formfflrly  applied 
only  to  quartz  or  rock  crystal,  just  as  in  Europe  it  is  at  present  common  to 
use  the  word  crystal  to  denote  certain  varieties  of  glass. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  259 

by  even  the  stronger  acids,  excepting  only  such  as  contain 
fluorine,  I  imagine  that  this  commonly  recdved  supposition  has 
no  foundation,  but  that  it  may  possibly  have  arisen  from  seeing 
the  Indians  employ  the  Mare's-tail,  a  species  of  equiseium,  for 
rubbing  the  stones  in  order  to  give  the  exterior  a  final  polish, 
for  which  this  plant  is  well  qualified,  firom  the  amount  of  sharp 
silidous  matter  contained  in  its  rind  and  substance. 

One  distinctive  feature  in  the  Aymara  architecture  is  the  con- 
stant use  of  the  right  angle ;  an  acute  or  obtuse  angle  is  rarely 
if  ever  seen  in  any  of  the  buildings,  the  blocks  of  stone  being 
as  a  rule  dressed  on  all  sides  at  right  angles  to  one  another  and 
then  fitted  together  with  perfect  accuracy,  often,  when  very  large, 
being  held  fast  by  cramps  of  copper  fixed  into  holes  with  melted 
tin  or  lead.  Every  comer,  slot,  or  depression  in  these  stones 
is  cut  in  the  most  clean  and  workmanlike  manner,  the  angles 
being  as  it  were  as  mathematically  correct  and  the  surface  as 
plane  and  smooth  as  if  made  by  the  most  perfect  machinery  of 
the  present  day.  The  cross  (especially  when  sunk  into  the  stone) 
is  extremely  common  as  an  ornament,  but,  as  far  as  I  observed, 
has  its  arms  always  of  equal  length.  In  respect  to  architecture, 
at  least,  the  Aymaras  seem  to  have  been  far  in  advance  of  their 
conquerors  the  Quechuas,  whose  cyclopean  masonry  about  Cusco 
and  elsewhere,  although  put  together  with  such  consummate 
skill  that  the  blade  of  a  knife  can  scarcely  be  introduced  be- 
tween the  joints  of  the  stones,  is  but  of  a  rude  character  when 
compared  with  the  beautiful  dressed  stonework  and  sculptures  seen 
in  the  Aymara  ruins  at  Tiahuanaco ;  the  two  styles  of  architec- 
ture are  altogether  difi^rent  and  distinct,  one  striking  peculiarity 
being  that  the  form  of  the  portals  or  doors  in  the  Aymara  ma- 
sonry is  invariably  rectangular  and  upright,  whereas  in  the 
Quechua  the  sides  are  inclined  inwards  at  the  top,  exactly  as 
in  the  ancient  Egyptian. 

Many  ruins  of  ancient  Aymara  towns,  from  the  time  be- 
fore the  Spanish  conquest,  called  by  the  Spaniards  ''Pue- 
blos de  Los  Oentiles,''  can  still  be  seen  in  various  parts  of 
Bolivia,  some  of  them  being  now  in  almost  exactly  the  same 
condition  as  when  last  inhabited ;  they  are  usually  situated  on 
the  summits  of  hills,  probably  for  facility  of  defence.  One 
of  these,  called  by  the  Indians  Himoco,  on  the  east  side  of  lake 
Titicaca,  between  Carabuco  and  Ancoraimes,  is  of  considerable 
extent,  surrounded  with  walls  having  gateways,  and  with  streets, 
some  of  which  seem  to  have  been  paved,  arranged  at  right 
angles  to  one  another,  and  leading  into  several  squares  or  mar- 
ket-places. The  houses  are  tolerably  well  built  of  red  sand- 
stones, with  stone  roofs,  and  are  small  rectangular  rooms,  most  of 
which  have  a  sort  of  stone  shelf,  like  a  mantelpiece,  in  one 

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260  David  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

comer.  The  only  traces  of  inhabitants  seen  at  present  are  the 
occasional  occurrence  of  straggling  bones  or  of  an  entire  skeleton. 
In  one  or  two  of  the' houses  little  rude  eflSgies  of  men^  made  of 
clay^  hung  up  by  a  string  round  the  neck^  or  pierced  through  the 
boay  with  a  thom^  were  met  with — evidently  remnants  of  witch- 
craft. 

In  the  high  mountain-passes  of  the  Eastern  Andes  near  So- 
rata^  which  lead  down  to  the  tropical  valleys  of  Tipuani  Stc.^ 
I  noticed  considerable  ruins^  like  fortresses^  perched  up  on  the 
sides  of  the  precipices  overlooking  the  valley^  in  the  most  won- 
derfully inaccessible  positions^  and  probably  at  an  elevation  of 
more  than  16^000  feet  above  the  sea^  since  they  were  on  the  very 
edge  of  the  perpetual  snow.  These  looked  as  if  originally  in- 
tended to  guard  the  passes  from  invasions  of  the  Indians  from 
the  east ;  yet^  at  the  same  time^  I  can  hardly  imagine  any  induce- 
ment in  the  cold  highland  regions  which  oould  tempt  the  far 
less  hardy  races  of  the  tropics  below  to  make  such  raids. 

Excepting  the  ruins  of  palaces  or  temples  previously  noticed, 
the  country  of  the  Aymaras  presents  but  few  traces  of  public 
works,  such  as  roads,  aqueducts,  reservoirs,  &c.,  -more  common 
amongst  the  Quechuas.  The  roads  are  but  rude  Uama-tracks, 
and  never  seem  to  have  had  such  attention  directed  to  them  as 
is  shown  by  the  Inca  government  in  Peru.  Permanent  bridges 
are  seen  nowhere;  but  the  rivers,  when  not  fordable,  are  crossed 
by  rafts  made  of  rushes  tied  together  in  bundles,  or  by  what  is 
called  a  "maroma''— that  is,  a  rope  (made  of  raw  hide  or  of  Uama- 
wool  in  the  highlands,  and  of  "lUanas  *'  or  long  vines  or  creepers 
in  the  tropical  valleys)  which  is  stretched  across  the  river  firom 
bank  to  bank,  and  has  aerosspiece  or  cradle  suspended,  in  which 
the  passenger  seats  himself  and  hauls  himself  along,  or  is  pulled 
over  with  a  cord.  The  Rio  Disaguadero,  which  runs  south 
from  lake  Titicaca,  is  crossed  in  several  places  by  floating 
bridges,  formed  by  attaching  one  to  another  numerous  '^balsas'' 
or  rafts,  formed  of  bundles  of  totora,  the  great  Titicaca  rush, 
upon  which  a  sort  of  platform  is  made  by  spreading  a  large 
quantity  of  the  loose  rushes.  No  wheeled  vehicles  being  used 
in  these  parts  of  South  America,  these  primitive  bridges  serve 
very  well  for  the  passage  of  the  llamas,  mules,  and  other  animals, 
as  well  as  for  men  on  foot. 

The  chief  occupations  of  the  Aymara  Indians,  now  as  in  more 
ancient  times,  are  agricultural  and  pastoral.  The  metallic  riches 
of  the  country  seem  to  have  been  comparatively  little  attended  to 
before  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards.  They  were,  however,  well- 
acquainted  with  the  metals  gold,  silver,  copper,  and  tin,  and 
made  use  of  several  alloys  of  these  metals :  one  of  gold  and 
opper,  called  ^^champi,^'  was  much   used  for  making  small 

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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  261 

images  and  certain  ornaments  and  tools.  Bronze  was  also  in 
very  general  use.  The  analysis  made  by  me  of  a  bronze  head 
of  a  chieftain's  club  or  mace,  which  was  found  at  Sorata,  and  is 
about  3^  inches  across  the  extreme  tips  of  the  spikes,  of  which 
there  are  thirteen  in  all,  showed  its  composition  to  be  as  fol- 
lows : — 

Copper 8805 

Tin 11-42 

Iron •.     0-86 

SUver 017 

10000 

from  which  it  is  evidently  quite  identical  with  many  of  the 
ancient  bronzes  of  Europe.  This  club  had  been  cast,  and  has 
a  socket  in  which  there  is  a  crosspin  for  attaching  the  handle 
by  means  of  a  leather  thong.  The  Aymaras  evidently  under- 
stood the  art  of  soldering  metals ;  for  I  found  many  little  figures 
of  llamas  and  men,  some  of  which,  in  the  British  Museum, 
can  be  seen  to  be  hollow,  and  made  of  thin  plate  silver  nicely 
soldered  at  the  joints. 

Tin,  called  in  Aymara  ^'causi''  or  "titi,''  has  been  fipom 
time  immemorial  obtained  from  the  stream  tin-ore  worked  at 
Carabuco  on  the  east  side  of  Lake  Titicaca,  and  in  the  district 
Oruro,  where  it  is  still  obtained  in  large  quantities.  Gold, 
"  chocque,''  is  generally  found  in  the  alluvial  deposits  of  the 
rivers,  whence  many  of  the  Aymara  names  of  places,  Chuque- 
apo  (now  La  Paz),  Chuqueaguillo, Chuqesaca  (now Sucre),  which 
denote  respectively  the  valley,  river,  or  plain  of  gold.  Silver, 
'^colcqui,''  found  native  in  veins,  appears  to  have  been  also 
worked  out  of  certain  beds  amongst  the  cupriferous  sandstone 
series  of  Corocoro,  in  which  it  occurs  finely  disseminated  in  a 
native  state,  whilst  the  main  supply  of  native  copper  was  evi- 
dently furnished  from  those  same  deposits,  which  appear  to  have 
been  worked  from  extremely  ancient  periods. 

The  domestic  industries,  as  spinning,  weaving,  dyeing,  &c., 
are  carried  on  by  the  women,  who  still  continue  to  furnish  the 
greater  part  of  the  clothing  of  the  household,  although,  at  least 
around  the  larger  towns,  cotton  and  woollen  fabrics  of  European 
manufacture  have  come  into  considerable  use  amongst  the 
Indians.  I  have  occasionally  noticed  spinning-wheels  and  looms 
of  an  extremely  rude  construction;  but  in  the  majority  of  instances 
I  found  that  the  wool  was  spun  into  yam  by  the  hand ;  and 
afterwards,  when  stretched  out  on  the  ground  by  pegs,  it  is 
woven  by  hand  into  cloth,  without  the  aid  of  a  loom  at  all. 
They,  as  a  rule,  sell  all  their  alpaca  and  sheep's  wool,  but  reserve 
the  llama-wool,  which  is  of  a  very  inferior  quality,  for  making 
their  clothes,  as  well  as  their  cords  and  ropes.     The  llama  is,  to 

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262  Datid  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

the  Indian  what  the  reindeer  is  to  the  Laplander ;  for^  besides 
being  his  sole  beast  of  burden^  its  wool  and  hide  senre  for 
clothings  the  flesh  for  food^  the  bones  for  his  tools,  musical  instru- 
ments^ &C.J  whilst  its  dung  is  the  general^  and  in  many  places 
the  only  combustible  at  command.  The  Indian  women  are  veiy 
clever  in  dyeing  their  wools^  and  also  in  knittings  and  at  their 
fairs  often  bring  for  sale  curious  little  bags^  purses,  &c.  made 
in  the  shape  of  llamas,  turkeys,  and  other  animals,  very  in- 
geniously knitted  in  wool  of  divers  colours.  Aroimd  the  lake 
of  Titicaca  I  have  seen  socks  and  gloves  for  children  made  of 
the  down  of  the  waterfowl,  which  had  apparently  been  first 
spun  into  yam  and  then  knitted. 

Fishing  is  pursued  chiefly  on  the  Lake  of  Titicaca.  The  In- 
dians, not  having  any  boats,  or  wood  to  make  them  of,  use  as  a 
substitute  the  totora  or  great  Titicaca  rush,  which  they  tie  to- 
gether in  bundles  to  form  a  ''  balsa''  or  species  of  raft. 

Hunting  can  hardly  be  said  to  be  followed  at  all  by  the 
Indians,  although  there  are  large  herds  of  vicunas  running  wild 
over  the  mountains  and  plains,  and  also  the  huanaco,  deer, 
biscacho,  skunk,  fox,  weasel,  and  the  puma,  as  well  as  a  bear, 
which  last  animal,  however,  I  never  came  across,  and,  I  believe, 
it  is  rarely  seen.  Amongst  the  birds  are  numerous  condors  (quite 
unfit  for  food,  as  I  have  found  upon  trial),  the  S.  American  ostrich, 
flamingo,  numerous  species  of  ducks,  water-hens,  divers,  geese, 
ibis,  snipe,  &c.,  many  of  them  very  good  eating. 

As  the  Indian,  however,  has  neither  firearms  nor  bows  and  ar- 
rows, he  has  no  means  of  following  the  chase ;  the  only  weapon 
which  he  uses  is  the  sling  ('^huaraca''),  made  of  llama  wool,  which 
occasionally  he  employs  with  some  dexterity.  The  fox  is  caught 
in  a  rude  stone  trap,  shown  in  section,  plate  XXI.  fig.  9,  in  wUch 
the  bait 'is  tied  on  with  a  piece  of  raw  hide,  which,  being 
gnawed  away,  causes  the  stone  door  to  fall  and  imprison  the 
fox,  which  is  afterwards  taken  out  through  the  hole  at  the  other 
end  of  the  trap,  closed  by  a  stone.  When  a  puma  has  com- 
mitted any  ravages  amongst  their  animals,  the  Indians  of  the 
district  follow  up  its  tracks  in  parties,  relieving  one  another 
night  and  day,  without  allowing  it  a  moment's  rest,  until  the 
animal  is  literally  run  down,  brought  to  bay,  and  despatched 
with  sticks  and  stones.  In  March,  1862,  at  lUabaya,  I  saw  an 
instance  of  such  a  turn-out,  the  animal  being  hunted  down,  and 
literally  knocked  to  pieces  by  the  Indians,  who  drank  up  its 
blood,  under  the  belief  that  it  implants  courage  in  the  person 
who  does  so. 

The  culture  of  the  ground,  which  is  the  main  and  most  labo- 
rious occupation  of  the  Indian,  is  effected  by  very  rude  imple- 
ments. The  plough,  called  ''  arma,"  is  driven  by  one  or  two 
oxen,  tied  to  it  by  a  lasso  or  rope  of  untanned  leatherpand  is  of 

oyVjOC 


JouTP.    -LUmo.   3oc.  Vol.  J-  PI  XXl 


wn 


Fig.  9. 

nigiti7PHhyC  ^OOglP 


AYMARA         IMPLEMENTS       tc. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  .    263 

a  very  rimple  construction,  consisting,  as  shown  in  plate  XXI. 
fig.  3,  of  three  pieces  of  wood  tied  together  by  thongs  of  raw 
hide,  and,  as  might  be  expected,  does  little  more  than  scratch 
the  surface  of  the  soil.  The  Aymara  representative  of  the 
spade,  fig.  4,  pL  XXI.,  called  "  oiso,"  is  but  a  pole  of  hard  wood, 
about  7  feet  long,  sharpened  and  hardened  at  the  end  by  char- 
ring the  wood  externally.  It  has  a  curved  handle,  and  a  support 
for  the  feet,  like  a  couple  of  horns,  on  the  right  side  of  the 
handle,  tied  on  to  it  with  raw  hide.  The  next  important  imple- 
ment is  the  ocana,  a  sort  of  pickaxe,  fig.  5,  pi.  XXI.,  which  is 
now  always  made  of  a  piece  of  flat  iron,  tied  on  with  raw  hide 
to  a  hooked  stick  as  a  handle,  whilst  in  the  out-of-the-way  places 
a  hoe, "  asadon,''  sketched  in  fig.  6,  pi.  XXI.,  is  still  used,  formed 
merely  of  the  shoidder-bladeof  the  Uama,  tied  on  to  a  hooked  stick, 
as  shown  in  the  illustration.  Besides  these,  they  also  employ  a  sort 
of  mace  or  club,  fig.  7,  pi.  XXI.,  consisting  merely  of  a  stone  tied 
on  to  a  stick,  as  a  dod-crusher''^,  and  an  axe  of  iron  or  steel, 
which  in  the  out-of-the-way  districts  is  still  made  by  the  Aymara 
smiths  in  precisely  the  same  form  (fig.  8,  pi.  XXI.)  as  the  ancient 
ones  of  copper  or  bronze,  being  merely  a  flat  piece  of  metal  of 
the  form  shown  in  the  figure,  placed  in  a  cleft  stick,  which 
serves  as  a  handle,  and  secured  in  it  by  a  thong  of  raw  hide 
bound  tightly  around  it. 

I  was  informed  that,insome  very  much  out-of-the-way  districts, 
bronze  and,  even,  stone  axes  may  occasionally  be  seen  employed 
by  the  Indians ;  but  I  have  not  personally  fallen  in  with  such 
implements,  yet  can  believe  that  this  may  actually  be  the  case. 

The  Indians,  as  a  rule,  make  their  fields  of  a  very  small  size, 
usually  surrounding  them  with  walls  of  dry  stone.  On  the 
mountain-sides  they  build  up  small  terraces  one  above  another, 
in  some  cases  up  to  very  great  altitudes.  Since  they  appear 
never  to  manure  the  land,  they  make  a  rule  of  only  sowing  it 
with  crops  once  every  fifth  year,  allowing  it  to  remain  fallow  for 
the  intermediate  four,  in  order,  as  they  say,  that  it  may  repose 
or  recover  itself.  This  circumstance  must  naturally  be  taken 
into  due  account  when  the  traveller  in  these  districts  judges  as 
to  the  number  of  inhabitants  firom  the  amount  of  land  enclosed 
or  under  apparent  cultivation.  The  crops  generally  sown  are 
potatoes,  ordinary  and  bitter,  ocas,  quinoa,  and  beans,  along 
with  maize  or  Indian  corn  in  the  more  sheltered  valleys  or  lower 
grounds.  A  bearded  variety  of  wheat  is  also  cultivated  in  some 
parts ;  but  I  do  not  think  it  is  very  productive.  In  the  more  tem- 
perate parts,  lucem  is  grown  as  a  green  fodder  for  the  beasts. 
Barley  is  also  sown  as  fodder  in  considerable  quantity;  but, 

*  One  of  these  may  be  seen  in  the  Christy  collection  of  the  British 
Museum.  /^^^r^T^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


264  David  Forbes — On  the  Aynwra  Indians 

except  what  is  required  for  seed,  it  is  not  allowed  to  come  to 
maturity,  being  cut  down  before  it  is  ripe,  and  employed  for  the 
cattle  whole,  t.  e,  along  with  its  straw. 

A  great  expense  and  trouble  to  the  traveller  in  these  districts 
is  the  difficulty  experienced  in  obtaining  from  the  Indians  a  suf- 
ficient supply  of  barley  to  keep  his  animals  alive ;  threats,  and  even 
physical  force,  must  sometimes  be  resorted  to ;  for  the  Indians 
are  so  accustomed  to  be  cheated  that  they  can  hardly  be  con- 
vinced that  you  are  really  willing  to  pay  them  for  what  they 
furnish.  When  a  detachment  of  the  army  passes  through  the 
country,  the  corregidores,  or  heads  of  the  district,  summon  the 
alcaldes  or  foremen  of  the  Indians,  and  require  them,  within  a 
certain  time,  to  bring  forward  the  amount  of  barley  necessary 
for  the  beasts,  for  which  they  are  paid  far  less  than  its  real 
value.  On  one  occasion,  at  Achecache,  when  I  was  present, 
the  barley,  which  was  extremely  scarce  that  year,  was  only  paid 
by  the  cavalry  at  3  rials  a  quintal  instead  of  15,  which  was  the 
actual  price  ruling  in  the  district;  besides  which,  instead  of 
weighing  a  quintal,  they  still  further  imposed  upon  the  Indians 
by  measuring  it  in  the  following,  to  me,  somewhat  novel  man- 
ner:— Two  of  the  tallest  soldiers  of  the  troop  were  made  to 
stand  upright,  so  far  apart  that  their  forefiugcr-tips  coidd  just 
reach  one  another  when  one  of  the  arms  of  each  was  extended 
at  full  length ;  all  the  barley  which  could  be  packed  into  the 
space  between  their  bodies  from  the  ground  up  to  under  the 
arms  was  then  taken  as  a  quintal,  although  in  reality  much 
more;  but  (as  the  unfortunate  Indian  well  knew)  complaints 
were  useless. 

The  practice  of  cutting  barley  before  it  arrives  at  maturity, 
although  common  in  many  parts  of  South  America,  where  it  is 
done  in  order  that  the  straw  itself  may  be  sweeter  and  more 
palatable  to  the  animals,  seems  in  these  highlands  to  be,  as  it 
were,  enforced  by  the  severity  of  the  climate,  since  only  in  more 
sheltered  spots  does  the  grain  fully  ripen  before  die  finosts 
commence. 

The  coca-leaf,  so  much  employed  by  these  Indians,  does  not 
grow  in  the  higher  regions  of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  and  is  chiefly 
cultivated  in  the  hot  valleys  of  the  province  of  Yungas  *,  to  the 
east  of  the  high  Andes,  by  Indian  colonists,  who  formerly  were 
forcibly  sent  there  for  the  purpose,  but  now,  since  the  inde- 
pendence, are  enticed  there  by  high  wages,  to  engage  themselves 
for  longer  or  shorter  periods.  The  mortality  among  these  colo- 
nists is  very  great ;  so  that  since  they  have  not  been  compelled  to 
go  there,  great  extents  of  the  plantations  or  cocales,  as  they  are 
called,  formerly  planted  with  coca,  have  been  abandoned  and 

•  The  word  "  yungas  "  is  not  A jniara,  but  Quechua,  in  which  Uogua^ 
**  yunca  "  eignifiw  hot,  C c^c^n\o 

*  .  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


of  Bolivia  and  Peru,  265 

become  overgrown  with  forest^  owing  to  the  impossibility  of 
obtaining  hands  to  cultivate  them.  In  Ynngas  all  the  slopes  of 
the  hills^  at  an  elevation  of  &om  3000  to  6000  feet  above  the 
sea^  the  soil  of  which  is  composed  of  a  disintegrated  Silurian 
clay-slate,  are  covered  with  small  terraces  or,  as  they  are  termed 
by  the  Spaniards,  Andenes,  rising  one  above  another,  like  the 
seats  in  an  ancient  amphitheatre,  and  covered  with  the  small 
coca  bushes,  about  from  20  to  30  inches  in  height,  planted  in 
single  rows  along  each  little  terrace,  which  is  about  12  inches 
in  width,  and  supported  by  a  little  wall  of  stone  in  front.  When 
the  coca  is  grown  on  level  ground,  which  is  more  seldom  the  case, 
the  plants  are  placed  in  furrows  (''  uachos  ")  separated  from  one 
another  by  little  walls  of  stone  called  ^'  umachas/^ 

Before  being  transplanted  into  cocales  arranged  on  either  of 
the  before-mentioned  systems,  the  plant  is  raised  in  separate 
nurseries,  from  seed,  which,  when  frequently  watered,  makes  its 
appearance  above  the  ground  in  from  ten  days  to  a  fortnight ; 
the  next  year  these  plants,  which  will  then  have  attained  a 
height  of  from  12  to  15  inches,  are  ready  for  transplanting  to 
the  cocal,  and  are  sold  in  large  quantities  for  this  purpose,  at  the 
rate  (when  I  was  in  Yungas  in  1861)  of  two  dollars  Bolivian 
per  what  is  called  the  "  head,'^  t .  e.  the  bundle  of  plants  in  size 
equal  to  the  circumference  of  the  purchaser's  head ;  so  that  the 
planter  with  whom  I  was  residing  told  me  that  he  always  chose 
one  of  his  men  who  had  the  largest  head  to  buy  coca  plants 
for  him.  Old  plants,  however,  are  much  dearer,  and  were  at  that 
time  valued  at  three  rials  per  plant. 

When  the  plants  are  between  two  and  three  years  old,  the 
leaves  first  commence  to  be  picked  for  consumption,  and 
are  stated  to  yield  the  most  abundant  crops  between  the  ages  of 
three  and  six  years,  yet  to  have  an  economical  life  of  from 
twenty  to  forty  years,  and  occasionally  even  more.  The  plant 
is  said  to  be  most  productive  when  not  allowed  to  attain  a 
greater  height  than  about  30  inches,  although  when  not  culti« 
vated  it  is  said  to  attain  double  this  height. 

The  first  time  the  plant  is  picked  the  leaves  are  found  to  be 
coarser  in  quality,  and  are  seldom  exported,  being  used  up  by 
the  Indians  on  the  plantations ;  afterwards,  in  the  larger  planta- 
tions, the  pickings  (or  mitas,  as  they  are  called)  take  place  three 
times  a  year,  in  March,  July,  and  October,  which  are  known 
respectively  as  the  Mitas  de  Marzo,  San  Juan,  and  Santos ;  the 
first  of  these,  taking  place  immediately  after  the  rainy  season, 
is  the  most  abundant,  and  that  of  July  the  least  prolific.  In 
the  little  plantations  owned  by  Indians  more  care  is  taken  to 
pluck  the  leaves  as  soon  as  they  are  full-grown,  and  not  ac^ 
cording  to  fixed  times ;  by  this  means  they  are  enabled  to  get 

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266  Datid  Forbes — On  the  Aymara  Indians 

four  cropB  a  year.  The  pickings  are  done  by  girls,  each  leaf  being 
plucked  separately  firom  the  plant,  and  great  care  being  taken 
that  none  of  the  top  shoots  are  injnred,  as  otherwise  the  plants 
would  die.  It  is  a  curious  sight  to  see  these  girls,  often  in 
great  numbers,  arranged  in  rows ;  and  the  noise  made  by  their 
nimble  fingers  when  picking  the  leaves,  in  which  they  acquire 
wonderful  dexterity,  is  very  strange,  the  sound  keeping  distinct 
time,  and  being  sometimes  like  the  rustle  made  by  the  wind 
among  dry  leaves. 

The  plantations  are,  as  a  rule,  not  irrigated  or  watered,  not- 
withstanding that  this  is  known  to  develope  the  leaves  much 
more  rapidly,  and  to  ensure  the  bare  plant  being  covered  again 
with  leaves  in  even  less  than  two  months,  so  that  as  much  as 
five  pickings  can  be  obtained  from  well-irrigated  plantations ; 
it  is  considered,  however,  that  such  leaves  are  much  inferior  in 
quality :  their  colour  is  not  so  rich ;  and  in  drying  they  do  not 
retain  the  fine  green  tint,  but  acquire  a  blacker  hue,  which  is  not 
liked  in  the  market. 

The  women  and  children  who  pick  the  leaves  place  them  in  a 
poncho  or  cloth  hung  in  front  of  them,  and  then  take  them  to 
the  hacienda,  where  they  are  spread  out  in  a  yard  floored  with 
slabs  of  slate,  turning  them  frequently  in  the  sun  until  perfectly 
dry.  If  the  weather  has  been  fine,  the  leaf,  when  dry,  retains  its 
form  and  colour,  on  which  the  value  of  it  in  the  market  depends. 
The  dried  leaves  are  then  put  up  in  small  bales  called  cestos, 
which  weigh  about  an  arroba  (or  25  pounds)  each,  and  are  in  this 
state  sent  up  to  the  highlands  for  the  general  consumption  of 
the  Indians;  on  the  road,  however,  the  Bolivian  government 
exacts  a  duty  upon  each  bale. 

The  coffee  and  cacao  plantations  of  these  tropical  valleys  are 
also  worked  by  Aymara  Indians,  of  whom  a  few  also  engage  in  the 
search  of  Cascarilla,  i .  e.  the  bark  of  the  Cinchona  tree,  which  also 
is  found  in  quantity  in  the  hot  humid  forests  on  the  eastern  slopes 
of  the  high  Andes,  the  cascarilla  bark  of  this  part  of  South  Ame- 
rica being  the  most  esteemed  of  all  the  varieties,  fetching  by 
far  the  highest  price  in  the  market,  and  being  considered  the 
richest  in  quinine*.    Notwithstanding  the  great  inducements 

*  Most  of  the  men  employed  in  the  hark  trade  are  not  pure  Indians, 
but  cholos.  When,  in  1861, 1  was  in  this  district,  I  obtained  from  the  ca»- 
carilleros  a  quantity  of  the  seeds  of  what  they  considered  the  most  valuable  of 
all  the  very  numerous  kinds  of  this  tree,  and  forwarded  them  to  Sir  Roderick 
Murchison,  who,  however,  did  not  receive  them  before  1864;  they  were  sent 
bv  him  to  Kew;  but  the  replv  was  discouraging,  since  it  was  to  the  efiect 
that  they  must  be  far  too  old  to  germinate.  In  June  1806,  however,  Sir 
Roderick  wrote  to  me  that  he  had  heard  from  Dr.  Hooker  that  they  had  been 
successfully  raised  at  Kew;  but  further  information  I  have  not  received. 


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of  Bolivia  and  Peru.  267 

held  out  to  the  Aymaras  by  the  extremely  high  rates  of  wages^  the 
Indians  will  not  enter  these  regions  until  all  other  resources  fail 
them ;  for  they  have  an  intense  horror  of  these  warm  climates, 
where  they,  as  a  rule,  die  off  so  very  rapidly  that  but  a  small  pro- 
portion of  those  who  enter  ever  return.  For  this  reason,  there- 
fore, it  is  that  the  vegetable  riches  and  the  rich  gold-deposits  of 
this  vast  tropical  region  remain  as  yet  quite  undeveloped;  the 
cultivation  of  the  coffee,  cacao,  &;c.  is  carried  on  on  a  very  small 
scale ;  and  the  great  extent  of  abandoned  and  now  overgrown 
coca  plantations  attest  the  imwillingness  of  the  Aymaras  to 
colonize  regions  so  prejudicial  to  their  health,  now  that  they 
have  been  freed  from  the  Spanish  tyranny  which  previously 
forced  them  away  from  their  homes  like  slaves,  to  cultivate 
these  plantations  for  the  sole  benefit  of  their  oppressors. 

The  animals  domesticated  by  the  Aymaras  are  the  llama, 
alpaca,  sheep,  and  homed  cattle ;  the  horse,  mule,  and  ass,  but 
more  especidly  the  latter,  are  also  reared  by  them.  All  of  these 
animals,  with  exception  of  the  llama  and  alpaca,  are  very  dif- 
ferent in  appearance  from  the  fine  beasts  found  in  the  lower 
regions  of  South  America ;  the  horse  especially,  although  ori- 
ginally of  the  same  Andalusian  parentage,  degenerates  greatly, 
becomes  in  these  highlands  a  small  scraggy  pony,  with  but 
little  strength  or  endurance,  and  altogether  a  very  inf